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We have reported a blood flow increase in the prefrontal cortex during the performance of the computer version TMT. Although TMT-A was first performed and followed by TMT-B in the previous study, the order was reversed in the present study,i.e., TMT-B was first performed and then followed by TMT-A, and differences in the change of blood flow were compared between the two modes of TMT.
Nine healthy student volunteers (20.7 ± 1.6 yr) performed two different sets of TMT-B. After a resting period of 30 sec, they performed four different sets of TMT-A. Changes of oxyHb and deoxyHb were monitored by 22-channel NIRS from 30 sec before the start of TMT-B through 30 sec after the end of TMT-A. The mean changes of blood flow over a period of 10 sec just before the start of TMT-B and TMT-A, and over a period of 100 sec after the start of TMT-B and TMT-A were determined.
The increase of oxyHb was prominent in the right lateral prefrontal cortex.
The results suggest that the blood flow increases in the prefrontal cortex during the start of either TMT-A or TMT-B. The location of blood flow increase did not change whether TMT-B was performed first or after TMT-A. Therefore, the blood flow increase observed only in the right prefrontal cortex in the previous study could not be due to familiarization of the test. In contrast, TMT-A apparently exhibits a familiarization effect, since blood flow increase was not observed when TMT-A was performed after TMT-B.
We measured concentration changes of oxyHb and deoxyHb in the prefrontal cortex during the performance of the computer version Trail Making Test(TMT) by multichannel NIRS using near infrared light pairs which are more sensitive for detecting changes of oxyHb and deoxyHb.
Sixteen healthy student volunteers performed four different TMT-A sets, and following 30 a sec resting period, two different TMT-B sets. Changes of oxyHb and deoxyHb were monitored by 22 channel NIRS from 30 sec before the start of TMT-A through 30 sec after the end of TMT-B. The mean changes in subjects over a period of 10 sec just before the start of TMT-A and TMT-B, and a period of 50 to 60 sec after the start of TMT-A and TMT-B were determined. OxyHb increased while deoxyHb decreased in the bilateral prefrontal cortices during the performance of TMT. The increase of oxyHb was prominent in the right lateral prefrontal cortex, especially during TMT-A.
On the other hand, deoxyHb significantly decreased in the bilateral prefrontal cortices especially during TMT-A.
The results suggest that blood flow increases in the prefrontal cortex during the performance of the computer version TMT.
A variety of hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) develops a broad spectrum of both ataxia and non-ataxia symptoms. Cognitive and affective changes are one such non-ataxia symptoms, but have been described only in hereditary SCAs with exonic CAG gene expansion.
We newly found intronic hexanucleotide GGCCTG gene expansion in NOP56 gene as the causative mutation (=SCA36) in nine unrelated Japanese familial SCA originating from Asida river area in the western part of Japan, thus nicknamed Asidan for this mutation. These patients show unique clinical balance of cerebellar ataxia and motor neuron disease (MND), locating on the crossroad of these two diseases. We examined cognitive and affective analyses on 12 Asidan patients who agreed to join the examination.
The 12 Asidan patients demonstrated a significant decrease in their frontal executive functions measured by frontal assessment battery (FAB) and Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) compared with age- and gender-matched controls, whilst mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Hasegawa dementia score-revised (HDS-R) were within normal range. the decline of frontal executive function was related to their disease duration and scale for the assessment and rating of ataxias (SARA). They also demonstrated mild depression and apathy. Single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) analysis showed that these Asidan patients showed decline of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in a particular areas of cerebral cortices such as Brodmann areas 24 and 44-46.
These data suggest the patients with Asidan mutation show unique cognitive and affective characteristics different from other hereditary SCAs with exonal CAG expansion or MND.
We present ALMA detection of the [O iii] 88 μm line and 850 μm dust continuum emission in a Y-dropout Lyman break galaxy, MACS0416_Y1. The [O iii] detection confirms the object with a spectroscopic redshift to be z = 8.3118±0.0003. The 850 μm continuum intensity (0.14 mJy) implies a large dust mass on the order of 4×106M⊙. The ultraviolet-to-far infrared spectral energy distribution modeling, where the [O iii] emissivity model is incorporated, suggests the presence of a young (τage ≍ 4 Myr), star-forming (SFR ≍ 60M⊙yr−1), and moderately metal-polluted (Z ≍ 0.2Z⊙) stellar component with a stellar mass of 3 × 108M⊙. An analytic dust mass evolution model with a single episode of star formation does not reproduce the metallicity and dust mass in ≍ 4 Myr, suggesting an underlying evolved stellar component as the origin of the dust mass.
