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Suicide is a major global health concern. Bhutanese refugees resettled in the USA are disproportionately affected by suicide, yet little research has been conducted to identify factors contributing to this vulnerability. This study aims to investigate the issue of suicide of Bhutanese refugee communities via an in-depth qualitative, social-ecological approach.
Focus groups were conducted with 83 Bhutanese refugees (adults and children), to explore the perceived causes, and risk and protective factors for suicide, at individual, family, community, and societal levels. Audio recordings were translated and transcribed, and inductive thematic analysis conducted.
Themes identified can be situated across all levels of the social-ecological model. Individual thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are only fully understood when considering past experiences, and stressors at other levels of an individual's social ecology. Shifting dynamics and conflict within the family are pervasive and challenging. Within the community, there is a high prevalence of suicide, yet major barriers to communicating with others about distress and suicidality. At the societal level, difficulties relating to acculturation, citizenship, employment and finances, language, and literacy are influential. Two themes cut across several levels of the ecosystem: loss; and isolation, exclusion, and loneliness.
This study extends on existing research and highlights the necessity for future intervention models of suicide to move beyond an individual focus, and consider factors at all levels of refugees’ social-ecology. Simply focusing treatment at the individual level is not sufficient. Researchers and practitioners should strive for community-driven, culturally relevant, socio-ecological approaches for prevention and treatment.
Using a sample survey from Vietnam's M&RRD, this study examines both the factors affecting smallholder households’ perceptions of climate change, and the impact of climatic change on smallholders’ income and land allocation decisions. Results show a significant and negative impact of perception of climate change on income of smallholder households. Smallholders with perceived climate changes reduce land allocated to paddy crop. Farmers make strategic decision to counter the negative effects of climate change by increasing the amount of rented land for paddy crop production, while at the same time decreasing the amount of owned land allocated to paddy crop.
Many women experience both vasomotor menopausal symptoms (VMS) and depressed mood at midlife, but little is known regarding the prospective bi-directional relationships between VMS and depressed mood and the role of sleep difficulties in both directions.
A pooled analysis was conducted using data from 21 312 women (median: 50 years, interquartile range 49−51) in eight studies from the InterLACE consortium. The degree of VMS, sleep difficulties, and depressed mood was self-reported and categorised as never, rarely, sometimes, and often (if reporting frequency) or never, mild, moderate, and severe (if reporting severity). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the bi-directional associations adjusted for within-study correlation.
At baseline, the prevalence of VMS (40%, range 13–62%) and depressed mood (26%, 8–41%) varied substantially across studies, and a strong dose-dependent association between VMS and likelihood of depressed mood was found. Over 3 years of follow-up, women with often/severe VMS at baseline were more likely to have subsequent depressed mood compared with those without VMS (odds ratios (OR) 1.56, 1.27–1.92). Women with often/severe depressed mood at baseline were also more likely to have subsequent VMS than those without depressed mood (OR 1.89, 1.47–2.44). With further adjustment for the degree of sleep difficulties at baseline, the OR of having a subsequent depressed mood associated with often/severe VMS was attenuated and no longer significant (OR 1.13, 0.90–1.40). Conversely, often/severe depressed mood remained significantly associated with subsequent VMS (OR 1.80, 1.38–2.34).
Difficulty in sleeping largely explained the relationship between VMS and subsequent depressed mood, but it had little impact on the relationship between depressed mood and subsequent VMS.
