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The ALMA twenty-six arcmin2 survey of GOODS-S at one millimeter (ASAGAO) is a deep (1σ ∼ 61μJy/beam) and wide area (26 arcmin2) survey on a contiguous field at 1.2 mm. By combining with archival data, we obtained a deeper map in the same region (1σ ∼ 30μJy/beam−1, synthesized beam size 0.59″ × 0.53″), providing the largest sample of sources (25 sources at 5σ, 45 sources at 4.5σ) among ALMA blank-field surveys. The median redshift of the 4.5σ sources is 2.4. The number counts shows that 52% of the extragalactic background light at 1.2 mm is resolved into discrete sources. We create IR luminosity functions (LFs) at z = 1–3, and constrain the faintest luminosity of the LF at 2 < z < 3. The LFs are consistent with previous results based on other ALMA and SCUBA-2 observations, which suggests a positive luminosity evolution and negative density evolution.
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
Dementia involves a progressive decline in many functional areas. Policy and practice guidelines should cover the entire course of the disease from early detection to the end-of-life. The present study aimed to evaluate the contents of national dementia strategies with a focus on palliative care content.
We employed qualitative content analyses. Sixteen national dementia strategies from 14 countries were reviewed. Using open coding, the contents were compared to the domains and recommendations of the palliative care in dementia white paper of the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC).
Although palliative care was not explicitly referred to in eight of the 14 countries and only to a limited extent in three countries, a number of domains from the EAPC white paper were well represented, including “person-centered care, communication, and shared decision making”; “continuity of care”; and “family care and involvement.” Three countries that referred to palliative care did so explicitly, with two domains being well represented: “education of the health care team”; and “societal and ethical issues.” The strategies all lacked reference to the domain of “prognostication and timely recognition of dying” and to spiritual caregiving.
National dementia strategies cover part of the recent definition of palliative care in dementia, although they do not frequently label these references as “palliative care.” In view of the growing numbers of people dying with dementia, preparation for the last phase of life should be added to national strategies.
Cicatricial pemphigoid can affect all mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract; however, hypopharyngeal involvement is less frequent.
This paper presents a 69-year-old male diagnosed as having cicatricial pemphigoid who was experiencing difficulty swallowing. Videofluorography with barium swallow demonstrated narrow flow through the medial hypopharynx, but not through the lateral hypopharynx. Direct laryngoscopy revealed that the postcricoid hypopharyngeal lumen had become narrow due to circumferential scar formation. Interestingly, detached thin membranous webs were observed beyond the circumferential scar.
This report describes important videofluorographic and direct laryngoscopic findings showing rare hypopharyngeal involvement in a case of cicatricial pemphigoid.
Δ14C values of leaves of deciduous trees provide a means to map the regional-scale fossil fuel ratio in the atmosphere. We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus, a deciduous tree) leaf samples from across Korea in the month of July in both 2010 and 2011 to obtain the regional distribution of Δ14C. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM). The average of the Δ14C values from clean air sites in Korea in 2011 measured slightly lower than the average of Δ14C values in 2010. Distribution maps of Δ14C of 2011 and 2010 in Korea were made based on a series of Δ14C values of ginkgo leaf samples from Korea using the Geostatistical and Spatial analyst tools in ESRI's ArcMap software. The distribution maps of Δ14C showed that Δ14C values in the western part of Korea are lower than those in the eastern part of Korea. This is because the western part of Korea is densely populated and contains many industrial complexes, and also because westerly winds from China, containing CO2 from fossil fuel use, blow into Korea. We compared the distribution maps of 2010 and 2011 and tried to find traces of the Fukushima power plant accident in Japan.
We present the results of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) M 33 All Disk (30′ × 30′,
or 7.3 kpc × 7.3 kpc) Survey of Giant Molecular Clouds (NRO MAGiC) based on
12CO(J = 1–0) observations using the NRO 45-m telescope and
12CO(J = 3–2) observations using the ASTE 10-m telescope.
