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In 2019, a 42-year-old African man who works as an Ebola virus disease (EVD) researcher traveled from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), near an ongoing EVD epidemic, to Philadelphia and presented to the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania Emergency Department with altered mental status, vomiting, diarrhea, and fever. He was classified as a “wet” person under investigation for EVD, and his arrival activated our hospital emergency management command center and bioresponse teams. He was found to be in septic shock with multisystem organ dysfunction, including circulatory dysfunction, encephalopathy, metabolic lactic acidosis, acute kidney injury, acute liver injury, and diffuse intravascular coagulation. Critical care was delivered within high-risk pathogen isolation in the ED and in our Special Treatment Unit until a diagnosis of severe cerebral malaria was confirmed and EVD was definitively excluded.
This report discusses our experience activating a longitudinal preparedness program designed for rare, resource-intensive events at hospitals physically remote from any active epidemic but serving a high-volume international air travel port-of-entry.
Approximately 74 ka, Toba caldera in Sumatra, Indonesia, erupted in one of the most catastrophic supereruptions in Earth's history. Resurgent uplift of the caldera floor raised Samosir Island 700 m above Lake Toba, exposing valuable lake sediments. To constrain sediment chronology, we collected 173 discrete paleomagnetic 8 cm3 cubes and 15 radiocarbon samples from six sections across the island. Bulk organic 14C ages provide an initial chronostratigraphic framework ranging from ~12 to 46 ka. Natural and laboratory magnetizations were studied using alternating field demagnetization. A generally well-defined primary magnetization is isolated using principal component analysis. Comparison of inclination, and to a lesser degree declination, across independently dated sections suggests paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) is recorded. Average inclination of −6° is more negative than a geocentric axial dipole would predict, but consistent with an eastward extension of the negative inclination anomaly observed in the western equatorial Pacific. The 14C- and PSV-derived age model constrains resurgent uplift, confirming faster uplift rates to the east and slower rates to the west, while suggesting that fault blocks moved differentially from each other within a generally trapdoor-type configuration.
To examine factors that influence decision-making, preferences, and plans related to advance care planning (ACP) and end-of-life care among persons with dementia and their caregivers, and examine how these may differ by race.
13 geographically dispersed Alzheimer’s Disease Centers across the United States.
431 racially diverse caregivers of persons with dementia.
Survey on “Care Planning for Individuals with Dementia.”
The respondents were knowledgeable about dementia and hospice care, indicated the person with dementia would want comfort care at the end stage of illness, and reported high levels of both legal ACP (e.g., living will; 87%) and informal ACP discussions (79%) for the person with dementia. However, notable racial differences were present. Relative to white persons with dementia, African American persons with dementia were reported to have a lower preference for comfort care (81% vs. 58%) and lower rates of completion of legal ACP (89% vs. 73%). Racial differences in ACP and care preferences were also reflected in geographic differences. Additionally, African American study partners had a lower level of knowledge about dementia and reported a greater influence of religious/spiritual beliefs on the desired types of medical treatments. Notably, all respondents indicated that more information about the stages of dementia and end-of-life health care options would be helpful.
Educational programs may be useful in reducing racial differences in attitudes towards ACP. These programs could focus on the clinical course of dementia and issues related to end-of-life care, including the importance of ACP.
Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) has been reported to rapidly reduce psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. This has the potential to revolutionize treatment for schizophrenia. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that SNP leads to a reduction in psychotic symptoms and an improvement in spatial working memory (SWM) performance in patients with schizophrenia.
This was a single-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial performed from 27 August 2014 to 10 February 2016 (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02176044). Twenty patients with schizophrenia aged 18–60 years with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinics in the South London and Maudsley NHS Trust, London, UK. Baseline symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-18), and SWM was assessed using the CANTAB computerized test. Participants received either an infusion of SNP (0.5 μg/kg per min for 4 h) or placebo and were re-assessed for symptoms and SWM performance immediately after the infusion, and 4 weeks later.
SNP did not lead to any reduction in psychotic symptoms or improvement in SWM performance compared to placebo.