Titania nanotubes were prepared by anodic oxidation of Ti. The titania surfaces were partially coated with Zn by reacting zinc acetate with the nanotubes and then annealed.  An annealed nanotube cluster was placed carefully on a silicon wafer using tweezers. Secondary electron images were acquired by bombarding with Cs+ and observing the ejected OZn- and OTi- respectively. The SIMS analysis was done in ultra-high vacuum (∼ 10-10 Torr). The location of before and after the SIMS analysis was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Specific areas with various orientations (vertical and horizontal orientations) of the nanotubes were selected for the NanoSIMS 50L analysis. The NanoSIMS 50L is made by Ametek Cameca, Gennevillieres, France and is capable of doing in situ isotopic analysis of surfaces at high spatial resolution (25 nm2). The average ZnO/TiO was ∼1.8%, confirming the actual content of Zn used during synthesis of the nanotubes. Qualitatively, the TiO/ZnO ratio increased with increasing depth implying that ZnO concentration was decreasing as we probed into the nanotubes.
Stem cell therapy has the optimistic goal of regenerating the myocardium as defined by re-growth of lost or destroyed myocardium. As applied to patients with heart failure, many confuse or limit the regenerative definition to just improving myocardial function and/or decreasing myocardial scar formation, which may not be the most important clinical outcome to achieve in this promising field of molecular medicine. Many different stem cell-based therapies have been tested and have demonstrated a safe and feasible profile in adult patients with heart failure, but with varied efficacious end points reported. Although not achieved as of yet, the encompassing goal to regenerate the heart is still believed to be within reach using these cell-based therapies in adult patients with heart failure, as the first-generation therapies are now being tested in different phases of clinical trials. Similar efforts to foster the translation of stem cell therapy to children with heart failure have, however, been limited. In this review, we aim to summarise the findings from pre-clinical models and clinical experiences to date that have focussed on the evaluation of stem cell therapy in children with heart failure. Finally, we present methodological considerations pertinent to the design of a stem cell-based trial for children with heart failure, as they represent a population of patients with very different sets of issues when compared with adult patients. As has been taught by many learned clinicians, children are not small adults!
The physical mechanisms responsible for electrically-induced parametric degradation in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors are examined using a combination of experiments, device simulation, and first-principles defect analysis. A relatively simple formulation is developed under the assumption that the hot-electron scattering cross-section is independent of the electron energy. In this case, one can relate the change in defect concentration to the operational characteristics of a device, such as the spatial and energy distribution of electrons (electron temperature), electric field distribution, and electron energy loss to the lattice.
In order to understand enhanced mechanical properties of magnesium-yttrium (Mg-Y) alloys, applied stresses which were required to operate independent plastic deformation mechanisms on various stress axes were evaluated. Moreover, for this analysis, mechanical tests including newly-established testing method “pure-shear test” were conducted to evaluate Critical Resolved Shear Stresses (CRSSes) for various plastic deformation mechanisms of Mg-Y solid solution alloy single crystals with various Y concentration. Relatively higher solid solution strengthening of dominant plastic deformation mechanisms such as basal slip and extension twin at room temperature, results in increase in the activation of non-basal slip system. By a simple analysis based on von-Mises criterion with experimental CRSS values, it is revealed that enhanced mechanical properties of Mg-Y alloys might be attributed to the decrease of difference in the activity of plastic deformation mechanisms by Y addition.
In India, rotavirus infections cause the death of 98621 children each year. In urban neighbourhoods in Delhi, children were followed up for 1 year to estimate the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis and common genotypes. Infants aged ⩽1 week were enrolled in cohort 1 and infants aged 12 months (up to +14 days) in cohort 2. Fourteen percent (30/210) gastroenteritis episodes were positive for rotavirus. Incidence rates of rotavirus gastroenteritis episodes in the first and second year were 0·18 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·10–0·27] and 0·14 (95% CI 0·07–0·21) episodes/child-year, respectively. The incidence rate of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in the first year of life was 0·05 (95% CI 0·01–0·10) episodes/child-year. There were no cases in the second year. The common genotypes detected were G1P (27%) and G9P (23%). That severe rotavirus gastroenteritis is common in the first year of life is relevant for planning efficacy trials.