The spatial resolution of the resultant 12CO(J = 1–0) map is
193, corresponding to 81 pc, which is sufficient to identify each Giant Molecular Cloud
(GMC) in the disk. We found clumpy structures with a typical spatial scale of
~100 pc, corresponding to GMCs, and no diffuse, smoothly distributed component
of molecular gas at this sensitivity.
We obtained a map of the molecular fraction,
fmol = ΣH2/(ΣHi + ΣH2),
at a 100-pc resolution. This is the first fmol map covering an
entire galaxy with a GMC-scale resolution. The correlation between
fmol and gas surface density shows two distinct sequences.
The presence of two correlation sequences can be explained by differences in metallicity,
i.e., higher (~2-fold) metallicity in the central region
(r < 1.5 kpc) than in the outer parts. Alternatively,
differences in scale height can also account for the two sequences, i.e.,
increased scale height toward the outer disk.
We have conducted all disk imaging of M33 in 12CO(1-0) using the 45-m telescope at Nobeyama Radio Observatory. We present preliminary results of this project. The spatial resolution of ~ 80 pc is comparable to the size of GMCs. The identified GMCs show wide variety in star forming activity. The variety can be regarded as the difference of their evolutionary stage. We found that Kennicutt-Schmidt law breaks in GMC scale (~ 80 pc), although it is still valid in 1 kpc scale. The correlation between molecular gas fraction, fmol = Σ(H2)/Σ(HI+H2) and gas surface density shows two distinct sequences and shows that fmol tends to be higher near the center. We also made partial mapping 12CO(3-2) with ASTE telescope. These data show that the variation of physical properties of molecular gas are correlated with the GMC evolution and mass. That is, GMCs with more active star formation and more mass tend to have higher fraction of dense gas.
As the Nobeyama Radio Observatory Legacy Project: Survey of Giant Molecular Clouds in M33, we have been mapping M33 in CO(1-0) with the multi-beam receiver BEARS equipped on the 45-m telescope using the OTF mapping technique since 2007. The purpose of this project is to investigate the physical properties of GMCs and understand the evolutionary process from GMC formation to star formation in GMCs by comparing with various data such as CO(3-2), 1.1 mm continuum obtained with ASTE10m telescope at Atacama and the optical data obtained with SUBARU. We identified 87 GMCs using the first year data of CO(1-0) and observed 28 GMCs among them in CO(3-2) with ASTE (Onodera 2009, PhD thesis, University of Tokyo). From the comparison of these lines, it was shown that the CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratio increases with star forming activity in the GMCs. Furthermore, we found that more massive GMCs tend to have higher CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratio. Since the ratio is thought to be an indicator of the fraction of warm and dense molecular gas, our results imply that the fraction of warm and dense gas increases with GMC mass. Especially, since the ratio in the GMCs with low star forming activity is in the range where the ratio depends mainly on the density, we speculate that dense gas fraction increases with GMC mass.
Wepresent 12CO(J = 3–2) and 12CO(J = 1–0) observations
of the supergiant Hii region NGC 604 in the nearest face-on
spiral galaxy M 33 using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope
Experiment (ASTE) 10-m and the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) 45-m
telescopes. We found high 12CO(J = 3–2)/12CO(J = 1–0)
ratio gas with an arc-like distribution (“high-ratio gas arc”)
surrounding the central star cluster of NGC 604. Our results
suggest that dense gas formation and second-generation star
formation occur in the surrounding gas compressed by the stellar
wind and/or supernova of the first-generation stars of NGC 604,
i.e., the central star cluster of NGC 604. Thus, NGC 604 is an
example of large-scale sequential star formation.
We report our recent progress on extragalactic spectroscopic and continuum observations,
including HCN(J=1–0), HCO+(J=1–0), and CN(N=1–0) imaging surveys
of local Seyfert and starburst galaxies
using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array,
high-J CO observations (J=3–2 observations
using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE)
and J=2–1 observations with the Submillimeter Array) of galaxies,
and λ 1.1 mm continuum observations of high-z violent starburst galaxies
using the bolometer camera AzTEC mounted on ASTE.
