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We consider the parabolic one-dimensional Allen–Cahn equation
The steady state connects, as a ‘transition layer’, the stable phases –1 and +1. We construct a solution u with any given number k of transition layers between –1 and +1. Mainly they consist of k time-travelling copies of w, with each interface diverging as t → –∞. More precisely, we find
where the functions ξj (t) satisfy a first-order Toda-type system. They are given by
Aims were to assess the efficacy of metacognitive training (MCT) in people with a recent onset of psychosis in terms of symptoms as a primary outcome and metacognitive variables as a secondary outcome.
A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial was performed. A total of 126 patients were randomized to an MCT or a psycho-educational intervention with cognitive-behavioral elements. The sample was composed of people with a recent onset of psychosis, recruited from nine public centers in Spain. The treatment consisted of eight weekly sessions for both groups. Patients were assessed at three time-points: baseline, post-treatment, and at 6 months follow-up. The evaluator was blinded to the condition of the patient. Symptoms were assessed with the PANSS and metacognition was assessed with a battery of questionnaires of cognitive biases and social cognition.
Both MCT and psycho-educational groups had improved symptoms post-treatment and at follow-up, with greater improvements in the MCT group. The MCT group was superior to the psycho-educational group on the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) total (p = 0.026) and self-certainty (p = 0.035) and dependence self-subscale of irrational beliefs, comparing baseline and post-treatment. Moreover, comparing baseline and follow-up, the MCT group was better than the psycho-educational group in self-reflectiveness on the BCIS (p = 0.047), total BCIS (p = 0.045), and intolerance to frustration (p = 0.014). Jumping to Conclusions (JTC) improved more in the MCT group than the psycho-educational group (p = 0.021). Regarding the comparison within each group, Theory of Mind (ToM), Personalizing Bias, and other subscales of irrational beliefs improved in the MCT group but not the psycho-educational group (p < 0.001–0.032).
MCT could be an effective psychological intervention for people with recent onset of psychosis in order to improve cognitive insight, JTC, and tolerance to frustration. It seems that MCT could be useful to improve symptoms, ToM, and personalizing bias.
It is generally believed that on very large scales the distribution of matter in the universe is homogeneous and effectively all the existing theoretical approaches are based on this assumption. However, recent re-analysis of galaxy-galaxy and cluster-cluster correlations by Coleman and Pietronero (1992, hereafter CP) and Luo and Schramm (1992, hereafter LS) indicates that the distribution of the visible matter in the universe is fractal or multifractal up to the present observed limits (~100 h−1 Mpc for H0 = 100 h km s−1 Mpc−1 and 0.5≤h≤1) without any evidence for homogenization on those scales. The fractal dimension obtained from these analyses is D ~ 1.2 - 1.3 (CP; LS).
The objective of the current study was to quantify the response of pasture to phosphorus (P) fertilizer application and legume introduction, by measuring herbage yield, nitrogen (N) and P content, and weight gain of calves in native pastures of Uruguay. Quantitative relationships between pasture characteristics and post-weaning daily live weight gain (DLWG) were also examined. The treatments studied were native grassland (NG) and improved pasture, oversown with Lotus corniculatus L. and Trifolium repens L. with annual applications of either 13 and 26 kg P/ha. From 1996 to 2001 the treatments were evaluated each year with a new group of calves. Total herbage yields of the oversown pastures were not always higher than NG in the initial years, but legume production increased, although without significant differences between P rates on legume or total yield. This was also reflected in the N and P status of the swards. In the last 2 years legume proportion had declined to <0·1, but total herbage yield was significantly higher in the improved pastures. The average DLWG over the 6 years of measurements were 0·319, 0·478 and 0·586 kg/day for NG, P1 and P2, respectively, with average total live weight gain increased 1·8- and 2·5-fold by the legume introduction and annual addition of 13 and 26 kg P/ha, respectively. The study demonstrated that the evaluation of pasture response to P application should not be limited to assessing forage yield increase. Phosphorus availability in the herbage was a better predictor of animal performance than pasture yield. The study highlights that the benefits of oversowing and fertilizer inputs are short-lived, as withholding of fertilizer in the last 2 years resulted in a loss of sown legumes and decline in animal production.
