To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Parkinson's disease (PD), PD dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy body (DLB), collectively termed Lewy body disease (LBD), characterize an array of emotional, neurobehavioral and cognitive symptoms. Pure psychiatric presentation (PPP) of LBD is the fourth subtype of LBD in which psychiatric symptoms lasted for many years in the absence of neurological disturbance.
The aim of this study is to localize the PPP and its clinical characteristics in subjects with low uptake of myocardial metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) study.
Sixty MIBG-verified patients (28 women and 32 men) were grouped into three psychiatric pictures; depression (group D: 27 patients), isolated visual hallucinations (group V: 16 patients) and psychotic picture (group P: 17 patients). Fifty six cases were examined with cerebral single photon emission tomography study. Thirty-seven cases had hypoperfusion regions and 19 cases showed no abnormality. Final diagnoses of PD, PDD, DLB and PPP were evaluated with an aid of DSM-IV-TR, UPDRS part III, the Hoehn and Yahr Scale, MMSE and the movement disorder society task force diagnostic criteria.
Three clusters, PDD and Group P, DLB and Group V, and Group D and PPP-PD were found significantly with correspondence analysis. UPDRS average score showed negative correlation with average MMSE scores. All patients with PPP and majority of patients with PD featured depression.
PPP subjects are considered to be incidental LBD or depression of pre-motor PD. Psychotic parkinsonian features contributed highly to dementia of LBD, and visual hallucination was closely associated with DLB.
In this paper, a colloidal solution of copper nanoparticles was prepared from a Cu ion aqueous solution with the protein casein surfactant by a liquid phase reduction method at low temperature below 373K. For the casein concentration ranging from 6g/L to 75g/L, the formation of copper nanoparticle colloid were observed. As a result, the peak was observed at the ranging of 450 to 650 nm corresponding to the copper nanoparticle colloid plasmon absorption. As the surfactant concentration increases, the absorption spectrum tends to blue-shift and the particle diameter decreases. Thus, it indicated that the optical property and particle diameter of copper nanoparticle colloidal solution will be controlled by the protein casein surfactant concentration.
We fabricated Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells by a printing and high-pressure sintering (PHS) process. First, the CZTSSe solid solution powders were synthesized by heating the elemental mixtures at 550oC for 5 h in an N2 gas atmosphere. We fabricated CZTSSe films by a printing and high-pressure sintering (PHS) process. The obtained dense CZTSSe film was post-annealed at 550oC for 10 min under an N2 +5% H2S gas atmosphere. We fabricated CZTSSe solar cells with the device structure of Ag/ITO/i-ZnO/CdS/CZTSSe/Mo/soda-lime glass. The CZTSSe solar cell showed an efficiency of 2.1%, with Voc of 272 mV, Jsc of 18.0 mA/cm2 and FF of 0.44.
We have investigated the migration energy of Cd atom in CuInSe2 (CIS) with a Cu vacancy by first-principles calculations. The activation energy of Cd migration in CIS and migration pathways are obtained by means of the combination of linear and quadratic synchronous transit (LST/QST) methods and nudged elastic band (NEB) method. The theoretical migration energy of Cd atom in CIS is 0.99 eV. The migration energy of Cd atom (Cd→VCu) in CIS is comparable to that of Cu migration (Cu→VCu) in CIS (1.06 eV). This result indicates that Cd diffusion in CIS easily occurs like Cu diffusion.
The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) Study was designed to clarify the incidence of and predictive and immunological factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based Japanese population. As part of this series, a total of 5683 residents aged ⩾50 years received a varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin test with VZV antigen, and 48 h later, the erythema and oedema were assessed by measuring the longest diameter. The diameters of both the erythema and oedema decreased with the increasing age of the subject. Sixty-three subjects contracted herpes zoster within a year after receiving the VZV skin test. Analysis of the herpes zoster incidence rate vs. the skin test reaction revealed that the shorter the diameter of erythema or oedema, the greater the likelihood of herpes zoster. These results demonstrated that the VZV skin test is an excellent surrogate marker for predicting the risk of herpes zoster.
