To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This article documents the development of a community-based drug intervention for low- to mild-risk drug users who surrendered as part of the Philippine government's anti-drug campaign. It highlights the importance of developing evidence-informed drug recovery interventions that are appropriate to the Asian culture and to developing economies. Interviews and consultations with users and community stakeholders reveal the need for an intervention that would improve the drug recovery skills and life skills of users. Evidence-based interventions were adapted using McKleroy and colleagues’ (2006) Map of Adaptation Process (MAP) framework. The resulting intervention reflected the country's collectivist culture, relational values, propensity for indirect and non-verbal communication, and interdependent self-construal. The use of small groups, interactive and creative methodologies, and the incorporation of music and prayer also recognised the importance of these in the Philippine culture.
The SPICA mid- and far-infrared telescope will address fundamental issues in our understanding of star formation and ISM physics in galaxies. A particular hallmark of SPICA is the outstanding sensitivity enabled by the cold telescope, optimised detectors, and wide instantaneous bandwidth throughout the mid- and far-infrared. The spectroscopic, imaging, and polarimetric observations that SPICA will be able to collect will help in clarifying the complex physical mechanisms which underlie the baryon cycle of galaxies. In particular, (i) the access to a large suite of atomic and ionic fine-structure lines for large samples of galaxies will shed light on the origin of the observed spread in star-formation rates within and between galaxies, (ii) observations of HD rotational lines (out to ~10 Mpc) and fine structure lines such as [C ii] 158 μm (out to ~100 Mpc) will clarify the main reservoirs of interstellar matter in galaxies, including phases where CO does not emit, (iii) far-infrared spectroscopy of dust and ice features will address uncertainties in the mass and composition of dust in galaxies, and the contributions of supernovae to the interstellar dust budget will be quantified by photometry and monitoring of supernova remnants in nearby galaxies, (iv) observations of far-infrared cooling lines such as [O i] 63 μm from star-forming molecular clouds in our Galaxy will evaluate the importance of shocks to dissipate turbulent energy. The paper concludes with requirements for the telescope and instruments, and recommendations for the observing strategy.
We describe the investigation of two temporally coincident illness clusters involving salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus in two states. Cases were defined as gastrointestinal illness following two meal events. Investigators interviewed ill persons. Stool, food and environmental samples underwent pathogen testing. Alabama: Eighty cases were identified. Median time from meal to illness was 5·8 h. Salmonella Heidelberg was identified from 27 of 28 stool specimens tested, and coagulase-positive S. aureus was isolated from three of 16 ill persons. Environmental investigation indicated that food handling deficiencies occurred. Colorado: Seven cases were identified. Median time from meal to illness was 4·5 h. Five persons were hospitalised, four of whom were admitted to the intensive care unit. Salmonella Heidelberg was identified in six of seven stool specimens and coagulase-positive S. aureus in three of six tested. No single food item was implicated in either outbreak. These two outbreaks were linked to infection with Salmonella Heidelberg, but additional factors, such as dual aetiology that included S. aureus or the dose of salmonella ingested may have contributed to the short incubation periods and high illness severity. The outbreaks underscore the importance of measures to prevent foodborne illness through appropriate washing, handling, preparation and storage of food.
We have carried out and recently reported VLBA multi-epoch water maser observations toward Cepheus A with an angular and velocity resolution of 0.5 mas and 0.2 km s−1, respectively. Some of the masers detected previously with the VLA (observations made with angular and velocity resolutions of 80 mas and 1.3 km s−1, respectively) are resolved now into linear/arcuate coherent “microstructures”. These structures, while smaller than the VLA beam, are 6-200 times the size of the VLBA synthesized beam. The morphology and the observed proper motions found in these structures imply three different centers of star formation activity in a region of ⋍ 0.3 radius (⋍ 200 AU). The most remarkable result from these observations is the discovery of an arc of water masers which is perfectly fitted by a circle to one part in a thousand. This arc is expanding and suggests a spherical “puff” of ejected material ejected 33 years ago from a protostar located 600 mas south of the radio jet HW2. This spherical ejection represents a very strong challenge for theoretical studies of star formation.