This paper highlights very recent advances concerning the identification of new mechanisms that introduce polarization in spectral lines, which turn out to be key for understanding some of the most enigmatic scattering polarization signals of the solar visible spectrum. We also show a radiative transfer prediction on the scattering polarization pattern across the Mg iih & k lines, whose radiation can only be observed from space.
Spectroscopic investigations of PAHs have been conducted for many years, commencing with solid and solution studies and more recently including gas phase characterisation of a broad range of different species. Through the development of new, efficient methods of production and more sensitive spectroscopic techniques, fresh data are becoming available for not only neutral species, but also for radicals, ions and clusters.
The infrared fluorescence decay and the dispersed emission spectrum are presented for
gaseous benzene following 193 nm laser excitation. They were measured with FIREFLY
(Fluorescence in the InfraRed from Excited FLYing molecules), a new home-made
spectrometer. Redshift and redtail in the CH stretch emission spectra (3.3
μm region) demonstrate that anharmonicity plays a key role when dealing
with high internal energies, as it is the case in the interstellar medium.
Hydrogenated amorphous carbons, an important component of the interstellar carbonaceous
dust, possess infrared spectral signatures (at 3.4, 6.9 and 7.3 μm) that
are ubiquitous in the diffuse interstellar medium of galaxies, but not observed in dense
clouds. To better understand the role played by cosmic rays in the disappearance of these
absorption bands, irradiation experiments of hydrocarbon dust analogues have been
performed with different swift ions. The results obtained through the in situ
infrared monitoring of the samples during the irradiations allow to infer the
dehydrogenation effect of the cosmic ray distribution on the interstellar hydrogenated
amorphous carbons. The importance of this interstellar dust destruction by cosmic rays is
discussed in comparison to other energetic processes in different interstellar
Carbonaceous cosmic dust is mainly observed through infrared spectroscopy either in
absorption or in emission. Laboratory soot analogues of this interstellar or circumstellar
dust were produced in fuel-rich, low-pressure, premixed and flat, flames. The particles
were investigated by infrared absorption spectroscopy in the 2–15 μm
spectral region. The details of the spectral features shed some light on the structure of
the material and enable the study of its life cycle. In particular, the 8
μm band position is tentatively attributed to defects at the edge or in
the polyaromatic units of the materials, revealing these structural changes in
An experiment designed for measuring the electronic spectra of PAH cations and PAH
cluster cations has been set up, which is briefly described. The photodissociation
spectra, reflecting the absorption spectra, of 2-methyl-naphthalene dimer cation have been
recorded in the spectral ranges corresponding to the transitions from the ground state to
both the excited charge resonance state and the first allowed local electronic excitation
Carbonaceous cosmic dust is observed through infrared spectroscopy either in absorption or in emission and the details of the spectral features are believed to shed some light on its structure and finally enable the study of its life cycle. Other spectral domains also contain some information, as does the UV bump at 217 nm. In order to progress on the understanding of these spectral features, many laboratory works are devoted to the production and characterization of laboratory analogues. Generally several analytical tools are used in combination to better analyse the intimate structure of the analogues and the influence of the nanostructuration on the spectral properties. In this proceeding We will focus on the elaboration of new spectral parameters that enables the nanostructuration of the carriers of the AIBs to be traced.