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We present an in-depth study of metal-poor stars, based high resolution spectra combined with newly released astrometric data from Gaia, with special attention to observational uncertainties. The results are compared to those of other studies, including Gaia benchmark stars. Chemical evolution models are discussed, highlighting few puzzles that are still affecting our understanding of stellar nucleosynthesis and of the evolution of our Galaxy.
Invariant solutions of shear flows have recently been extended from spatially periodic solutions in minimal flow units to spatially localized solutions on extended domains. One set of spanwise-localized solutions of plane Couette flow exhibits homoclinic snaking, a process by which steady-state solutions grow additional structure smoothly at their fronts when continued parametrically. Homoclinic snaking is well understood mathematically in the context of the one-dimensional Swift–Hohenberg equation. Consequently, the snaking solutions of plane Couette flow form a promising connection between the largely phenomenological study of laminar–turbulent patterns in viscous shear flows and the mathematically well-developed field of pattern-formation theory. In this paper we present a numerical study of the snaking solutions of plane Couette flow, generalizing beyond the fixed streamwise wavelength of previous studies. We find a number of new solution features, including bending, skewing and finite-size effects. We establish the parameter regions over which snaking occurs and show that the finite-size effects of the travelling wave solution are due to a coupling between its fronts and interior that results from its shift-reflect symmetry. A new winding solution of plane Couette flow is derived from a strongly skewed localized equilibrium.
Sixteen lambs were divided into two groups and fed two different diets. Eight lambs were stall-fed with a concentrate-based diet (C), and the remaining eight lambs were allowed to graze on Lolium perenne (G). The antioxidant status was measured in the liver and plasma samples before and after solid-phase extraction (SPE) to probe the antioxidant effects that grass phenolic compounds may have conferred onto the animal tissues. The liver and plasma samples from grass-fed lambs displayed a greater antioxidant capacity than the tissues from C lamb group, but only if samples had not been passed through SPE cartridges. Finally, the feed and animal tissues, which had been purified by SPE, were analysed by liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (LC–MS) to identify phenolic compounds present in L. perenne and to evaluate the results from the antioxidant assays. It would appear that the improvement of the antioxidant capacity of lamb liver and plasma from lambs fed ryegrass was not related to the direct transfer of phenolic compounds from grass to the animal tissues.
Foods and dietary patterns that enhance satiety may provide benefit to consumers. The aim of the present review was to describe, consider and evaluate research on potential benefits of enhanced satiety. The proposal that enhanced satiety could only benefit consumers by a direct effect on food intake should be rejected. Instead, it is proposed that there is a variety of routes through which enhanced satiety could (indirectly) benefit dietary control or weight-management goals. The review highlights specific potential benefits of satiety, including: providing appetite control strategies for consumers generally and for those who are highly responsive to food cues; offering pleasure and satisfaction associated with low-energy/healthier versions of foods without feeling ‘deprived’; reducing dysphoric mood associated with hunger especially during energy restriction; and improved compliance with healthy eating or weight-management efforts. There is convincing evidence of short-term satiety benefits, but only probable evidence for longer-term benefits to hunger management, possible evidence of benefits to mood and cognition, inadequate evidence that satiety enhancement can promote weight loss, and no evidence on which consumers would benefit most from satiety enhancement. The appetite-reducing effects of specific foods or diets will be much more subtle than those of pharmaceutical compounds in managing hunger; nevertheless, the experience of pharmacology in producing weight loss via effects on appetite suggests that there is potential benefit of satiety enhancement from foods incorporated into the diet to the consumer.
The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) is carrying out a survey as part of an international collaboration to image the northe, at a common resolution, in emission from all major constituents of the interstellar medium; the neutral atomic gas, the molecular gas, the ionised gas, dust and relativistic plasma. For many of these constituents the angular resolution of the images (1 arcmin) will be more than a factor of 10 better than any previous studies. The aim is to produce a publicly-available database of high resolution, high-dynamic range images of the Galaxy for multi-phase studies of the physical states and processes in the interstellar medium. We will sketch the main scientific motivations as well as describe some preliminary results from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey/Releve Canadien du Plan Galactique (CGPS/RCPG).
The Magellanic System represents one of the best places to study the formation and evolution of galaxies. Photometric surveys of various depths, areas and wavelengths have had a significant impact on our understanding of the system; however, a complete picture is still lacking. VMC (the VISTA near-infrared YJKs survey of the Magellanic System) will provide new data to derive the spatially resolved star formation history and to construct a three-dimensional map of the system. These data combined with those from other ongoing and planned surveys will give us an absolutely unique view of the system opening up the doors to truly new science!