The gullet worm (Gongylonema pulchrum) has been recorded from a variety of mammals worldwide, including monkeys and humans. Due to its wide host range, it has been suggested that the worm may be transmitted locally to any mammalian host by chance. To investigate this notion, the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA), mainly regions of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 2, and a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region of mitochondrial DNA of G. pulchrum were characterized using parasites from the following hosts located in Japan: cattle, sika deer, wild boars, Japanese macaques, a feral Reeves's muntjac and captive squirrel monkeys. The rDNA nucleotide sequences of G. pulchrum were generally well conserved regardless of their host origin. However, a few insertions/deletions of nucleotides along with a few base substitutions in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions were observed in G. pulchrum from sika deer, wild boars and Japanese macaques, and those differed from G. pulchrum in cattle, the feral Reeves's muntjac and captive squirrel monkeys. The COI sequences of G. pulchrum were further divided into multiple haplotypes and two groups of haplotypes, i.e. those from a majority of sika deer, wild boars and Japanese macaques and those from cattle and zoo animals, were clearly differentiated. Our findings indicate that domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles of the gullet worm are currently present, at least in Japan.
Changes in critical current properties depending on growth temperature (Ts) were clarified for Ba-Nb-O-doped YBa2Cu3Oy (Y123) films deposited by YAG- and excimer-PLD. Due to the introduction of Ba-Nb-O-nanorods, a vortex-Bose-glass-like behavior emerged as irreversibility lines and in-field critical current densities (Jcs) were improved. Crossover magnetic fields (Bcr) and in-field Jcs increased with the increase in Ts for the Y123 films with nanorods. These Ts-dependent critical current properties were attributable to the changes in morphology of the nanorods with Ts and were independent of laser source in PLD apparatuses. For the fabrication of RE123 coated conductors containing nanorods, optimization of Ts with taking both materials of RE123 matrix and nanorod into account is necessary to achieve higher in-field Jc.
The microstructure change of the uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuels (MOX fuels) irradiated in a fast reactor occurs because of a radial temperature gradient. To make detailed observations and elemental analyses of fuel samples, a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) equipped with a wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (WDX) was installed in a hot laboratory.
Because fuel samples have high radioactivities and emit α-particles, the instrument was modified as follows :
1)The instrument was attached to a remote control air-tight sample transfer unit between a shielded hot cell and the FE-SEM.
2)The FE-SEM was installed in a lead shield box and the control unit was separately located outside the box.
After the installation, the microscopy and elemental analyses were applied to low burnup fuel samples. High resolution images were obtained and characteristic X-rays (U, Pu, and so on) emitted from the sample surface were measured. The technique has the great advantage of being able to evaluate the irradiated fuels in detail. In future work, samples of even higher radioactive will be observed and analyzed.
A super-Chandrasekhar (SC) supernova (SN) has an extremely high luminosity and a slow decline rate of the light curve in the early-phase. We present late-phase observations of the SC SN 2009dc. We find that the optical luminosity a year after maximum is much fainter than that expected from its early luminosity. We attempt to fit the analytic light curve model to the observations using Arnett's rule. The model successfully explains the light curves until 120 days. This suggests that the extremely high luminosity originates from the 56Ni decay. We suggest that the late-phase decline would be caused by dust formation. The existence of strong carbon features in early-phase spectra would support this scenario. We also find a blend of [Ca ii] and [Ni ii] in its late-phase spectrum. This indicates that the calcium is distributed in the inner layer along with nickel and iron. We conclude that the mixing may occur in the inner parts of the ejecta.
In the trough silicon via (TSV) structure for 3-dimensional integration (3DI), large thermal-mechanical stress acts in the TSV caused by the mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of the TSV materials. In this study, the stress of multi-stacked thin silicon wafers composed of copper TSV and copper/low-k BEOL structure was analyzed by the finite element method (FEM), aiming to reduce the stress of TSV of 3D-IC. The results of sensitivity analysis using design of experiment (DOE) indicated that the thickness of the silicon and adhesive layer are the key factors for the structural integration of TSV design.