Although this study was negative, it is possible that the beneficial effects of SNP may occur in patients with a shorter history of illness, or with more acute exacerbation of symptoms.
A number of prospective cohort studies have investigated the associations between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and the risk of hypertension, CHD and stroke, but revealed mixed results. In the present study, we aimed to perform a dose–response meta-analysis of these prospective studies to clarify these associations. A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed and Embase databases up to 5 May 2014. Random- or fixed-effects models were used to calculate the pooled relative risks (RR) with 95 % CI for the highest compared with the lowest category of SSB consumption, and to conduct a dose–response analysis. A total of six prospective studies (240 726 participants and 80 411 incident cases of hypertension) from four publications on hypertension were identified. A total of four prospective studies (194 664 participants and 7396 incident cases of CHD) from four publications on CHD were identified. A total of four prospective studies (259 176 participants and 10 011 incident cases of stroke) from four publications on stroke were identified. The summary RR for incident hypertension was 1·08 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·12) for every additional one serving/d increase in SSB consumption. The summary RR for incident CHD was 1·17 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·24) for every serving/d increase in SSB consumption. There was no significant association between SSB consumption and total stroke (summary RR 1·06, 95 % CI 0·97, 1·15) for every serving/d increase in SSB consumption. The present meta-analysis suggested that a higher consumption of SSB was associated with a higher risk of hypertension and CHD, but not with a higher risk of stroke.
β-Glucans have been identified as natural biomolecules with immunomodulatory activity. The first objective of the present study was to compare the effects of purified β-glucans derived from Laminariadigitata, L. hyperborea and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on piglet performance, selected bacterial populations and intestinal volatile fatty acid (VFA) production. The second aim was to compare the gene expression profiles of the markers of pro- and anti-inflammation in both unchallenged and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged ileal and colonic tissues. β-Glucans were included at 250 mg/kg in the diets. The β-glucans derived from L. hyperborea, L. digitata and S. cerevisiae all reduced the Enterobacteriaceae population (P < 0·05) without influencing the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria populations (P>0·05) in the ileum and colon. There was a significant interaction between gastrointestinal region and β-glucan source in the expression of cytokine markers, IL-1α (P < 0·001), IL-10 (P < 0·05), TNF-α (P < 0·05) and IL-17A (P < 0·001). β-Glucans did not stimulate any pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokine markers in the ileal epithelial cells. In contrast, the expression of a panel of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-17A) was down-regulated in the colon following exposure to β-glucans from all the three sources. However, the data suggest that the soluble β-glucans derived from L. digitata may be acting via a different mechanism from the insoluble β-glucans derived from L. hyperborea and S. cerevisiae, as the VFA profile was different in the L. digitata-treated animals. There was an increase in IL-8 gene expression (P < 0·05) in the gastrointestinal tract from the animals exposed to L. digitata following an LPS ex vivo challenge that was not evident in the other two treatment groups. In conclusion, β-glucans from both seaweed and yeast sources reduce Enterobacteriaceae counts and pro-inflammatory markers in the colon, though the mechanisms of action may be different between the soluble and insoluble fibre sources.
The aim of the present study was to establish the optimum inclusion level of laminarin derived from Laminaria digitata on selected microbial populations, intestinal fermentation, cytokine and mucin gene expression in the porcine ileum and colon. A total of twenty-one pigs (mean body weight 17·9 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments: T1 – basal (control) diet, T2 and T3 – basal diets supplemented with laminarin included at 300 and 600 parts per million (ppm), respectively. Selected intestinal bacterial populations and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations were measured in the ileum and colon. Relative gene expression levels for specific cytokine and mucin genes were investigated in ileal and colonic tissue in the absence and presence of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. There was an up-regulation of MUC2 gene expression at the 300 ppm inclusion level in the ileum. In the colon, there was a significant reduction in the enterobacteriaceae population at the 300 ppm inclusion level (P = 0·0421). Dietary supplementation of 600 ppm laminarin led to a significant increase in MUC2 (P = 0·0365) and MUC4 (P = 0·0401) expression in the colon, and in the total VFA concentration in the caecum (P = 0·0489). A significant increase was also recorded in IL-6 (P = 0·0289) and IL-8 gene expression (P = 0·0245) in LPS-challenged colonic tissue at both laminarin inclusion levels. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of 300 ppm laminarin appears to be the optimum dose in the present study due to the reduction in the enterobacteriaceae populations and enhanced IL-6 and IL-8 cytokine expression in response to an ex vivo LPS challenge.
