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The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the value of whole genome sequencing (WGS) compared to conventional typing methods in the investigation and control of an outbreak of Shigella sonnei in the Orthodox Jewish (OJ) community in the UK. The genome sequence analysis showed that the strains implicated in the outbreak formed three phylogenetically distinct clusters. One cluster represented cases associated with recent exposure to a single strain, whereas the other two clusters represented related but distinct strains of S. sonnei circulating in the OJ community across the UK. The WGS data challenged the conclusions drawn during the initial outbreak investigation and allowed cases of dysentery to be implicated or ruled out of the outbreak that were previously misclassified. This study showed that the resolution achieved using WGS would have clearly defined the outbreak, thus facilitating the promotion of infection control measures within local schools and the dissemination of a stronger public health message to the community.
The shape factors of the partial β-spectra of highest end-point energy in the decay of 72Ga and 140La have been calculated and compared with the only previously reported determination of these quantities. For both isotopes the shape factor is consonant with the view that the Blj matrix element controls the decay. Shape factor analysis alone is insufficient to determine the cause of the predominance of a particular matrix element.
One of the multiple capabilities of the new Joint Engineering, Environmental and Processing (JEEP) beamline I12 at Diamond Light Source is the set-up for polychromatic high-energy X-ray diffraction for the study of polycrystalline deformation and residual stresses. The results and interpretation of the first experiments carried out on JEEP are reported. Energy dispersive diffraction patterns from titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V were collected using the new 23-cell ‘horseshoe’ detector and interpreted using Pawley refinement to determine the residual elastic strains at the macro- and meso-scale. It provides a clear demonstration of the tensile-compressive hardening asymmetry of the hexagonal close-packed grains oriented with the basal plane perpendicular to the loading direction.
In November 1973 Newcastle disease suddenly appeared in Northern Ireland, where the viscerotropic disease had not been seen in 3½ years and the two Irelands had been regarded as largely disease free for 30 years. It was successfully controlled with only 36 confirmed affected layer flocks, plus 10 more slaughtered as ‘dangerous contacts’. Contemporary investigations failed to reveal the source of the Irish epidemic. Using archival virus samples from most of the affected flocks, RT–PCR was conducted with primers selected for all six NDV genes. Phylogenetic analyses of three genes, HN, M and F, confirmed vaccine as the cause of one of the outbreaks. The other six samples were identical and closely related to previous outbreaks in the United States and western Europe initiated by infected imported Latin American parrots. The probable cause of the epidemic followed from the importation from The Netherlands of bulk feed grains contaminated with infected pigeon faeces.
Of available self-rated social phobia scales, none assesses the spectrum of fear, avoidance, and physiological symptoms, all of which are clinically important. Because of this limitation, we developed the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN).
To establish psychometric validation of the SPIN.
Subjects from three clinical trials and two control groups were given the 17-item, self-rated SPIN. Validity was assessed against several established measures of social anxiety, global assessments of severity and improvement, and scales assessing physical health and disability.
Good test – retest reliability, internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity were obtained. A SPIN score of 19 distinguished between social phobia subjects and controls. The SPIN was responsive to change in symptoms over time and reflected different responses to active drugs v. placebo. Factorial analysis identified five factors.
The SPIN demonstrates solid psychometric properties and shows promise as a measurement for the screening of, and treatment response to, social phobia.
Most pharmacotherapy trials in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been conducted upon male combat veterans. Outcome studies relating to civilians are therefore needed.
To demonstrate that fluoxetine is more effective than placebo in treating PTSD.
Civilians with PTSD (n=53) were treated for 12 weeks with fluoxetine (up to 60 mg/day) or placebo. Assessments of PTSD severity, disability, stress vulnerability, and high end-state function were obtained.
Fluoxetine was more effective than placebo on most measures at week 12, including global improvement (much or very much improved: fluoxetine 85%, placebo 62%, difference 0.24, 95% CI 0.01–0.47; very much improved: fluoxetine 59%, placebo 19%, difference 0.40, 95% CI 0.16–0.64), and high end-state function (fluoxetine 41%, placebo 4%, difference 0.37, 95% CI 0.17–0.57)
Fluoxetine was superior for measures of PTSD severity, disability, stress vulnerability, and high end-state function. The placebo-group response was low when viewed as a broad outcome based on a portfolio of ratings, but was higher with a traditional global rating criterion.