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Asthma-obesity is a multifactorial disease with specific asthma phenotypes that aggravate due to overweight and an unbalanced diet. Furthermore, obese asthmatic patients are corticotherapy-resistant. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of an interdisciplinary intervention on food consumption, body composition, lung function and adipokines in asthmatic and non-asthmatic obese adolescents and to investigate the influence of nutrients on lung function. Obese non-asthmatic (n 42) and obese asthmatic (n 21) adolescents of both sexes were enrolled in the present study. Food intake, adipokine levels, body composition, asthma symptoms and lung function were assessed across the study. After the intervention of 1 year, there was a reduction (P ≤ 0·01) in BMI, body fat percentage, visceral and subcutaneous fat and an increase (P ≤ 0·01) in lean mass and all lung function variables in both groups, except the relation between forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity (FEV1:FVC) in non-asthmatic patients. Moreover, both groups decreased lipid and cholesterol consumption (P ≤ 0·01). The highest energy consumption (β = −0·021) was associated with lower values of FVC. Similarly, carbohydrate consumption (β = −0·06) and cholesterol were negative predictors (β = −0·05) in FEV1:FVC. However, the consumption of Ca (β = 0·01), fibres (β = 1·34) and vitamin A (β = 0·01) were positive predictors of FEV1:FVC. Asthma-obesity interdisciplinary treatment promoted an improvement on food consumption and lung function in adolescents and demonstrated that the consumption of nutrients influenced an increase in lung function.
What are protest politics and social movement activism today? What are their main features? To what extent can street citizens be seen as a force driving social and political change? Through analyses of original survey data on activists themselves, Marco Giugni and Maria T. Grasso explain the character of contemporary protest politics that we see today - the diverse motivations, social characteristics, values and networks that draw activists to engage politically to tackle the pressing social problems of our time. The study analyzes left-wing protest culture as well as the characteristics of protest politics, from the motivations of street citizens to how they become engaged in demonstrations to the causes they defend and the issues they promote, from their mobilizing structures to their political attitudes and values, as well as other key aspects such as their sense of identity within social movements, their perceived effectiveness, and the role of emotions for protest participation.
In a large and comprehensively assessed sample of patients with bipolar disorder type I (BDI), we investigated the prevalence of psychotic features and their relationship with life course, demographic, clinical, and cognitive characteristics. We hypothesized that groups of psychotic symptoms (Schneiderian, mood incongruent, thought disorder, delusions, and hallucinations) have distinct relations to risk factors.
In a cross-sectional study of 1342 BDI patients, comprehensive demographical and clinical characteristics were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) interview. In addition, levels of childhood maltreatment and intelligence quotient (IQ) were assessed. The relationships between these characteristics and psychotic symptoms were analyzed using multiple general linear models.
A lifetime history of psychotic symptoms was present in 73.8% of BDI patients and included delusions in 68.9% of patients and hallucinations in 42.6%. Patients with psychotic symptoms showed a significant younger age of disease onset (β = −0.09, t = −3.38, p = 0.001) and a higher number of hospitalizations for manic episodes (F11 338 = 56.53, p < 0.001). Total IQ was comparable between groups. Patients with hallucinations had significant higher levels of childhood maltreatment (β = 0.09, t = 3.04, p = 0.002).
In this large cohort of BDI patients, the vast majority of patients had experienced psychotic symptoms. Psychotic symptoms in BDI were associated with an earlier disease onset and more frequent hospitalizations particularly for manic episodes. The study emphasizes the strength of the relation between childhood maltreatment and hallucinations but did not identify distinct subgroups based on psychotic features and instead reported of a large heterogeneity of psychotic symptoms in BD.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The aims of this study are (1) to develop and characterize a novel nonhuman primate model of pneumococcal pneumonia that mimics human disease; and (2) determine whether Streptococcus pneumoniae can: (a) translocate to the heart, (b) cause adverse cardiac events, (c) induce cardiomyocyte death, and (d) lead to scar formation during severe pneumonia in baboons. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Six adult baboons (Papio cynocephalus) were surgically tethered to a monitoring system to continuously assess their heart rate, temperature, and electrocardiogram (ECG). A baseline transthoracic echocardiogram, 12-lead ECG, serum troponin-I levels, brain natriuretic peptide, and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (HFABP) levels were obtained before infection and at the end of the experiment to determine cardiovascular damage during pneumococcal pneumonia. Animals were challenged with 108 colony-forming units of S. pneumoniae in the right middle lobe using flexible bronchoscopy. Three baboons were rescued with ampicillin therapy (80 mg/kg/d) after the development of pneumonia. Cardiac damage was confirmed by examination of tissue sections using immunohistochemistry as well as electron and fluorescence microscopy. Western-blots and tissue staining were used to determine the presence of necroptosis (RIP3 and pMLKL) and apoptosis (Caspase-3) in the cardiac tissue. Cytokine and chemokine levels in the heart tissue were determined using Luminex technology. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Four males (57%) and three (43%) females were challenged. The median age of all baboons was 11 (IQR, 10-19) years old, which corresponds to a middle-aged human. Infected baboons consistently developed severe pneumonia. All animals developed systemic inflammatory response syndrome with tachycardia, tachypnea, fever, and leukocytosis. Infection was characterized by initial leukocytosis followed by severe leukopenia on day 3 postinoculation. Non-specific ischemic alterations by ECG (ST segment and T-wave flattering) and in the premortem echocardiogram were observed. The median (IQR) levels of troponin I and HFABP at the end of the experiment were 3550 ng/mL (1717–5383) and 916.9 ng/mL (520.8–1323), respectively. Severe cardiomyopathy was observed using TEM and H&E stains in animals with severe pneumonia. Necroptosis was detected in cardiomyocytes of infected animals by the presence of pMLKL and RIP3 in cardiac tissues. Signs of cardiac remodeling indicated by disorganized collagen deposition was present in rescued animals but not in the other animals. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We confirmed that baboons experience cardiac injury during severe pneumococcal pneumonia that is characterized by myocardial invasion, activation of necroptosis, and tissue remodeling in animals rescued by antimicrobial therapy. Cardiac damage by invading pneumococci may explain why adverse cardiac events that occur during and after pneumococcal pneumonia in adult human patients.