This study reports on a preliminary evaluation of a cognitive behavioural intervention to improve social recovery among young people in the early stages of psychosis showing persistent signs of poor social functioning and unemployment. The study was a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two arms, 35 participants receiving cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) plus treatment as usual (TAU), and 42 participants receiving TAU alone. Participants were assessed at baseline and post-treatment.
Seventy-seven participants were recruited from secondary mental health teams after presenting with a history of unemployment and poor social outcome. The cognitive behavioural intervention was delivered over a 9-month period with a mean of 12 sessions. The primary outcomes were weekly hours spent in constructive economic and structured activity. A range of secondary and tertiary outcomes were also assessed.
Intention-to-treat analysis on the combined affective and non-affective psychosis sample showed no significant impact of treatment on primary or secondary outcomes. However, analysis of interactions by diagnostic subgroup was significant for secondary symptomatic outcomes on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) [F(1, 69)=3.99, p=0.05]. Subsequent exploratory analyses within diagnostic subgroups revealed clinically important and significant improvements in weekly hours in constructive and structured activity and PANSS scores among people with non-affective psychosis.
The primary study comparison provided no clear evidence for the benefit of CBT in a combined sample of patients. However, planned analyses with diagnostic subgroups showed important benefits for CBT among people with non-affective psychosis who have social recovery problems. These promising results need to be independently replicated in a larger, multi-centre RCT.
Adequate intake of folic acid by women during very early pregnancy can markedly reduce risk of the development of neural-tube defects (NTD). The effectiveness of advice to women to take folic acid supplements is limited, mainly because 50% of pregnancies are unplanned. However, mandatory folic acid food fortification programmes in North America have been very successful in reducing NTD rates. In Ireland higher rates of pregnancies are affected by NTD and the option of termination is illegal. Consequently, the much higher burden of disease makes primary prevention of NTD an important public health issue in Ireland. During 2006 a decision was taken in Ireland to initiate mandatory folic acid fortification of most bread to prevent NTD. Priority work was immediately undertaken to establish reliable and comprehensive baseline information on factors that will be affected by fortification. This information included data on: the national prevalence of pregnancies affected by NTD; the current extent of voluntary folic acid fortification of food on the Irish market and how it affects folic acid intakes; blood folate status indicators assessed for various subgroups of the Irish population. In addition, scientific developments that have arisen since 2006 relating to the risks and benefits of folic acid intake are under ongoing review. The present paper summarises the rationale for mandatory folic acid food fortification in Ireland and recent scientific developments relating to risks and benefits of folic acid intake. In this context, preliminary findings of baseline monitoring investigations in Ireland are considered.