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
Selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of silicon-germanium (SiGe) films on patterned-oxide silicon substrates, using a tubular hot-wall low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system, is demonstrated in this study. This conventional system is proposed as a low cost alternative for SiGe epitaxial growth. Three process improvements needed to achieve quality growth are discussed. First, the hydrogen bake process is modified to eliminate Ge-outgassing. Secondly, a Si SEG buffer layer is deposited prior to SiGe SEG. Finally, a small flow of dichlorosilane is introduced during the temperature ramp-down period prior to SiGe SEG. The growth results are discussed in terms of growth selectivity, thickness uniformity, growth rate, defect density, SiGe film composition, and electrical properties.
The interaction of a Cl2 plasma with a Si(100) surface has been investigated by angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and spectroscopic ellipsometry. From XPS, it was found that the amount of chlorine incorporated at the Si surface increases with ion energy. Chlorine is present as SiClx (x = 1-3) with average relative coverages (integrated over depth) of [SiCl]:[SiCl2]:[SiCl3] ≅ 1:0.33:0.1. These relative coverages don’t depend strongly on ion energy between 40 and 280 eV. Real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements showed that the layer present during etching is stable when the plasma is extinguished and the gas pumped away. In addition, the equivalent thickness of damaged silicon and silicon-chloride within the surface layer increases with ion energy.
Currently, there are no direct-bandgap alloy semiconductors that can be grown lattice-matched to GaP substrates. A strained layer of GaInP can be grown on GaP, however, with difficulties. First, GaInP is an indirect-bandgap material for In concentrations up to ∼30%. Second, the band alignment between GaInP and GaP is type-II for In concentrations up to ∼60%. The Mathews-Blakeslee critical thickness of GaInP layer on GaP is prohibitively small in the useful In concentration range. GaInP is known to grow in an ordered phase in certain growth conditions. By changing the growth conditions, a heterojunction of ordered GaInP and disordered GaInP can be grown. The conduction band offset going from a disordered GaInP phase to an ordered GaInP phase has been reported to be about 150 meV. Using a layer of ordered GaInP, a QW with type-I band alignment may be grown on GaP for a wider range of composition.
We have grown a series of approximately 60 Å thick GaP/GaInP/GaP strained quantum wells of various compositions using OMVPE. Strong photoluminescence, which exhibited an unusual temperature dependence, has been observed on many samples. A study of the QW’s using X-ray diffraction, TEM, and variable temperature PL reveals behaviors consistent with direct bandgap GaInP quantum wells containing ordered and disordered domains.
A series of three lead borosilicate glasses were synthesized and analyzed for structural information with both 11B and 207Pb solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods. Results showed that increasing lead content caused lead to take a more active role in the network as a former and that the populations in these sites can be approximately quantified. 207Pb phase-adjusted-spinning sidebands (PASS), 11B magic-angle spinning (MAS), and 11B multiple-quantum MAS (MQMAS) experiments were used to determine structural parameters for the two nuclei. The 207Pb PASS experiment showed that at higher lead content, more covalent bonding was present. This principle was demonstrated in both an overall shift of the spectral resonances and a quantitative change in site ratios. The 11B MAS experiment showed that the ratio of BO3 to BO4 units was dependent on the amount of lead and boron, consistent with previous studies. Preliminary 11B MQMAS experiments failed to detect any BO3– units, previously hypothesized to exist in this system.
Graphite intercalation compounds (GIC's) are metal-semimetal superlattices which exhibit crystalline order, and have atomically perfect interfaces between the layers of the constituent species. From the standpoint of superconductivity, the KHg-GIC's are particularly interesting. The preparation and properties of these compounds are described, along with a series of recent experiments with hydrogen doping which have helped to elucidate their electronic properties. A density of states model suggested by the results of the hydrogen–doping experiments is presented and used to explain the variation of the superconducting transition temperature in these materials.
Magneto—optic studies on InGaAs/GaAs and GaAs/GaPAs strained—layer superlattices are used to determine the in—plane light—hole valence—band effective masses. Also, hydrostatic pressure—dependent magneto—optic studies have been performed on these samples for magnetic fields up to 65 kG andpressures to 4 kbar in the temperature range of 1.6 - 4 K. The experimental pressure coefficients of the band—gap energy and the effective mass in the InGaAs/GaAsSLS structures were determined.
An etch pit study has been made on misfit dislocations in (111) HgCdTe-CdZnTe heterojunctions grown by liquid phase epitaxy. It was shown that misfit dislocations were localized at the original surface of the substrate, because Zn diffused into the epilayer during epitaxial growth prevents movement of dislocations. For lattice matching between Hg0 7Cd0.3Te and Cd1−yZnyTe, the optimum ZnTe mole fraction of Cd1−yZnyTe was found to be 2.9%.
By using a DLTS technique, we measured the drain current transient from a gate bias pulse for a HEMT. Two negative peaks and one positive peak were observed. From the analysis of the spectra, we found that the positive peak was due to the interface trap. The density of the interface trap was determined from a DLTS fitting procedure. The effect of the interface traps on the electrical properties of the heterostructure are discussed.