As part of the international joint projects working towards the control of taeniosis/cysticercosis in Asia Pacific, epidemiological studies on Taenia solium cysticercosis have been carried out in high-incidence populations, such as minority groups in Thailand. To assess the epidemiology of cysticercotic infections in pigs in the hill-tribe minority villages (Karen) in Tak province, Thailand, we conducted serological screening and necropsies. The patterns of antibody response to T. solium antigens were then investigated using immunoblot assays. Of the 188 pig serum samples tested for antibody responses to partially purified low-molecular-weight antigens of T. solium cyst fluid, positive responses were detected in 37 samples (19.7%). Based on these results, 16 pigs (10 seropositive and 6 seronegative) were necropsied for investigation of cysticerci and intestinal parasites. All seropositive pigs were coinfected with both T. solium and Taenia hydatigena cysticerci, except one, which was infected with T. hydatigena alone. Three of the six seronegative pigs were confirmed to be infected with T. hydatigena. Pigs infected with T. solium showed much stronger antibody responses than those infected with T. hydatigena. Our results demonstrate the co-occurrence of two swine cysticercoses due to T. solium and T. hydatigena in the studied areas. This study also reveals the importance of direct confirmation of the presence of cysticerci by necropsy after serological screening. In addition to the prevalence of swine cysticercosis in these endemic areas, our findings also reveal potential implications for the development of serological diagnostic assays for swine cysticercosis.
We fabricated single-crystalline microspheres of wide-gap semiconductors with anisotropic crystal structures, such as ZnO and ZnSe, by laser ablation in superfluid helium and investigated their lasing properties. Whispering gallery mode lasing at their band edges in ultraviolet region was clearly observed under the optical excitation, reflecting their high sphericity and crystal quality.
The effects of alloying elements (Ni/Ta) on the temperature dependence of yield stress in Co3(Al,W) with the L12 structure have been investigated through compression tests of nearly single-phase polycrystalline alloys in the temperature range between room temperature to 1,473K. Compared with a ternary Co3(Al,W), a Ni/Ta-added Co3(Al,W) alloy exhibits a higher γ΄ solvus temperature and lower onset temperature of the yield stress anomaly (positive temperature dependence of yield stress), suggesting that the CSF energy is increased by Ni/Ta addition. As a consequence, the high-temperature strength in Co3(Al,W) is considerably enhanced.
In this study, we investigated GaN channel layer quality to suppress drain-lag, which is an important parameter for switching performance. In this experiment, we confirmed that drain-lag performance has dependence on the tilt of the GaN channel layer. GaN channel layer with the tilt angle of 243 arcsec showed faster drain-lag recovery than the tilt angle of 209 arcsec. The results of the drain-lag test and isolation leakage current measurement indicated that the tilt angle and hopping distance contributed to drain-lag recovery. We proposed the mechanism of trap effect during the drain-lag test.
Bovine cysticercosis causing damage to the beef industry is closely linked to human taeniasis due to Taenia saginata. In African countries, Taenia spp. from wildlife are also involved as possible sources of infections in livestock. To identify the aetiological agents of bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia, cysticerci were collected from 41 cattle slaughtered in the eastern and central areas during 2010–2012. A single cysticercus per animal was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the resultant sequence was compared with those of members of the genus Taenia. Although 38 out of 41 cysticerci (92.7%) were identified as T. saginata, three samples (7.3%) showed the hitherto unknown sequences of Taenia sp., which is distantly related to Taenia solium, Taenia arctos and Taenia ovis. Old literatures suggest it to be Taenia hyaenae, but morphological identification of species could not be completed by observing only the larval samples.