Very recently, we have found that the high density 2DEG (ne ∼1021 cm−3), which is confined within a unit cell layer thickness of SrTiO3, exhibits unusually large Seebeck coefficient (S2DEG/Sbulk ∼5). In the optimum, extremely high ZT2DEG of ∼2.4 can be obtained at room temperature, while the effective ZTeff. was only ∼0.24 because 9 unit cells of electrically insulating SrTiO3 layers were used to fabricate the 2DEG structure. Thus, high ZTeff can be realized if the insulating layer thickness is reduced significantly. We selected BaTiO3∼SrTiO3:Nb superlattice to reduce insulating layer thickness because dielectric constant of BaTiO3 is one order of magnitude large (∼3,000) as compared to that of SrTiO3 (∼300). We expected that the conduction electrons can be confined much strongly in the SrTiO3:Nb layer by sandwiching between highly dielectric BaTiO3 layers. As a result, we clarified that the critical BaTiO3 layer thickness is 1.2 nm, significantly small as compared to SrTiO3 layer (4 nm). The BaTiO3/SrTiO3:Nb superlattice films were fabricated by a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method on (001)-face of LaAlO3 single crystal substrate at 900°C. During the film growth, we monitored RHEED intensity oscillation to control layer thickness precisely. Out-of-plane high-resolution X-ray diffraction measurements and cross sectional HAADF-STEM observations revealed that the resultant films were high quality BaTiO3/SrTiO3:Nb superlattice. Hall mobility of the SrTiO3:Nb layer was 0.4 cm2·V−1·s−1, while that of superlattice decreased gradually with increasing BaTiO3 layer thickness most likely due to that intra layer diffusion of Ba2+ ion occurred between BaTiO3 and SrTiO3:Nb layers, which was clearly observed by the EELS mapping. Seebeck coefficient |S|300K of SrTiO3:Nb layer was 57 μV·K−1, which corresponds carrier concentration ne of 5×1021 cm−3. The |S|300K value became large with decreasing the SrTiO3:Nb layer thickness (dSrTiO3:Nb) and it reached 305 μV·K−1, which is approximately 5 times larger than that of SrTiO3:Nb bulk. The slope of log |S|- log dSrTiO3:Nb plots was 1/2, suggesting that quantum size effect occurred. Critical BaTiO3 layer thickness for the quantum confinement of the electrons was 1.2 nm (3 unit cells of BaTiO3), which is significantly small as compared to SrTiO3 (4 nm). Thus, BaTiO3/SrTiO3:Nb superlattice would be a promising candidate to realize high ZTeff.
We made a CO(1 – 0) mapping survey of 40 nearby spiral galaxies with the Nobeyama 45-m telescope to provide useful data for detailed and systematic studies of molecular gas in the galaxies (Kuno et al. 2006). Using these data we have compared the distribution of molecular gas in barred and non-barred spirals and investigated the influence of the bar. We confirmed that the degree of the central concentration of molecular gas within the radial distances of the order of a bar length in barred spirals is significantly higher than that in non-barred spirals as shown by Sakamoto et al. (1999) and Sheth et al. (2005). This is contrast with the degree of the concentration of the total molecular gas mass within the radial distances of the order of the bar, which is similar for both barred and non-barred spirals. This implies that the bars appear to be efficient in driving gas that lies within their radial scales toward the center of the host galaxies, but that they play quite a smaller role at larger spatial scales on the disks. Thus the characteristic feature of the radial distribution of molecular gas seen in barred spirals, i.e. the strong intensity peaks at their centers, the shallow gradients within the bar regions or/and the secondary peaks at the radius of the bar-ends, can be explained by the accumulation of molecular gas within the bar regions. The accumulated gas by bars accounts for about half of molecular gas mass within the central region. We also found a correlation between the degree of central concentration of molecular gas and the bar strength. Galaxies with stronger bars tend to have higher central concentrations. The result indicates that stronger bar accumulate molecular gas toward the center more efficiently. The correlation between the degree of central concentration of molecular gas and the strength seems to be consistent with long-lived bars rather than short-lived ones which are destroyed by the gas accumulation toward the center many times in the Hubble time.
