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An intermediate-depth (1751 m) ice core was drilled at the South Pole between 2014 and 2016 using the newly designed US Intermediate Depth Drill. The South Pole ice core is the highest-resolution interior East Antarctic ice core record that extends into the glacial period. The methods used at the South Pole to handle and log the drilled ice, the procedures used to safely retrograde the ice back to the National Science Foundation Ice Core Facility (NSF-ICF), and the methods used to process and sample the ice at the NSF-ICF are described. The South Pole ice core exhibited minimal brittle ice, which was likely due to site characteristics and, to a lesser extent, to drill technology and core handling procedures.
Evaluation of a mandatory immunization program to increase and sustain high immunization coverage for healthcare personnel (HCP).
Descriptive study with before-and-after analysis.
Tertiary-care academic medical center.
Medical center HCP.
A comprehensive mandatory immunization initiative was implemented in 2 phases, starting in July 2014. Key facets of the initiative included a formalized exemption review process, incorporation into institutional quality goals, data feedback, and accountability to support compliance.
Both immunization and overall compliance rates with targeted immunizations increased significantly in the years after the implementation period. The influenza immunization rate increased from 80% the year prior to the initiative to >97% for the 3 subsequent influenza seasons (P < .0001). Mumps, measles and varicella vaccination compliance increased from 94% in January 2014 to >99% by January 2017, rubella vaccination compliance increased from 93% to 99.5%, and hepatitis B vaccination compliance from 95% to 99% (P < .0001 for all comparisons). An associated positive effect on TB testing compliance, which was not included in the mandatory program, was also noted; it increased from 76% to 92% over the same period (P < .0001).
Thoughtful, step-wise implementation of a mandatory immunization program linked to professional accountability can be successful in increasing immunization rates as well as overall compliance with policy requirements to cover all recommended HCP immunizations.
Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) requires that all faculty and staff receive the seasonal influenza vaccine annually or receive an approved vaccine exemption, either for a medical or deeply held religious or personal belief. We sought to understand the underlying principles behind these exemption requests and their interaction with a multidisciplinary exemption review process.
All of the personal and religious exemption requests at VUMC for 3 consecutive influenza seasons from 2015 to 2018 were analyzed, categorizing these requests by 1 of 12 standardized employee categories and 1 of 18 unique reasons for vaccine exemption.
Tertiary-care academic medical center.
Healthcare personnel (HCP).
Among the 3 influenza seasons, 1.1%–2.1% of all VUMC HCP requested religious or personal exemption from vaccination. The frequency of religious and personal exemption approval increased annually from 296 of 452 (65.5%) to 196 of 248 (80.2%) to 283 of 323 (87.6%) over the 3 seasons, representing a statistically significant increase each year. Of the 5 most common reasons against vaccination, 4 were explicitly religious in nature; the most common reason was that the “body is a temple or sacred.” Nonclinical staff submitted the most religious and personal exemption requests of any job category, submitting approximately one-third of all requests every year.
These results demonstrate how detailed the personal or religious convictions behind vaccine avoidance can be among HCP and how vaccine avoidance stems from much more than simple misinformation regarding vaccination. The intersection between misinformation and personal or religious beliefs provides a unique opportunity to address HCP opinions toward vaccination in an exemption and appeals process like the one described here.
To advance the quality of mental healthcare in Europe by developing guidance on implementing quality assurance.
We performed a systematic literature search on quality assurance in mental healthcare and the 522 retrieved documents were evaluated by two independent reviewers (B.J. and J.Z.). Based on these evaluations, evidence tables were generated. As it was found that these did not cover all areas of mental healthcare, supplementary hand searches were performed for selected additional areas. Based on these findings, fifteen graded recommendations were developed and consented by the authors. Review by the EPA Guidance Committee and EPA Board led to two additional recommendations (on immigrant mental healthcare and parity of mental and physical healthcare funding).
Although quality assurance (measures to keep a certain degree of quality), quality control and monitoring (applying quality indicators to the current degree of quality), and quality management (coordinated measures and activities with regard to quality) are conceptually distinct, in practice they are frequently used as if identical and hardly separable. There is a dearth of controlled trials addressing ways to optimize quality assurance in mental healthcare. Altogether, seventeen recommendations were developed addressing a range of aspects of quality assurance in mental healthcare, which appear usable across Europe. These were divided into recommendations about structures, processes and outcomes. Each recommendation was assigned to a hierarchical level of analysis (macro-, meso- and micro-level).
There was a lack of evidence retrievable by a systematic literature search about quality assurance of mental healthcare. Therefore, only after further topics and search had been added it was possible to develop recommendations with mostly medium evidence levels.
Evidence-based graded recommendations for quality assurance in mental healthcare were developed which should next be implemented and evaluated for feasibility and validity in some European countries. Due to the small evidence base identified corresponding to the practical obscurity of the concept and methods, a European research initiative is called for by the stakeholders represented in this Guidance to improve the educational, methodological and empirical basis for a future broad implementation of measures for quality assurance in European mental healthcare.
