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An infrared complex has been found in the radio arc region near the Galactic center. The complex consists of three sources that are close (< 10″) to each other, and are almost identical in every point of their characteristics; having the same energy spectrum and the same polarization. The observed polarizations are large; 5% at the K-band, and are parallel to the galactic plane. Both behaviors are compatible to those of the galactic center sources, suggesting that the sources are located near the galactic center. The energy spectra are very similar to each other, with large infrared excesses, peaking near the M-band. The luminosity of each source is estimated to be as high as 3-5x105 L⊙, after correcting for interstellar extinction assuming that they are located near the Galactic center; their luminosity is comparable to those of supergiant stars. By CVF spectrophotometry no CO-band absorption nor Brγ emission has been detected, thus no evidence for either M-supergiant nor OB supergiant has been obtained. On the other hand, the very close linear distances, 0.5 pc among each other, suggests their physical relationship, i.e., they should be very young objects, otherwise they would have been dispersed far apart.
An extensive survey of [CII] line emission has been made with a balloon-borne infrared telescope. It has been found that the emission is diffuse and ubiquitously distributed in general interstellar space.
A cluster of luminous infrared sources has been found near the Galactic Center. It consists of five identical stars clustered in a compact volume, to be called an IR quintuplet. They are all highly reddened, strongly polarized and associated with deep absorptions of silicate band and CO vibration band. They seem to be a cluster of young stars newly born near the Galactic Center.
Spectroscopic observations of CII line emission at 157.7 μm have been made of the Galactic Center region with a Fabry-Perot spectrometer onboard a balloon telescope. Strong emission has been detected ubiquitously in a wide area extending between ± 0.7° in galactic longitude. A ring-like structure is suggested from the double lobed distribution of the emission around the Galactic Center.
An extensive survey of [C II] line emission at 158 microns using the balloon borne telescope (BICE) has provided a complete map of the emission intensity distribution in the first and the fourth quadrants of the galactic plane (280° < l < 80°, −5° < b < 5°: Okuda et al. 1993). The emission is very extended throughout the galactic plane in which three intensity maxima are seen towards the tangential directions of the Scutum and the Norma arms as well as in the Galactic center region. However the Galactic center maximum is much less prominent compared with the two other distributions, unlike the case of far infrared continuum and CO emissions.
We investigate the accretion disks around compact objects with high mass accretion rates near the Eddington's critical value ME, where radiation pressure and electron scattering are dominant. This raises next problems: (a) whether stable disks could exist in relation to the theory of thermal instabilities of the disk and (b) what characteristic features the disks have if the stable disks exist. A non-rotating neutron star with the mass M = 1.4M⊙, radius R* = 107cm and the accretion rate Mac = 2.0 and 0.5Mac (models 1 and 2) is considered as the compact object. We assume the α-model for the viscosity and solve the set of two-dimensional time-dependent hydrodynamic equations coupled with radiation transport. The numerical method used is basically the same as one described by Kley and Hensler (1987) and Kley (1989) but we include some improvements in solving the difference equations (Okuda et al. 1997). The initial configuration consists of a cold, dense, and optically thick disk which is given by the standard α-model (Shakura and Sunyaev 1973) and a rarefied optically thin atmosphere around the disk.
There are two star clusters near the Galactic Center which might be similar to the central parsec cluster. One is the Quintuplet cluster at (l = 0.16°, b = −0.06°), and the other is the Object #17 cluster at (l = 0.12°, b = 0.02°). The Quintuplet, first found in a polarimetric survey by Kobayashi et al. (1983), includes five very bright stars whose color temperatures are in the range of 600-900K (Okuda et al. 1990; Nagata et al. 1990). Object #17 is a cluster of emission line stars (Nagata et al. 1993, 1995; Cotera et al. 1996; Morris & Serabyn 1996). Spectral features of these two objects observed with the ISOCAM (Kessler et al. 1996; Cesarsky et al. 1996) have been reported (Nagata et al., 1996); absorption features due to O-H (2.8μm) CO2(4.3μm), and CO (4.7μm) are present. In this paper, we report diffuse emission components detected in these two fields.
We present the characteristics of far-infrared (FIR) brightness fluctuations at 90 μm and 170 μm in the Lockman Hole, which were surveyed with the ISOPHOT instrument aboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), and give constraints on the galaxy number counts down to 30 mJy at 90 μm and 50 mJy at 170 μm. The fluctuation power spectra of the FIR images are not dominated by IR cirrus, and are instead most likely due to star-forming galaxies. This analysis indicates the existence of strong evolution in the counts. Especially at 90 μm, the source density is much larger than that expected from the currently available galaxy count models. The galaxies responsible for the fluctuations also significantly contribute to the cosmic infrared background radiation recently derived from an analysis of the COBE data.