We have performed CO(J=3−2) emission observations with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) toward the 5′ × 5′ (or 6.6 × 6.6 kpc at the distance D = 4.5 Mpc) region of the nearby barred spiral galaxy M 83. We successfully resolved the major structures, i.e., the nuclear starburst region, bar, and inner spiral arms in CO(J=3−2) emission at a resolution of 22'' (or 480 pc), showing a good spatial coincidence between CO(J=3−2) and 6 cm continuum emissions.
From a comparison of CO(J=3−2) data with CO(J=1−0) intensities measured with Nobeyama 45-m telescope, we found that the radial profile of CO(J=3−2)/CO(J=1−0) integrated intensity ratio R3−2/1−0 is almost unity in the central region (r<0.25 kpc), whereas it drops to a constant value, 0.6–0.7, in the disk region. The radial profile of star formation efficiencies (SFEs), determined from 6 cm radio continuum and CO(J=1−0) emission, shows the same trend as that of R3−2/1−0. At the bar-end (r ~ 2.4 kpc), the amounts of molecular gas and the massive stars are enhanced when compared with other disk regions, whereas there is no excess of R3−2/1−0 and SFE in that region. This means that a simple summation of the star forming regions at the bar-end and the disk cannot reproduce the nuclear starburst of M 83, implying that the spatial variation of the dense gas fraction traced by R3−2/1−0 governs the spatial variation of SFE in M 83.
We present the high-resolution 12CO(J = 1 − 0), 13CO(J = 1 − 0) and 12CO(J = 3 − 2) maps toward a GMA located on the southern arm region of M31 using Nobeyama 45 m and ASTE 10 m telescopes. The GMA consists of two velocity-components, i.e., red and blue. The blue component shows a strong and narrow peak, whereas the red one shows a weak and broad profile. The red component has a lower 12CO(J = 1 − 0)/13CO(J = 1 − 0) ratio (~ 5) than that of the blue one (~ 16), indicating that the red component is denser than the blue one. The red component could be the decelerated gas if we consider the galactic rotational velocity in this region. We suggest that the red component is “post shock” dense gas decelerated due to a spiral density wave. This could be observational evidence of dense molecular gas formation due to galactic shock by spiral density waves.
We also present results from on-going observations toward NGC 604, which is the supergiant HII region of M33, using Nobeyama 45 m and ASTE 10 m telescopes. The ratio of 12CO(J = 3 − 2) to 12CO(J = 1 − 0) ranges from 0.3 to 1.2 in NGC 604. The 12CO(J = 1 − 0) map shows the clumpy structure while 12CO(J = 3 − 2) shows a strong peak near to the central star cluster of NGC 604. The high ratio gas is distributed on the arc-like or shell-like structure along with Hα emission and HII region detected by radio continuum. These suggest that the dense gas formation and second generation star formation occur in the surrounding gas compressed by the stellar wind and/or supernova in central star cluster.
Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) is a joint project between Japan and Chile for installing and operating a 10 m high precision telescope in the Atacama Desert in order to explore the southern sky through the submillimeter wavelength. We have achieved an accuracy of 19 μm (rms) for the main reflector surface and a stable radio pointing accuracy of about 2 arcsec (rms). A 350 GHz cartridge type SIS mixer receiver achieves good performance with a typical system noise temperature of 150 ~ 250 K in DSB and a main beam efficiency of 0.6 ~ 0.7 during winter nights.
A large scale CO(3-2) imaging survey of nearby galaxies using ASTE is now in progress. One of our goals is to compare our wide area CO(3-2) images with existing CO(1-0) data as well as distributions of massive star formation tracers (i.e., Hα and radio continuum emission) in order to understand the physical mechanism which controls the global star formation properties such as star formation efficiency. Initial CO(3-2) maps of some sample galaxies (M 83, NGC 604 in M 33, NGC 1672, & NGC 7130) are reported.
Electroplating of ZnO nanowires was conducted using gold embedded anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) films on Si substrates. For electroplating, insulating layers at the bottom of AAO nanohole structures need to be removed. After electroplating, hexagonal structure of vertical ZnO nanowires was observed, however, they were broken and lied down by thermal annealing process. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were investigated and that of post annealed ZnO nanowires indicates that nitrogen atoms were incorporated as acceptor.