Single-phase samples of YCrxFe1−xO3 were synthesized by a mechanochemical method. X-ray diffraction data show linear reduction in the lattice parameters of YCrxFe1−xO3 perovskites with the Cr content, indicating that Cr ions substitute for Fe ions to form a solid solution. Magnetic measurements show hysteresis loops at 5K. The substitution of Cr for Fe enhances the magnetization for up to x=0.33 Cr doping level. For higher doping levels, 0.33<x<1, the system behaves as a frustrated system. At x=1, YCrO3 behaves as a week ferromagnet with TN ~140 K. The chloride salt based machenochemical method offers simple synthesis route for the synthesis of pure multiferroic compounds.
The cultivar Ajaya (IET 8585) exhibits durable broad-spectrum resistance to bacterial blight (BB) disease of rice and is widely used as a resistance donor. The present study was carried out to decipher the genetics of BB resistance in Ajaya and map the gene(s) conferring resistance. Genetic analysis in the F2 indicated a quantitative/additive nature of resistance governed by two loci with equal effects. Linked marker analysis and allelic tests revealed that one of the resistance genes is xa5. Sequence analysis of a 244 bp region of the second exon of the gene-encoding Transcription factor IIAγ (the candidate gene for xa5) confirmed the presence of xa5. Bulked-segregant analysis (BSA) revealed the putative location of the two quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/genes associated with resistance on chromosomes 5 and 8. Composite interval mapping located the first locus on Chr. 5S exactly in the genomic region spanned by xa5 and the second locus (qtl BBR 8.1) on Chr. 8L. Owing to its differential disease reaction with a set of seven hyper-virulent isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae, a map location on Chr. 8L, which was distinct from xa13 and data from allelism tests, the second resistance locus in Ajaya was determined to be novel and was designated as xaAj. A contig map spanning xaAj was constructed in silico and the genomic region was delimited to a 13·5 kb physical interval. In silico analysis of the genomic region spanning xaAj identified four putatively expressed candidate genes, one of which could be involved in imparting BB resistance in Ajaya along with xa5.
In this paper, we have constructed some cosmological models which satisfy the present day observational data and the
initial conditions as proposed by Sivaram et al. (Brans & Dicke
1961) with additional requirements
G ∝ tn & Λ∝ tn, Gρ/Λ as a constant along with study of big-rip scenerio.
Osteopontin, a glycoprotein, is expressed in several tissues including the mammary gland. The gene has been reported to be associated with milk and its constituents in various livestock species. This gene was sequenced in buffalo and it coded for the protein of 280 amino acids with the conserved GRGDS domain. The sequence was confirmed from the cDNA sequence derived from the mammary gland of buffalo. The earlier-reported 9T/10T variation in the upstream region of the gene was investigated for its effect on milk in buffalo and it was found to be non-significant.
Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) being biocompatible and chemically stable have great potential for bio-medical applications that includes anti-bacterial and mold prevention, air ventilation and purification, water purification, self cleaning and photosynthesis, and disease detection. Also ZnO is a wide band gap semiconductor and exhibits piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties, which makes it a perfect candidate for building electrochemically coupled sensors and transducers. With all these unique properties, ZnO has the potential to be very important nanomaterial in material research area. Therefore, research, development, and production of ZnO nanoparticles would make notable contributions to the field of nanotechnology. In this paper we report a novel approach for the fabrication of ZnO nanoparticles suspension in deionized water at room temperature using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Particle size was controlled by the number of shots of the laser beam used. Characterization of the nanoparticles has been done using UV-Visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). UV-Visible study confirmed the existence of ZnO nanoparticles showing a peak at around 300 nm which is consistent with the absorption spectra of standard ZnO nanoparticles. Presence of ZnO was reconfirmed by the excitation and emission spectra obtained from fluorescence spectroscopy. The excitation and emission peaks were found at 305 nm and 410 nm respectively, strongly suggesting the characteristic peaks for ZnO nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) photographs established that we have successfully prepared ZnO nanoparticles suspension with particle size ranging from 6 nm to 90 nm.