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CuInS2 (CIS) films were prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) method in air using CuCl2, InCl3 and SC(NH2)2 as precursor materials. The effect of the absorber growth temperature in the interval of 240-350 °C and precursors’ molar ratio in the spray solution on the CIS film properties and ZnO/In2S3/CIS-type CSP-deposited thin film solar cell output characteristics has been studied. CIS films were characterized by XRD and EDX, solar cells were characterized by IV curves in dark and under illumination, and junction barrier height (Φb). The highest Φb of 1170 meV and open circuit voltage (Voc) of 560 mV were recorded for the cell with CIS absorber grown at 250 °C. Increasing the CIS deposition temperature decreases Φb and Voc, makes a component of solar cell photosensitive and increases current density. The precursors’ molar ratio in spray solution becomes relevant at CIS growth temperatures higher than 300 °C as deposition of thiourea-rich solutions suppresses oxide formation in CIS layer and contributes to higher open circuit voltage.
While the thickness of ultramicrotomed sections is much more uniform than that of wedge-shaped foils, its variation is seen to be dependent on such factors as the type of material, use of embedding media, water bath interaction (anodic dissolution) and quality of the diamond knife edge. The latter also affects the thickness of surface oxides formed during sectioning. More deleterious surface layers are produced by partial breakdown and redeposition of embedding media under the electron beam. These artefacts indicate that ultramicrotomy is not the panacea for elemental X-ray mapping that might, at first thought, appear to be the case. For the example of a metal matrix composite, useable maps are obtainable, but even the best microtomed sections are limited in terms of mapping by factors such as the lengthy times for map acquisition caused by the low X-ray count rates resulting from thin specimens, particularly where low mass fractions are involved.
Highly structured layers comprising of vertically aligned zinc oxide rods, tripods or platelets were fabricated by spray pyrolysis method at temperatures of 510-550 °C. The zinc chloride solution was pulverized onto the preheated substrates of glass and ITO, SnO2, ZnO covered glass substrates with the help of compressed air as a carrier gas. ZnO layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. C-axis orientated ZnO nanorod arrays of well-developed hexagonal rods with length from some hundreds of nanometers up to some microns and with diameter from 70 nm up to 900 nm . The rise of both the growth temperature and solution concentration increases rod dimensions. Deposition of the solutions with the concentration of 0.05 up to 0.2 mol/l results in structured layers composed of rods on glass substrates. Using ITO, SnO2 and ZnO thin film covered glasses diluted solutions should be used to obtain ZnO nanorods. Alcoholic solutions allow deposit thinner rods and reduce the deposition temperature. Very strong and relatively narrow E2 Raman bands indicate that ZnO rods prepared by spray pyrolysis technique are of high crystal quality.
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