An experiment (complete randomised design) was conducted to investigate the effects of Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria digitata seaweed extract inclusion on gut morphology, selected intestinal microbiota populations, volatile fatty acid concentrations and the immune status of the weaned pig. Twenty-eight piglets (24 days of age, 6.5 ± 1.4 kg live weight) were assigned to one of four dietary treatments for 7 days and then sacrificed: (T1) basal diet (control); (T2) basal diet and 1.5 g/kg L. hyperborea seaweed extract; (T3) basal diet and 1.5 g/kg L. digitata seaweed extract; and (T4) basal diet and 1.5 g/kg of a combination of L. hyperborea and L. digitata seaweed extract. The seaweed extract contained both laminarin and fucoidan. Digesta samples were taken from the caecum and colon to measure the enterobacteria, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli populations and for volatile fatty acid analysis. Tissue samples were taken from the duodenum, jejunum and ileum for morphological examination. Blood samples were taken to determine the cytokine gene expression profile and to measure the phagocytotic capacity of the blood. Pigs offered diets containing L. hyperborea seaweed extract had less bifidobacteria in the colon (P < 0.05) and lactobacilli in the caecum (P < 0.05) and colon (P < 0.001). The inclusion of L. digitata seaweed extract resulted in lower populations of enterobacteria in the caecum and colon (P < 0.01), bifidobacteria in the caecum (P < 0.05), and lactobacilli in the caecum (P < 0.05) and colon (P < 0.001). Pigs offered the combination of L. hyperborea and L. digitata seaweed extracts had less enterobacteria (P < 0.05) and lactobacilli (P < 0.01) in the caecum and colon. Pigs offered the L. digitata-supplemented diet had a reduced villous height in the duodenum and jejunum (P < 0.05). The inclusion of the L. digitata seaweed extract increased the molar proportion of butyric acid in the colon (P < 0.05). There was a significant reduction in the ammonia concentration in the colon with the inclusion of L. hyperborea (P < 0.01) and L. digitata (P < 0.05) seaweed extracts. An increase in the expression of the Interleukin-8 mRNA was observed on day 6 with the supplementation of the combination of L. hyperborea and L. digitata seaweed extract (P < 0.05). The inclusion of L. hyperborea seaweed extract resulted in an increase in total monocyte number (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation of L. hyperborea and L. digitata seaweed extract alone and in combination reduced the enterobacteria, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli populations in the caecum and colon, while only marginal effects on the immune response was observed.
Legal regulation of families has two aspects. The first defines the rights and obligations of family participants inter se. It addresses who may marry or otherwise form a legally recognized family and resolves issues that arise when that family breaks up. The second aspect addresses the effect of legal family status on the participants' relationships with outsiders such as credit card issuers, tort claimants, taxing authorities, and medical care providers. The Principles focus exclusively on the inter se relationships of family members with each other, particularly with respect to responsibility for and financial support of dependent family members. The Principles do not address individual family members' relationships with their creditors, either during marriage or following divorce.
This omission is understandable. As an academic subject, family law addresses family relationships. The interaction of family members with outsiders is addressed in other areas of law, for example contract, tort, and tax law. Although it makes sense that the Principles do not consider the external effect of family relationships, it is a mistake to infer that changes in family law will have no ramifications outside the family on credit relationships. The predominant focus of this volume is on how the Principles would affect family members' relationships with each other. This chapter takes a different approach and considers how legal regulation of marriage appears from the outside looking in.
Lameness in adult ewes can result in reduced prolificacy, lower milk yields and a reduced wool yield (Anon, 1992) and a report by DEFRA (2003) showed 90% of sheep farms had lameness problems. The profiles of fatty acids found in claw lipids from lame cattle have been shown to be different to those in sound animals (Offer et al. 2000). Although the underlying mechanism behind this remains unclear, this offers the possibility of influencing the degree of lameness by manipulating claw lipid composition (Offer et al. 2000). Inoue et al. (1986) have shown that human epidermis with higher levels of lipid also has higher moisture content and bound water content. As water is known to modulate the mechanical properties of claw horn (Baillie et al. 2000), it may be postulated that a change in lipid content through supplementation may allow manipulation of the biomechanical properties of the claw. This may be important in lameness where brittle claw horn is manifest. This study investigates whether a dietary lipid supplement, protected against rumen fermentation, may be a useful tool in controlling the properties of the sheep claw.
This chapter explains how areas of the cerebral cortex and their descending pathways contribute to voluntary motor control in humans in the context of how these areas provide compensatory control for each other in the damaged brain. It reviews evidence that supports the current, more complex view of primary motor cortical (M1). The chapter discusses how the current view indicates that M1 is a flexible control system with an inherent capacity for plastic reorganization after brain injury. The non-primary motor cortical areas (NPMAs) are well-suited to provide compensatory control of voluntary movement after damage to M1. Motor control signals from M1 and the NPMAs travel to the spinal cord via several descending tracts. The corticospinal tract is the most direct pathway from the cerebral cortex to the spinal motoneurons. Finally, the chapter shows how spared territories and tracts might affect the capacity for functional recovery of movement.