There is limited published data from long-term pediatric bipolar clinical trials with which to guide appropriate treatment decisions. Long-term efficacy and safety of aripiprazole was investigated in this patient population.
296 youths, ages 10-17 year-old with a DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar I disorder were randomized to receive either placebo or aripiprazole (10mg or 30mg) in a 4-week double-blind trial. Completers continued assigned treatments for an additional 26 weeks (double-blind). Efficacy endpoints included mean change from baseline to week 4 and week 30 on the Young Mania Rating Scale; Children's Global Assessment Scale, Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar version severity scale, General Behavior Inventory, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders Rating Scale, and time to discontinuation. Tolerability/safety assessments included incidence and severity of AEs, blood chemistries and metabolic parameters.
Over the 30-week course of double-blind treatment, aripiprazole (10 mg and 30 mg) was superior to placebo as early as week 1 (p< 0.002) and at all scheduled visits from week 2 through week 30 on mean change from baseline in the Y-MRS total score (p<.0001; all visits). Significant improvements were observed on multiple endpoints including the CGAS, GBI, CGI-BP, ADHD-RS-IV total score, time to discontinuation, and response and remission rates. The 3 most common AEs were somnolence, extrapyramidal disorder, and fatigue. Mean change in body weight z-scores over 30 weeks was not clinically significant.
Over 30-weeks of treatment, both doses of aripiprazole were superior to placebo in the long term treatment of pediatric bipolar patients. Aripiprazole was generally well tolerated.
Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a long-acting prodrug stimulant for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Review efficacy and safety data from two double-blind, randomized trials (SPD489-325 and SPD489-326) in patients with ADHD aged 6–17 years.
In SPD489-325, patients received placebo or optimized doses of LDX or the reference treatment, osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) for ≤7 weeks. The primary efficacy measure was ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total score. Statistical comparison of LDX versus OROS-MPH was not pre-specified. In SPD489-326, a ≥26-week open-label LDX period preceded a 6-week, placebo-controlled, randomized-withdrawal period (RWP). The primary endpoint was treatment failure (50% increase in ADHD-RS-IV total score and ≥2-point increase in Clinical Global Impressions-Severity score from RWP baseline). Efficacy was assessed in the full analysis sets.
In SPD489-325 (N=317), placebo-adjusted least-squares-mean changes in ADHD-RS-IV total score from baseline to endpoint were: LDX, –18.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: –21.5, –15.7; p<0.001; effect size 1.80) and OROS MPH, –13.0 (–15.9, –10.2; p<0.001; 1.26). In SPD489-326 (N=262, open-label period; N=153, RWP), 15.8% and 67.5% of patients receiving LDX and placebo, respectively, met treatment failure criteria at RWP endpoint (differen –51.7%; 95% CI: –65.0%, –38.5%; p<0.001). The most common treatment-emergent adverse events in LDX-treated patients were decreased appetite, headache and decreased weight.
Short-term LDX treatment improved symptoms of ADHD in children and adolescents. Continued LDX treatment was associated with maintenance of efficacy compared with placebo. The safety profile of LDX was generally consistent with that of stimulant therapy.
Revolving Door Syndrome usually corresponds to what might be called “hospital multiple readmissions phenomenon”. Beyond consequences to the patients and their families, frequent re-readmissions also heavily increase healthcare cost and cause burn out among medical and paramedical staff.
The objective of this study was to find the characteristics of Tunisian patients with “revolving door” syndrome.
The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated to short-term readmissions in a sample of Tunisian patients with schizophrenia.
The authors conducted a retrospective study on 50 patients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorders from November to february 2009 in Razi Hospital's “Psychiatry C” service. Patients included in the study had been hospitalized at least 4 times. The patients were analyzed for socio-demographic characteristics, total readmissions and the number of admissions in the last year. Their medication adherence was evaluated by MARS (Medication Adherence Rating Scale) and their insight was evaluated by the Q8 scale.
The sample was composed of 50 patients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorders according to DSM-IV, more than 18 years of age, which have been hospitalized more than 4 times.
The sample was composed of 80% men. 74% of the sample was single and 66% were living with their parents. 88% were unemployed. 54% of patients were bad observers and 88% had lack of insight.
The authors found that the typical Tunisian revolving door patient is a single man, living at his parent's, unemployed and with a lack of observation skills and insight.
In a European, phase 3 study (SPD489-325), lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) and osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) were more effective than placebo in improving core symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Objectives and aims
To compare post hoc the efficacy of LDX and OROS-MPH in study SPD489-325.
This 7-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, dose-optimized, placebo-controlled trial enrolled patients aged 6-17 years with ADHD of at least moderate severity. Patients were randomized (1:1:1) to receive a once-daily dose of LDX (30, 50, 70 mg/day), OROS-MPH (18, 36, 54 mg/day) or placebo. Efficacy was assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale version IV (ADHD-RS-IV) and the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Endpoint was defined as the last ontherapy treatment visit with a valid assessment.
