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We study the interaction of relativistic jets with their environment, using 3-dimen- sional relativistic particle-in-cell simulations for two cases of jet composition: (i) electron-proton (e− − p+) and (ii) electron-positron (e±) plasmas containing helical magnetic fields. We have performed simulations of “global” jets containing helical magnetic fields in order to examine how helical magnetic fields affect kinetic instabilities such as the Weibel instability, the kinetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and the Mushroom instability. We have found that these kinetic instabilities are suppressed and new types of instabilities can grow. For the e− − p+ jet, a recollimation-like instability occurs and jet electrons are strongly perturbed, whereas for the e± jet, a recollimation-like instability occurs at early times followed by kinetic instability and the general structure is similar to a simulation without a helical magnetic field. We plan to perform further simulations using much larger systems to confirm these new findings.
The projects LIGHT and MIRA are the space-borne and ground-based optical/Infrared-interferometer projects of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. The contents of each project are gradually developing, and the descriptions given below are the preliminary ones studied at the present time.
LIGHT (Light Interferometer satellite for the studies of Galactic Halo Tracers) is a scanning astrometric satellite for stellar and galactic astronomy planned to be launched between 2007 and 2010 by a M-V launcher of ISAS, Japan. Two sets of Fizeau-type 40cm-pupil interferometers with 1 m baseline are the basic structure of the satellite optics. The multi-color (U, B, V, R, I, and K) CCD arrays are planned to be used in the focal plane of the interferometer, optimized for detecting the precise locations of fringe patterns. LIGHT is expected to observe the parallaxes and proper motions of nearly a hundred million stars up to 18th visual (15thK-band) magnitude with the precision better than 0.1 milli-arcsecond (about 50 microarcsecond in V-band and 90 micro-arcsecond in K-band) in parallaxes and better than 0.1 milli-arcsecond per year in proper motions, as well as the precise photometric characteristics of the observed stars. Almost all of the giant and supergiant stars belonging to the disk and halo components of our Galaxy within 10 to 15 kpc from the sun will be observed by LIGHT to study the most fundamental structure and evolution of the Galaxy. LIGHT will become a precursor of a more sophisticated future astrometric interferometer satellite like GAIA (Lindegren and Perryman, 1996).
The correlation of stress in Silicon Carbide (SiC) crystal and frequency shift in micro- Raman spectroscopy was determined by an experimental method. We applied uniaxial stress to 4H- and 6H-SiC single crystal square bar specimen shaped with (0001) and (11-20) faces by four point bending test, under measuring the frequency shift in micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results revealed that the linearity coefficients between stress and Raman shift were -1.96 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/4)E2 on 4H-SiC (0001) face, -2.08 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/4)E2 on 4H-SiC (11-20) face and -2.70 cm-1/GPa for FTO(2/6)E2 on 6H-SiC (0001) face. Determination of these coefficients has made it possible to evaluate the residual stress in SiC crystal quantitatively by micro-Raman spectroscopy. We evaluated the residual stress in SiC substrate that was grown in our laboratory by utilizing the results obtained in this study. The result of estimation indicated that the SiC substrate with a diameter of 6 inch remained residual stress as low as ±15 MPa.
Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) is one of the elegant material because its uses in various fields. In this study, AgNPs have been prepared by using Peltophorum pterocarpum (PP) flower extract as reducing and capping agent and aqueous silver nitrate (aq.AgNO3) as silver precursor. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using Ultra Violet - Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), which reveals the formation of nanosized particles. The UV-Vis spectrum shows an absorption peak around 430nm. HR-TEM images of AgNPs with clear morphology and well dispersed prepared AgNPs.
In this paper, the authors have reported the structural and photoluminescence (PL) studies of pure and nickel (Ni) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles synthesized by the solution combustion method. The structural, morphological and optical studies are carried out by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and PL spectra, respectively. The XRD pattern indicates that the prepared particles are in hexagonal wurtzite structure with the average crystalline size is around 35-50nm. Room temperature PL shows the near band edge related emission and the results are related several intrinsic defects in the ZnO nanoparticles.
In this paper, the effect of shock compression on the synthesis of a Bi-based oxide superconductor was investigated. Bi1.85-Pb0.35-Sr1.90-Ca2.05-Cu3.05-Ox calcined powder was shock-compacted around 20 GPa and 30 GPa, and divided specimens were annealed at 845 °C for 1, 6 and 48 hours. The specimens were evaluated by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope.