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prepartum somatotropin injection in late-pregnant Holstein heifers on metabolism, milk production and resumption of postpartum ovulation. For this study, 31 late-pregnant Holstein heifers were used. The heifers were assigned randomly into two treatments: (1) 500 mg sc injections of somatotropin (somatotropin treatment, n = 15) at −35 and −21 days, and, if pertinent, at −7 days from expected calving date and (2) no treatment (control group, n = 16). Blood samples were collected weekly from −5 to 7 weeks after calving. Heifers with progesterone concentrations in plasma above 1 ng/ml in two consecutive postpartum samples were considered as having resumed ovarian activity. A higher proportion (P = 0.04) of heifers treated with somatotropin resumed ovarian activity in the first 7 weeks post partum (73.3%; 11/15) compared with the control group (37.5%; 6/16). A higher number (P = 0.02) of heifers in the somatotropin treatment group also ovulated during the first postpartum follicular wave (53.3%; 8/15) compared with the control group (12.5%; 2/16), as indicated by the number of heifers ovulating in the first 3 weeks post partum. Pregnancy rate was not affected by treatments (P > 0.10) and averaged 40.0% (6/15) in somatotropin-treated and 25.0% (4/16) in control heifers when evaluated up to 150 days in milk. Somatotropin treatment increased the average daily milk production by 2.8 kg/cow per day (P < 0.0001) and reduced the somatic cell count (P = 0.009). Plasma IGF-I was higher (P < 0.05) for somatotropin-treated heifers in the prepartum period. Insulin and body condition score were higher (P < 0.05) and non-esterified fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) for somatotropin-treated cows in the early postpartum period. In conclusion, somatotropin injection during the prepartum period in late-pregnant Holstein heifers was able to increase the proportion of heifers resuming ovarian activity early post partum, inspite of higher milk production.
Numerous large landslide deposits occur in the Tien Shan, a tectonically active intraplate orogen in Central Asia. Yet their significance in Quaternary landscape evolution and natural hazard assessment remains unresolved due to the lack of "absolute" age constraints. Here we present the first 10Be exposure ages for three prominent (> 107 m3) bedrock landslides that blocked major rivers and formed lakes, two of which subsequently breached, in the northern Kyrgyz Tien Shan. Three 10Be ages reveal that one landslide in the Alamyedin River occurred at 11–15 ka, which is consistent with two 14C ages of gastropod shells from reworked loess capping the landslide. One large landslide in Aksu River is among the oldest documented in semi-arid continental interiors, with a 10Be age of 63–67 ka. The Ukok River landslide deposit(s) yielded variable 10Be ages, which may result from multiple landslides, and inheritance of 10Be. Two 10Be ages of 8.2 and 5.9 ka suggest that one major landslide occurred in the early to mid-Holocene, followed by at least one other event between 1.5 and 0.4 ka. Judging from the regional glacial chronology, all three landslides have occurred between major regional glacial advances. Whereas Alamyedin and Ukok can be considered as postglacial in this context, Aksu is of interglacial age. None of the landslide deposits show traces of glacial erosion, hence their locations and 10Be ages mark maximum extents and minimum ages of glacial advances, respectively. Using toe-to-headwall altitude ratios of 0.4–0.5, we reconstruct minimum equilibrium-line altitudes that exceed previous estimates by as much as 400 m along the moister northern fringe of the Tien Shan. Our data show that deposits from large landslides can provide valuable spatio-temporal constraints for glacial advances in landscapes where moraines and glacial deposits have low preservation potential.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fasting and exogenous insulin administration on the expression of growth hormone receptor (GHR) and IGF-I mRNA in the pre-ovulatory follicle of ewes. Fifteen ewes received an intravaginal progesterone releasing device that was removed 6 days later (day of removal = day 0). On day −2, the ewes were divided into three groups: (i) fasting group (n = 5) that was fasted from day −2 to day 2; (ii) control group (n = 5) that received a maintenance diet; and (iii) insulin group (n = 5) that received insulin injections (0.25 IU/kg) every 12 h from day −2 to day 2 under the same diet as the control group. Follicular samples were obtained on day 2. Fasting increased plasma non-esterified fatty acids concentrations from day −1 to day 2 (P < 0.001). There was no difference (P > 0.05) in the number of follicles, although there was a tendency for an increase in the pre-ovulatory follicle diameter for the insulin group in comparison to the control group (P = 0.12). Thecal GHR mRNA expression was very low and was considered insignificant. Moreover, granulosa cells GHR mRNA expression increased (P < 0.05) in the insulin group. Expression of IGF-I mRNA was not different among groups in both tissues. In conclusion, insulin administration increases GHR mRNA but not IGF-I mRNA expression in granulosa cells of the pre-ovulatory follicle. However, fasting did not change the pattern of GHR/IGF-I mRNA expression in the pre-ovulatory follicle.