CrB2 possess the hexagonal AlB2 structure which belongs to the spacegroup of P6/mmm. The compound exhibits para- to antiferro-magnetic transition at about 88 K. By using a macroscopic measurement technique, that is, a conventional resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) with a millimeter size mono-crystal, significant elastic anomalies have been observed just above the magnetic transition temperature. On the other hand, elastic constants determined by a microscopic measurement technique, that is, an inelastic X-ray scattering method (BL35XU of SPring-8, Japan) do not show any elastic anomalies at around the transition temperature. In order to explain the discrepancy, we have introduced a kind of so called ΔE effect resulting from a multidomain structure. If crystal lattice is slightly deformed by a spontaneous magnetostriction in the antiferromagnetic state, the symmetry of crystal lattice is lowered from hexagonal to monoclinic when the symmetry of magnetic structure is taken into account. By the lowering of the symmetry, the crystal consists of six magnetic domains in the antiferro magnetic state. If magnetic domain boundaries move in response to externally applied stresses, the mechanical deformation is absorbed by nonelastic deformations induced by the movement of magnetic domain boundaries. This multidomain model well explains the experimental results obtained by both microscopic (X-ray) and macroscopic (ultrasound) measurements. The microscopic measurement technique is useful to obtain the true elastic properties of crystal lattice without effects coming from a multidomain structure.
A photo-oxidized thin film, which transformed the organic silicone oil into inorganic glass, was coated on optical materials surface by using Xe2 excimer lamp at room temperature. This technique has enabled an optical thin coating capable of transmitting ultraviolet rays [UV] of wavelengths under 200 nm and possessing the characteristics of hardness, strain-free, resistance to high power laser, and resistance to water. UV and IR spectroscopic analysis was carried out for investigation of the oxidized silicone oil. The results revealed that the absorption peak of the CH3 group at 2900 cm-1 decreased as the irradiation time of the excimer lamp increased, and the transmittance of the light in the 172 nm wavelengths conversely became high. The UV transmittance of the silicone oil was 29.2 % before the lamp irradiation; and it improved to 90.6 % after the irradiation for 120 minutes. Moreover, in order to evaluate for resistance to laser damage [J/cm2/10 ns], the films were further irradiated with the Nd: YAG laser of ω [1.06 μm] or 2ω [0.503 μm]. The silica glass substrate had almost same laser tolerance in ω and 2ω, 112 J/cm2 and 113 J/cm2, respectively. The laser damage threshold of the photo-oxidized 100 nm thick film formed on the fused silica substrate was 72 J/cm2 in ω and 107 J/cm2 in 2ω.
In this study, we propose copper oxide (CuOx) edge-termination for GaN-based Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) with low turn-on voltage. CuOx fabricated by thermal oxidization of sputtered Cu film at 275°C consisted mainly of Cu2O which is known as a p-type semiconductor. We applied CuOx edge-termination to GaN SBDs with tantalum (Ta) Schottky electrode which has low work function of 4.25 eV. The experimental results of current-voltage characteristics insisted that CuOx edge-termination structure was effective to increase breakdown voltage of GaN SBDs with keeping low turn-on voltage of 0.29 V at 10 A/cm2.
Supracricoid partial laryngectomy is a reliable laryngeal preservation procedure for tumour stage 2 and selected stage 3 to 4 laryngeal cancers. Of 70 patients thus treated, two (3 per cent) had ‘flaccid neoglottis’, i.e. redundant mucosa at the inner arytenoid edge which intermittently obstructed the neoglottis. We discuss the mechanism and management of this complication.
The two cases are presented. A navigation system was used to assist surgery. Neoglottal spatial alteration (specifically cross-sectional area) was assessed pre- and post-operatively using three-dimensional computed tomography. Voice was also evaluated.
Inspiratory stridor and delayed stomal closure were the main symptoms. Minimum neoglottal cross-sectional area was smaller in case one than in non-affected patients. Both patients had relatively rougher and breathier voices, but had adapted well to this.
Flaccid neoglottis is mainly due to excessive anterior retraction of residual laryngeal mucosa and to excessive mucosal pliability with age. A navigation system was useful for confirmation, but the potential for incorrect image recognition should be kept in mind. Flaccid neoglottis was treatable, with improved laryngeal function.
Inadequate notification is a recognized problem of measles surveillance systems in many countries, and it should be monitored using multiple data sources. We compared data from three different surveillance sources in 2007: (1) the sentinel surveillance system mandated by the Act on Prevention of Infectious Diseases and Medical Care for Patients Suffering Infectious Diseases, (2) the mandatory notification system run by the Aichi prefectural government, and (3) health insurance claims (HICs) submitted to corporate health insurance societies. For each dataset, we examined the number of measles cases by month, within multiple age groups, and in two categories of diagnostic test groups. We found that the sentinel surveillance system underestimated the number of adult measles cases. We also found that HIC data, rather than mandatory notification data, were more likely to come from individuals who had undergone laboratory tests to confirm their measles diagnosis. Thus, HIC data may provide a supplementary and readily available measles surveillance data source.