The full analysis set comprised 317 patients (LDX, n=104; placebo, n=106; OROS-MPH, n=107). The difference between LDX and OROS-MPH in least squares mean change (95% confidence interval [CI]) in ADHD-RS-IV total score from baseline to endpoint was statistically significant in favour of LDX (-5.6 [-8.4, -2.7]; p < 0.001; effect size, 0.541). The difference (LDX minus OROS-MPH) in the percentage of patients (95% CI) with an improved CGI-I score at endpoint was also statistically significant in favour of LDX (17.4 [5.0, 29.8]; p < 0.05).
This post hoc analysis indicated that LDX is significantly more effective than OROS-MPH in improving core symptoms and global functioning in children and adolescents with ADHD.
In a European, phase 3 study (SPD489-325), lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) was more effective than placebo in improving symptoms and global functioning in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Objectives and aims
To evaluate the impact of age, sex and baseline disease severity on efficacy outcomes in SPD489- 325.
This 7-week, double-blind, parallel-group, dose-optimized study enrolled patients aged 6-17 years with ADHD. Patients were randomized (1:1:1) to once-daily LDX (30, 50 or 70mg/day), osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH; 18, 36 or 54mg/day) or placebo. Efficacy outcomes were analysed in patients dichotomized by age (6-12 years [n=229] or 13-17 years [n=88]), sex (male [n=255] or female [n=62]) and baseline ADHD Rating Scale version IV (ADHD-RSIV) total score (28-41 [n=161] or 42-54 [n=152]). Endpoint was the last on-treatment visit with a valid assessment.
At endpoint, differences (active-placebo) in least-squares mean changes from baseline in ADHD-RS-IV total scores were statistically significant in all age, sex and ADHD-RS-IV total score subgroups for LDX (p< 0.001; effect sizes, 1.68-2.26) and OROS-MPH (p< 0.01; effect sizes, 0.88-1.46). Proportions of patients with a Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement rating of 1 (very much improved) or 2 (much improved) were statistically significantly greater than placebo at endpoint in all subgroups receiving LDX (p< 0.01) and in all subgroups except females receiving OROS-MPH (p< 0.05).
LDX showed greater efficacy than placebo in children and adolescents with ADHD, regardless of their age, sex or baseline disease severity.
An outbreak of 18 cases of hepatitis A virus infection across five Canadian provinces was investigated. Case onsets occurred between October 2017 and May 2018. A retrospective matched case-control study was conducted to identify the likely source of the outbreak. Three matched controls were recruited for each case using a previously established control bank, supplemented by landline and cell phone call lists. Univariate and multivariate matched analyses were conducted to identify a potential outbreak source. Seventy-two per cent of controls were recruited through the control bank, and required on average 25.5 calls per recruited control; 20% of controls were recruited through a landline sample and 8% of controls were recruited through a cell phone sample, requiring an average of 847.3 and 331.7 calls per recruited control, respectively. Results of the analysis pointed to shrimp/prawns (odds ratio (OR) 15.75, p = 0.01) and blackberries (OR 7.21, p = 0.02) as foods of interest, however, an outbreak source could not be confirmed. The control bank proved to be a more efficient method for control recruitment than random call lists. Expanding the control bank size and using alternative methods, such as online surveys, may prove beneficial for increasing the timeliness of a case-control study during an outbreak investigation.
Recent research by climate scientists suggest that New Orleans, much of which is below sea level and protected from the sea only by a rapidly eroding marshland, may someday become uninhabitable. The city’s literature of the last few decades has been preoccupied with the theme of fatalism and apocalypse, and the deadly epidemics of the nineteenth century have provided rich symbolic terrain for figuring the troubles that “plague” the city and that will someday mean its end. Some recent work by women of color – notably Erna Brodber and Brenda Marie Osbey – delineates a different literary project, one appropriate to a post-apocalyptic diaspora, namely the work of remembering. Both the traditional fatalism and this emerging interest in memory will likely be central themes to watch for in the major literature associated with the New Orleans in coming decades.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
New Orleans is an indispensable element of America's national identity. As one of the most fabled cities in the world, it figures in countless novels, short stories, poems, plays, and films, as well as in popular lore and song. This book provides detailed discussions of all of the most significant writing that this city has ever inspired - from its origins in a flood-prone swamp to the rise of a creole culture at the edges of the European empires; from its emergence as a cosmopolitan, hemispheric crossroads and a primary hub of the slave trade to the days when, in its red light district, the children and grandchildren of the enslaved conjured a new kind of music that became America's greatest gift to the world; from the mid-twentieth-century masterpieces by William Faulkner, Tennessee Williams and Walker Percy to the realms of folklore, hip hop, vampire fiction, and the Asian and Latin American archives.