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Growth of GaN by MOVPE on mismatched substrates such as sapphire or SiC produces a columnar material consisting of many hexagonal grains ~1 μm across. In contrast, the epitaxial-lateral-overgrowth (ELO) process creates a new material — single-crystal GaN. We have studied the ELO process using GaN/sapphire layers patterned with SiO2 stripes. SEM images show that the (0001) GaN surface remains very flat as the ELO progresses. Cathodoluminescence images at 590 nm reveal spotty yellow-green emission from the columnar GaN as it emerges from the window areas. Very bright 590 nm emission occurs as the ELO process begins. We associate this deep-level cathodoluminescence with the strain field that accompanies the conversion of columnar GaN into single-crystal GaN via the ELO process. As the ELO process continues across the SiO2 stripes, the 590 nm emission disappears and is replaced with pure band edge cathodoluminescence at 365 nm which is maintained until coalescence of adjacent ELO layers occurs near the centers of the SiO2 stripes.
We describe an investigation of 3 postoperative Gordonia bronchialis sternal infections. A nurse anesthetist was identified as the source of the outbreak, her scrubs likely becoming contaminated by her home washing machine. The outbreak ended after disposal of the implicated washing machine. Domestic laundering of surgical scrubs may need reevaluation.
A joint US/FRG nuclear waste repository simulation experiment was performed at the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The High Level Waste (HLW) disposal in boreholes was simulated by the simultaneous emplacement of electrical heaters and cobalt-60 sources at four individual test sites located in a special underground test room at the 800 m-level.
In order to resolve the issues of rock mass/waste package interaction the temperature field, brine migration into the heater boreholes, borehole gas pressure and composition, and rock mass stresses and displacements were monitored during the test. In order to validate computer code predictions the acquired data were compared to calculational results. Corrosion specimens remained in the heater boreholes during the course of the experiment and were afterwards examined.
The Fused Deposition of Ceramics (FDC) technique was used to fabricate ceramic skeletons for development of piezoelectric composite transducers for medical imaging. The green parts were designed in order to have 30 vol% of PZT-5H ceramic in the final composites. Physical characterization of the sintered samples revealed that 96% of the theoretical density was achieved. Optical microscopy showed that defects, such as small roads and bubbles were eliminated due to powder processing improvements. The electromechanical properties of the final composites were found to be similar to properties obtained for conventionally made composites.
Novel piezoelectric ceramic and ceramic/polymer composite structures were fabricated by solid freeform fabrication (SFF) for sensor and actuator applications. SFF techniques including fused deposition of ceramics (FDC) and Sanders prototyping (SP) were utilized to fabricate a variety of complex structures directly from a computer aided design (CAD) file. Novel composite structures including volume fraction gradients (VFG) and staggered rods, as well as actuator designs such as tubes, spirals and telescopes were made using the flexibility provided by the above processes. VFG composites were made by SP technique with the ceramic content decreasing from the center towards the edges. This resulted in a reduction of side lobe intensity in the acoustic beam pattern. The FDC technique was used to manufacture high authority actuators utilizing novel designs for the amplification of strain under applied electric field. The design, fabrication and electromechanical properties of these composite and actuator structures are discussed in this paper.
A scientific methodology to characterize the critical mechanical properties of feedstock material for fused deposition of ceramics has been developed. A detailed discussion of the methodology of mechanical characterization and results for lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fused deposition of ceramics (FDC) feedstock is presented. The effect of storage time, temperature and crosshead displacement rates on the mechanical properties of the PZT FDC feedstock was studied. The modulus and the failure stress increase with displacement rate. The modulus and failure stress decrease with temperature indicating the necessity for cooling filaments prior to entrance to liquefier. The modulus also decreases with storage time in 50% RH while failure strain increases with storage time in 50% RH.
Conversion efficiency of a solar energy in the electric is substantially determined not only by the total impurity concentration in solar cell element, but also by impurity chemical and physical state. Gettering processes, which are included in the technology of solar cell manufacturing, are usually used for such impurity redistribution. In order to optimize gettering processes we developed a program tool based on the fundamental physical and chemical laws. The description of physical and chemical behaviour of impurities in silicon is based both on known experimental data, and on calculations of necessary parameters by means of present-day thermodynamic and quantum-chemical methods. Developed tool helps to choose a gettering regime (a temperature profile, time, getter layer thickness) for optimization of these processes for the given initial chemical composition of the silicon wafer. Possibility of analysis of recombination activity of various types of defects in silicon on the basis of carrier lifetime criterion allows to obtain an estimation of efficiency of the gettering processes. Using this program tool we demonstrated that solar cell efficiency can be significantly increased by optimal choice of gettering conditions.
Let V be a class of similar algebras. An algebra is V-injective provided and whenever and fis a one-to-one homomorphism from into and g is a homomorphism from into , then there is a homomorphism h from into such that h º f = g. So is injective provided all diagrams of the following sort can be completed.
Dually, is V-projective provided and whenever and f is a homomorphism from onto and g is a homomorphism from into , then there is a homomorphism h from into such that f º h = g. So is projective provided all diagrams of the following sort can be completed:
This usage of the words “projective” and “injective” differs somewhat from the usage current in category theory.
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