Previous studies of rod photoreceptors in vivo have employed
a paired-flash electroretinographic (ERG) technique to determine rod
response properties. To test whether absence versus presence of
the ERG b-wave affects the photoreceptor response derived by the
paired-flash method, we examined paired-flash-derived responses obtained
from nob mice, a mutant strain with a defect in signal
transduction between photoreceptors and ON bipolar cells that causes a
lack of the b-wave. Normal littermates of the nob mice
served as controls. The normalized amplitude-intensity relation of the
derived response determined in nob mice at the near-peak time of
86 ms was similar to that determined for the controls. The full time
course of the derived rod response was obtained for test flash strengths
ranging from 0.11 to 17.38 scotopic cd s m−2 (sc cd s
m−2). Time-course data obtained from nob and
control mice exhibited significant but generally modest differences. With
saturating test flash strengths, half-recovery times for the derived
response of nobversus control mice differed by ∼60
ms or less about the combined (nob and control) average
respective values. Time course data also were obtained before
versus after intravitreal injection of
l-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (APB) (which blocks transmission
from photoreceptors to depolarizing bipolar cells) and of cis
2,3-piperidine dicarboxylic acid (PDA) (which blocks transmission to OFF
bipolar cells, and to horizontal, amacrine and ganglion cells). Neither
APB nor PDA substantially affected derived responses obtained from
nob or control mice. The results provide quantitative information
on the effect of b-wave removal on the paired-flash-derived
response in mouse. They argue against a substantial skewing effect of the
b-wave on the paired-flash-derived response obtained in normal
mice and are consistent with the notion that, to good approximation, this
derived response represents the isolated flash response of the
photoreceptors in both nob and normal mice.
We discuss a 9-month-old male baby, submitted to surgery for correction of aortic coarctation, who showed severe bronchospasm, hypoxaemia, and cardio-respiratory arrest, and who died on the fifth postoperative day. The autopsy revealed histological signs of severe pulmonary vasoconstriction, possibly as a consequence of hypoxaemia secondary to bronchiolitis due to infection with the respiratory syncytial virus. This supposition was confirmed when viruses were detected in pulmonary tissue by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.
We have theoretically evaluated the phase stability and electronic structure of a Zn1-xMgxO solid solution. The enthalpies of formation for both the wurtzite and rocksalt phases of Zn1-xMgxO were calculated using a plane-wave pseudopotential method within the density functional formalism. For 0 < x < 0.5, the calculated enthalpies of formation (&[Delta]H) for the wurtzite phases were lower than those for the rocksalt phases. On the other hand, for x > 0.75, the &[Delta]H values for the wurtzite phase were larger than those for the rocksalt phases. This indicates that the wurtzite phase is more stable for a Zn1-xMgxO solid solution with 0 < x < 0.5, while the rocksalt phase is more stable for a solid solution with x > 0.75. The band gaps of a wurtzite Zn1-xMgxO solid solution increase with increasing Mg content. MgO substitution on Zn1-xMgxO largely affects the conduction band leaving the valence band nearly unchanged. The conduction band minimum (CBM) shifted to higher energy with increasing Mg content. These theoretical results qualitatively agree with the experimental results for Zn1-xMgxO thin films fabricated by RF magnetron co-sputtering.
The properties of the best-observed peculiar, SN 1998bw-like Type Ic supernovae (sometimes called “hypernovae” ) are reviewed, starting from SN 1998bw itself and including SNe 1997ef and 2002ap. Analysis of the light curves and the spectra shows that, while these SNe display a range of properties (kinetic energy, mass of the ejecta, mass of 56Ni synthesized in the explosion), they have in common a larger-than-normal explosion kinetic energy, giving rise to the characteristic broad-lined spectra. Also, they all come from the collapse of bare CO cores of massive ( ≳ 20M⊙) progenitor stars. Some of the properties of these SNe, such as kinetic energy and mass of 56Ni, are probably correlated with the mass of the progenitor. Evidence that these powerful events are intrinsically asymmetric, suggesting that a correlation with at least some gamma-ray bursts can be expected, is also discussed.
Stars more massive than ~ 20 − 25 M⊙ form a black hole at the end of their evolution. Stars with non-rotating black holes are likely to collapse “quietly” ejecting a small amount of heavy elements (faint supernovae). In contrast, stars with rotating black holes are likely to give rise to very energetic supernovae (hypernovae). We present distinct nucleosynthesis features of these two types of “black-hole-forming” supernovae. Nucleosynthesis in hypernovae is characterized by larger abundance ratios (Zn, Co, V, Ti)/Fe and smaller (Mn, Cr)/Fe than normal supernovae, which can explain the observed trend of these ratios in extremely metal-poor stars. Nucleosynthesis in faint supernovae is characterized by a large amount of fall-back. We show that the abundance pattern of the recently discovered most Fe-poor star, HE0107-5240, and other extremely metal-poor carbon-rich stars are in good accord with those of black-hole-forming supernovae, but not pair-instability supernovae. This suggests that black-hole-forming supernovae made important contributions to the early Galactic (and cosmic) chemical evolution. Finally we discuss the nature of first (Pop III) Stars.