ZnO nanorods were grown up from as-deposited ZnO film on which the zinc self-catalysts generated by a novel reducing method. Well aligned ZnO nanorods with a uniform high aspect ratio were grown up on multi-annealed samples. The length of nanorods depended significantly on the reaction time in the hydrothermal synthesis.
To increase X-ray photon number generated by laser-cluster interaction, it is important to understand the dependence of X-ray generation on cluster size. We carried out Xe K-shell X-ray generation using a conical nozzle with Xe clusters, the radius of which was controllable by adjusting the backing pressure. The experiment clarifies the result that the Xe K-shell X-ray photon number increases with increasing cluster radius from 8 to 12 nm, and saturates at the radius between 12 and 17 nm. We also investigated the Xe K-shell X-ray photon number dependence on laser intensity, and found that the threshold laser intensity of the Xe K-shell X-ray generation exists between 2 × 1017 and 5 × 1018 W/cm2.
The mechanism of improvement in gate oxide integrity (GOI) characteristics by H2 annealing in CZ-grown Silicon wafers was investigated. Grown-in defects that are considered to degrade GOI and which can be detected correlatively as 0.1 μm level size pits appearing after SC-1 cleaning, decrease drastically by H2 annealing, while other inert gases, i.e., N2 and Ar, do not exhibit such effect. Besides, H2 annealing shrinks or extinguishes oxygen precipitates significantly, while other gases do not. On the other hand, oxygen outdiffusion is exactly the same among H2, N2 and Ar annealing. From these results, it was concluded that the dominant mechanism for GOI characteristics improvement by H2 annealing is due to decomposition of the grown-in defects having Si-O bonding by the reduction reaction between Si-O bonding and hydrogen, and not due to a mere thermal decomposition enhanced by oxygen outdiffusion.
Growth of ZnSe-based compounds on the GaAs surface terminated by ultra-thin Ge epitaxial layer was carried out by molecular beam epitaxy and the influence of Ge layer on the growth of ZnSe was investigated. When the thickness of Ge layer was 1 atomic layer (AL), 2-dimensional growth occurred in the initial stage of ZnSe layer growth and anti-phase boundary (APB) free ZnSe layer was obtained. For Ge layer thickness of 10 AL, ZnSe grew 3-dimensionally and APBs were generated in the ZnSe layer. The crystalline quality of ZnMgSSe layer was also strongly influenced by the thickness of Ge layer. These phenomena were identified to be due to the transition of Ge surface structure from single domain to double domain with increasing Ge layer thickness.
X-ray-excited luminescence of GaN doped with Eu ions as a luminescent center was observed in the wavelength range from 350 nm to 650 nm. Three peaks at 375 nm, 550 nm and 622 nm were found. To survey the mechanism of the photoluminescence due to non-resonance excitation, photoluminescence X-ray excitation spectra are also measured. The mechanism of the luminescence occurrence was briefly discussed based on the model developed by Emura et al.
We report site-selective studies of the Zeeman splittings that are observed for magnetic fields up to 6.6T for different Eu incorporation sites in GaN. Utilizing resonant excitation with visible light, we are able to distinguish the site and find for one center (Eu1) a splitting into five components as expected for C3v symmetry. The corresponding g-values are 1.66 and 1.90. The two lines of another center Eu2 each split into two levels corresponding to g-values of 1.9 and 2.84. Most surprisingly a third center, for which only one line is clearly identified, a g-value of 6.16 is found which is larger than can be explained for a 7F2 purely ionic Eu state.
In-situ doped Eu ions in GaN grown by Organometallic Vapor-phase Epitaxy (OMVPE) at different pressures were investigated under different excitation methods and through the use of the following experimental techniques: (1) resonant site-selective laser irradiation (2) electron beam excitation, and (3) a dual excitation using a combination of electron beam and laser irradiation. With these means, we have examined the difference in the excitation pathways that result from resonant laser and electron hole (e-h) pair excitation of Eu ions for two different distinct incorporation sites, which are responsible for most of the luminescence. We have obtained clear evidence that e-h pairs do not have the ability to excite all of the ions and that there is excitation trapping by defects involved in the Eu excitation.