The IR emission cascade from the pyrene cation due to a broad band optical excitation is
simulated using kinetic Monte Carlo. Anharmonicities of the ground electronic state
potential energy surface are taken into account in the transition energies, the
microcanonical densities of states, and the rate of hydrogen loss through various
statistical theories. The emission spectral features of the “3.3”, “6.2” and “11.2”
μm bands are computed for different blackbody temperatures.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of molecules of broad interest that has long
been explored by various spectroscopic techniques. The electronic spectroscopy of these
species is of particular interest since it provides a framework for the understanding of
the electronic structure of large polyatomic molecules. Such studies also allow the
systematic investigation of electronic relaxation mechanisms in large molecules. In this
review, we focus on the gas-phase experimental work on such systems and present the latest
progress. We also underline the challenges that remain to be tackled. A focus on the
understanding of the electronic relaxation pathways at work in gas-phase PAHs will also be
presented, as well as their possible manifestation in space.
Carbonaceous extraterrestrial matter is observed in a wide variety of astrophysical environments. Spectroscopic signatures reveal a large variety of chemical structure illustrating the rich carbon chemistry that occurs in space. In order to produce laboratory analogues of the carbonaceous cosmic dust, a new chemical reactor has been built in the Laboratoire de Photophysique Moléculaire. It is a low pressure flat burner providing flames of premixed hydrocarbon/oxygen gas mixtures, closely following the model system used by the combustion community. In such a device the flame is a one-dimensional chemical reactor offering a broad range of combustion conditions and sampling which allows production of many and various by-products. In the present work, we have studied the effect of ion irradiation (200-400 keV), at the Laboratorio di Astrofisica Sperimentale in Catania, on several samples, ranging from strongly aromatic to strongly aliphatic materials. Infrared and Raman spectra were monitored to follow the evolution of the films under study, and characterize the irradiation process-induced modifications.
Carbonaceous extraterrestrial matter is observed in a wide variety of astrophysical environments. The spectroscopic signatures revealed a large variety of chemical structure illustrating the rich carbon chemistry that occurs in space. In order to produce laboratory analogues of carbonaceous cosmic dust, a new chemical reactor has been built in the Laboratoire de Photophysique Moléculaire. It is a low pressure flat burner providing flames of premixed hydrocarbon / oxygen gas mixtures, closely following the model system used by the combustion community. In such a device the flame is a one-dimensional chemical reactor that offers a broad range of combustion conditions and sampling which allows production of many and various by-products. In the present work, we have studied: i) the infrared transmission spectra of thin film deposit samples whose nature ranges from strongly aromatic to strongly aliphatic materials; ii) the resonant two-photon photoionisation spectra of gas phase PAHs formed in the flame.
Results are presented of experimental investigations into the motion of a heavy sphere in a rotating cylinder which is completely filled with highly viscous fluid. For a given cylinder rotation rate, the sphere adopts a fixed position and rotates adjacent to the cylinder wall. For the case of a smooth sphere the motion is consistent with that predicted by a Stokes flow model. Artificially roughened spheres exhibit particle–boundary contact caused by impacts of surface asperities with the boundary for low cylinder surface speeds. For higher cylinder surface speeds the behaviour of the roughened spheres crosses smoothly from the particle–boundary contact regime to motion with hydrodynamically lubricated flow.