To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To improve heat transfer, the Medivance Arctic Sun® Temperature Management System (Medivance, Inc., Louisville, CO, USA) features an adhesive, water-conditioned, highly conductive hydrogel pad for intimate skin contact. This study measured and compared the heat transfer coefficient (h), i.e. heat transfer efficiency, of this pad (hPAD), in a heated model and in nine volunteers’ thighs; and of 10°C water (hWATER) in 33 head-out immersions by 11 volunteers.
Volunteer studies had ethical approval and written informed consent. Calibrated heat flux transducers measured heat flux (W m−2). Temperature gradient (ΔT) was measured between skin and pad or water temperatures. Temperature gradient was changed through the pad’s water temperature controller or by skin cooling on immersion.
The heat transfer coefficient is the slope of W m−2/ΔT: its unit is W m−2 °C−1. Average with (95% CI) was: model, hPAD = 110.4 (107.8–113.1), R2 = 0.99, n = 45; volunteers, hPAD = 109.8 (95.5–124.1), R2 = 0.83, n = 51; and water immersion, hWATER = 107.1 (98.1–116), R2 = 0.86, n = 94.
The heat transfer coefficient for the pad was the same in the model and volunteers, and equivalent to hWATER. Therefore, for the same ΔT and heat transfer area, the Arctic Sun’s heat transfer rate would equal water immersion. This has important implications for body cooling/rewarming rates.