We investigated the electroluminescence (EL) properties of Eu-doped GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). The thickness of the active layer was varied to increase the light output power. With increasing the active layer thickness, the light output power monotonically increased. The maximum light output power of 50 μW was obtained for an active layer thickness of 900 nm with an injected current of 20 mA, which is the highest value ever reported. The corresponding external quantum efficiency was 0.12%. The applied voltage for the LED operation also increased with the active layer thickness due to an increase in the resistance of the LED. Therefore, in terms of power efficiency, the optimized active layer thickness was around 600 nm. These results indicate that the optimization of the LED structure would effectively improve the luminescence properties.
The effects of characteristics of the blocking layers in multilayered a-Si:H photoreceptors on electrophotographic properties are reported. The structure of the photoreceptor is Al/a-Si:H(p)/a-Si:H(i)/a-Si1−xCx. The thickness and boron doping ratio of the bottom p-type layer and the thickness and compositional fraction x of the surface a-Si1−xCx layer are varied. It is shown that the dark decay time is particularly sensitive to the thickness and doping ratio of the p-type layer. These dependences are discussed assuming a space charge layer in the p-type layer. It is also shown that the thickness and x of the a-Si1−xCx layer greatly influence the residual voltage and effective quantum efficiency of photocarrier generation.
GaAs was grown on Si substrate by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using GaAs/GaAsP strained layer superlattice (SLS) intermediate layers. The dislocation density decreases at the interface between GaAs and SLS, but does not decrease in the SLS. When GaAs/GaAsP SLS is used as the intermediate layer, a part of the dislocation propagates into the top GaAs layer because of the lattice mismatch of GaAs and SLS. The low etch-pit-density of (3-5) x 105 cm−2 was obtained by using the intermediate layer of GaAs/GaAsP SLS and AlAs/GaAs superlattice with thermal-cycle annealing.
Deposition of SiNx films by ArF laser induced chemical vapor deposition has been investigated. The films exhibit excellent electrical properties; the high breakdown voltage and the low fixed charge are the same as in films deposited by LPCVD, but the BHF etching rate of them is larger by a factor about 4 than that prepared by the plasma CVD. The diffusion length of the radicals contributing to the deposition was estimated from the distribution of the deposition rate as a function of the deposition parameters. The optical emission from the radicals produced by ArF laser irradiation was also studied. Using these results, we discuss the mechanism of the deposition.
Defects in thermal oxides were investigated by a photoluminescence technique. Thermal oxides with a thickness of 100 nm grown either by dry or wet oxidation were studied. A broad PL band at 2-4 eV was observed for both dry and wet oxides. Effects of annealing under vacuum or in atmospheres of Ar or N2 on the PL were also examined. The PL intensity was enhanced for the case of wet oxide by vacuum annealing at 700 °C. High-temperature anneal above 750 °C without O2 further generated PL centers for both dry and wet oxides. The formation mechanism of the PL centers will be discussed in terms of the decomposition of oxide at Si/SiO2 interface.
From the view point of materials sciences, one of the central issues in organic thin film transistors (TFTs) is the interface between different materials inherent in the device structure. For example, the interface between organic semiconductors and electrodes controls the carrier injection, while the interface between organic semiconductors and gate insulators governs the trap and carrier densities. Here, we show that interface modification with self-assembeld monolayers (SAMs) using polar organosilane molecules offers novel functions in organic TFTs. SAMs on SiO2 gate dielectrics was found to the carrier density at the conduction channel, while the adsorbed SAMs molecules on metal electrodes causes an ambipolar operation in fullerene TFTs. These interface modification techniques, since they are low temperature processes, provide novel opportunities for improving device manufacturing processes.
We report an extremely rare case of congenital cholesteatoma of the mastoid region, presenting as acute mastoiditis. We also review the 16 previously reported cases of congenital cholesteatoma of the mastoid region.
A 65-year-old man presented with left-sided, post-auricular swelling and pain. Acute mastoiditis was diagnosed, with computed tomography demonstrating destruction of the bony plates of the posterior cranial fossa and sigmoid sinus. Initial surgery revealed a cholesteatoma in the mastoid, with no extension into the aditus ad antrum or attic. These findings were confirmed by pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of the surgical specimen, the latter using involucrin. The cholesteatoma matrix was completely removed in a second operation.
Including this case, only four of the 17 reported cases of congenital cholesteatoma of the mastoid region showed post-auricular pain or swelling, indicating acute mastoiditis. Clinicians should bear in mind that congenital cholesteatoma may be present in patients presenting with mastoiditis, particularly adults.