The effects of acute haemodilution, during prostaglandin E1 (PGE1)-induced hypotension, on the blood coagulation-fibrinolysis system were studied in 40 patients undergoing hip surgery. The patients were randomly divided into four groups of 10 patients each; Group A (control) received no induced hypotension or haemodilution, group B received hypotension alone, group C received haemodilution alone and group D received the combination of induced hypotension and haemodilution. Haemodilution in groups C and D was produced by drawing ≈ 1000 mL of blood and replacing it with the same amount of 6% hydroxyethyl starch. Induced hypotension in groups B and D was conducted with PGE1 and mean blood pressure was maintained at 55 mmHg. The mean dosage of PGE1 was 648 mug in group B and 661 mug in group D. In the control and PGE1-induced hypotension groups there was no significant change in platelet count (PLT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromoplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen (FIB), antithrombin-III (AT-III) or plasminogen (PLG). Haemodilution alone caused significant decreases in PLT (−43%), PT (+21%), FIB (−33%), AT-III (−21%) and PLG (−27%), and a significant increase in aPTT (+26%), whereas the combination of PGE1-induced hypotension did not cause any further change in these parameters. Serum-fibrin degradation products (FDP) significantly increased (+300%) and PLG significantly decreased (−30%) after surgery in all groups. It can be concluded that acute haemodilution to a haematocrit value of 22 ± 2% causes a slight coagulopathy, which is not enhanced when combined with PGE1-induced hypotension.