Linear analysis shows that radial oscillations in accretion disks around compact object are overstable to axisymmetric perturbation under a variety of conditions. Furthermore, numerical simulations confirm that the radial oscillations induce quasi-periodic modulations of the disk luminosity. The disk oscillation model may be responsible for quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), cataclysmic variables (CVs), and other compact objects.
Studies of the stellar distribution in the inner region of our Galaxy have been seriously hampered at optical wavelengths by strong interstellar extinction. The extinction decreases considerably at infrared wavelengths, allowing us to look deep into the Galaxy. Motivated by this, we have tried to observe the near infrared brightness distribution of the central region of the Galaxy (Okuda et al., 1977, Maihara et al., 1978, Oda et al., 1978). Similar observations have been carried out by Hayakawa et al., (1976), Ito et al., (1977), and Hofmann et al., (1977). These observations have provided valuable information on the distributions of stars and dust in the inner Galaxy (Hayakawa et al., 1977, Maihara et al., 1978, Oda et al., 1978).
Observations of infrared polarization have been tried in the galactic center. A preliminary result is that the polarization at K-band (2.2 μ) is less than 5 %, much less than that expected from interstellar polarization.
CIGS thin films were irradiated with 100 or 250 keV electrons to reveal the radiation defect by analyzing PL measurement. The PL intensity decreased due to non-radiative recombination defects induced by electron irradiation. Furthermore, the intensity 0.8 eV peak of the PL spectrum was observed from CIGS films irradiated with 250 eV electrons and is said to correspond to In-antisite defects in CIGS materials. The defects can usually change into InCu-VCu complex defects combined with VCu, since the formation energy of the complex defect is lower than that of each defect. Cu interstitial defects induced by 250 keV electron irradiation would diffuse to VCu of the complex defect, whereupon the complex defect might become an In-antisite defect due to 250 keV electron irradiation.
We carried out large–scale (4 × 2 degree) CO multi–line observations toward the central molecular zone (CMZ) in the Galactic center (GC) with the NANTEN2 4m telescope and mapped several diffuse molecular features located at relatively high Galactic latitudes above 0°.6. These high–latitude features are composed of diffuse molecular halo gas and molecular filaments according to their morphological aspects. Their high velocities and high intensity ratios between 12CO J = (2−1) and J = (1−0) clearly indicate their location in the GC, and their total mass amount to ∼10% of that of the CMZ. We discuss that magnetic field is a possible mechanism of these high–latitude molecular features lifting up toward high galactic latitude.
CIGS solar cells were irradiated with 250 keV electrons, which can create only Cu-related defects in the cell, to reveal the radiation defect. The EL image of CIGS solar cells before electron irradiation at 120 K described small grains, thought to be those of the CIGS. After 250 keV electron irradiation of the CIGS cell, the cell was uniformly illuminated compared to before the electron irradiation and the observed grains were unclear. In addition, the EL intensity rose with increasing electron fluence, meaning the change in EL efficiency may be attributable to the decreased likelihood of non-irradiative recombination in intrinsic defects due to electron-induced defects. Since the light soaking effect for CIGS solar cells is reported the same phenomena, the 250 keV electron radiation effects for CIGS solar cells might be equivalent to the effect.
To apply thin ZnO film to photoacoustic tomography sensors, we investigated methods to improve its piezoelectricity with high optical transmittance. ZnO film was deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on a quartz substrate with various changes of the following conditions: RF sputtering power, Ar gas pressure, and substrate temperature (TSUB). The preliminary optimization of sputtering conditions is to form the ZnO film with good c-axis crystalline alignment. The results of X-ray diffraction measurement and cross-sectional observations indicated that the high-TSUB condition was preferable. This was because the desorption of Zn due to high-TSUB during the deposition process induced the formation of excellent columnar grains normal to the substrate. To enhance the piezoresponse, the substitution of Zn with different crystal-radius atoms was investigated, the aim being to increase the electrically neutral dipole moment by the partial displacement of the Zn-O bond. The transition metal V, with the potential to have the various configurations and coordination numbers, was selected as the dopant. As a result, it was confirmed that the diffraction peak from the (002) plane shifted to low angles with small degradation of the diffraction intensities.
Fe-doped semi-insulating AlGalnAs grown by liquid phase epitaxy has been studied and compared to Fe-doped GalnAsP. It has been found that semiinsulating AlGalnAs is easier to obtain than semi-insulating GalnAsP, because of its high iron distribution coeficient. The high resistivity of 1×109 ohm-cm has been obtained for Al0.481n0.52 As grown at 750°C. The activation energy of the Fe acceptor level in the AlGalnAs system has also been studied.