The frequency of sporadic cases of hepatitis E in humans in developed countries has increased in recent years. The consumption of raw or undercooked pig liver-based products has been identified as an important source of human infection. The question of possible massive human exposure to this zoonotic agent has been raised by the high prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in swine herds. However, little is known about the epidemiology of HEV on pig farms. A retrospective study, based on a previous prevalence study of 185 farms, was conducted on 90 farms located in Western France, randomly selected from this database, to identify factors associated with the presence of HEV in pig livers and HEV seroprevalence in slaughter-age pigs. At least one HEV RNA-positive liver was found in 30% of the sampled farms while seroprevalence in slaughter-age pigs at the farm level reached almost 75%. Different factors were associated with the two conditions. The risk of having HEV-positive livers was increased by early slaughter, genetic background, lack of hygiene measures and surface origin of drinking water. High HEV seroprevalence was associated with mingling practices at the nursery stage and hygiene conditions. These results can be used to determine on-farm measures to reduce within-farm HEV spread and infection of slaughter-age pigs.