We present the spatially-resolved polarization measurements for the disk around the Herbig Ae star, AB Aurigae. The images were obtained in J, H, and Ks bands with the coronagraphic camera HiCIAO on the Subaru Telescope. The inner region beyond 30 AU from the star was imaged, which reveals an azimuthal dip, a radial gap at around 80 AU, and complex spiral-like emission in polarized light.
This study aimed to analyse vocal performance and to investigate the nature of the neoglottal sound source in patients who had undergone supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy, using a high-speed digital imaging system.
High-speed digital imaging analysis of neoglottal kinetics was performed in two patients who had undergone supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy; laryngotopography, inverse filtering analysis and multiline kymography were also undertaken.
In case one, laryngotopography demonstrated two vibrating areas: one matched with the primary (i.e. fundamental) frequency (75 Hz) and the other with the secondary frequency (150 Hz) at the neoglottis. In case two, laryngotopography showed two vibrating areas matched with the fundamental frequency (172 Hz) at the neoglottis. The interaction between the two areas was considered to be the sound source in both patients. The waveform of the estimated volume flow at the neoglottis, obtained by inverse filtering analysis, corresponded well to the neoglottal vibration patterns derived by multiline kymography. These findings indicated that the specific sites identified at the neoglottis by the present method were likely to be the sound source in each patient.
High-speed digital imaging analysis is effective in locating the sites responsible for voice production in patients who have undergone supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy. This is the first study to clearly identify the neoglottal sound source in such patients, using a high-speed digital imaging system.
As the Nobeyama Radio Observatory Legacy Project: Survey of Giant Molecular Clouds in M33, we have been mapping M33 in CO(1-0) with the multi-beam receiver BEARS equipped on the 45-m telescope using the OTF mapping technique since 2007. The purpose of this project is to investigate the physical properties of GMCs and understand the evolutionary process from GMC formation to star formation in GMCs by comparing with various data such as CO(3-2), 1.1 mm continuum obtained with ASTE10m telescope at Atacama and the optical data obtained with SUBARU. We identified 87 GMCs using the first year data of CO(1-0) and observed 28 GMCs among them in CO(3-2) with ASTE (Onodera 2009, PhD thesis, University of Tokyo). From the comparison of these lines, it was shown that the CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratio increases with star forming activity in the GMCs. Furthermore, we found that more massive GMCs tend to have higher CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratio. Since the ratio is thought to be an indicator of the fraction of warm and dense molecular gas, our results imply that the fraction of warm and dense gas increases with GMC mass. Especially, since the ratio in the GMCs with low star forming activity is in the range where the ratio depends mainly on the density, we speculate that dense gas fraction increases with GMC mass.
We have already reported that Au or B doped SiGe amorphous thin films have superior thermoelectric properties which are attribute to amorphous phase. For the practical use, the bulk materials are required. In this work, we have tried and succeeded to fabricate Si-Ge-B amorphous bulk samples. First, fine particles were prepared by three kinds of mechanical process, such as roller milling method, mechanical alloying method and planetary milling method. It was intended to introduce a large amount of defects and strain into samples and/or gamorphouslization'h. Then, the prepared fine particles were pressed and formed into 2 x 5 x 15 mm^3 samples. Thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity of samples were measured by steady state measurement and four terminal method with temperature range of room temperature to 873 K in N2 flow at atmosphere pressure, respectively. Thermal conductivity was measured by photo-pyroelectric method in room temperature. Some samples have maximum value of thermoelectric power over 10-3 V/K. therefore≤ we were succeeded to prepare bulk materials which have higher thermoelectric power than that of conventional crystal materials. X-ray diffraction measurement and scanning electron microscope observation were performed on fabricated samples. From XRD measurement and SEM observation, the samples were in mixed condition of disordered microcrystals and amorphous state.
We report the results of mid- to far-infrared spectroscopic
observations of Galactic star-forming regions with ISO, Spitzer, and
AKARI. Owing to the high sensitivity of the IRS onboard Spitzer, we
detected [Si II] 35 μm, [Fe II] 26 μm, and [Fe III] 23 μm lines widely
in low-density star-forming regions, and derived gas-phase Si and Fe
abundances as 3–100% and <22%, respectively. With the FTS
onboard AKARI, we obtained the spatial distribution of
the [O III] 88 μm emission in two star-forming regions.