Air pollution in Mexico City, which has more than 22 million inhabitants, continues to be one of the main environmental issues. Aerosol samples (PM10) collected in Mexico City and the city of Cuernavaca (a clean reference site) have been characterized using different techniques. This multifaceted approach addresses the source apportionment of the carbonaceous matter in PM10, as well as the airborne elements and ions. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon analysis of total carbon, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and ion chromatography were performed on aerosols collected at three sites in Mexico City and one site in Cuernavaca, during 2 months of the cold-dry season (November–December) in 2012. New results obtained for Mexico City are compared with previous reports. Average levels of PM10 were higher in Mexico City sites (43.3–60.8 μg/m3) than in Cuernavaca (32.2 μg/m3). According to the material balance, PM10 collected in Mexico City had a lower contribution of crustal material (31.2–36.8%) than Cuernavaca (46.9%). Average contributions of particulate carbonaceous matter to PM10 were similar in both cities, but much higher contributions of mineral salts, trace elements, and ions were observed in Mexico City in comparison to Cuernavaca. Total organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) contents were higher in aerosols from Mexico City than those from Cuernavaca. The temporal variation results showed that within all locations studied the OC concentration was high compared to the EC. Results from a theoretical calculation of fossil carbon (FC) and biogenic carbon (BC) concentrations showed that FC and BC levels depend on the site: at Mexico City sites, FC was equal or higher than BC. At Cuernavaca, BC was always higher than FC.
Some key physical processes that impact the evolution of Earth's atmosphere on time-scale from days to millennia, such as the EUV emissions, are determined by the solar magnetic field. However, observations of the solar spectral irradiance are restricted to the last few solar cycles and are subject to large uncertainties. We present a physics-based model to reconstruct short-term solar spectral irradiance (SSI) variability. The coronal magnetic field is estimated to employ the Potential Field Source Surface extrapolation (PFSS) based on observational synoptic charts and magnetic flux transport model. The emission is estimated to employ the CHIANTI atomic database 8.0. The performance of the model is compared to the emission observed by TIMED/SORCE.
The density and temperature profiles in the solar corona are complex to describe, the observational diagnostics is not easy. Here we present a physics-based model to reconstruct the evolution of the electron density and temperature in the solar corona based on the configuration of the magnetic field imprinted on the solar surface. The structure of the coronal magnetic field is estimated from Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) based on magnetic field from both observational synoptic charts and a magnetic flux transport model. We use an emission model based on the ionization equilibrium and coronal abundances from CHIANTI atomic database 8.0. The preliminary results are discussed in details.
The magnetic flux emergence can help understand the physical mechanism responsible for solar atmospheric phenomena. Emerging magnetic flux is frequently related to eruptive events, because when emerging they can reconnected with the ambient field and release magnetic energy. We will use a physic-based model to reconstruct the evolution of the solar emission based on the configuration of the photospheric magnetic field. The structure of the coronal magnetic field is estimated by employing force-free extrapolation NLFFF based on vector magnetic field products (SHARPS) observed by HMI instrument aboard SDO spacecraft from Sept. 29 (2013) to Oct. 07 (2013). The coronal plasma temperature and density are described and the emission is estimated using the CHIANTI atomic database 8.0. The performance of the our model is compared to the integrated emission from the AIA instrument aboard SDO spacecraft in the specific wavelengths 171Å and 304Å.
First results from the 4-6 months observations of the VIRGO experiment (Variability of solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillations) on the ESA/NASA Mission SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) are reported. The time series are evaluated in terms of solar irradiance variability, solar background noise characteristics and p-mode oscillations. The solar irradiance is modulated by the passage of active regions across the disk, but not all of the modulation is straightforwardly explained in terms of sunspot flux blocking and facular enhancement. The observed p-mode frequencies are more-or-less in agreement with earlier measurements, but it is interesting to note that systematic differences seem to exist between the observations in different colours. There is also evidence that magnetic activity plays a significant role in the dynamics of the oscillations beyond its modulation of the resonant frequencies. Moreover, by comparing the amplitudes of different components of p-mode multiplets, each of which are influenced differently by spatial inhomogeneity, we have found that activity enhances excitation.
With the VLA in the D configuration we have mapped the (J,K) = (1,1) and (2,2) NH3 lines toward a molecular cloud core in NGC 2024. This region, which contains one of the most highly collimated molecular outflows (Richer et al. 1992), has been studied extensively using a variety of techniques, including dust continuum in the far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths (Mezger et al. 1988, 1992), and molecular lines (see Barnes & Crutcher 1992 and references therein). We find that the molecular condensations associated with FIR 5, 6, and 7 (Mezger et al. 1988, 1992) have kinetic temperatures TK ≃ 40 K. We also find a perturbation of the molecular gas near FIR 6 and FIR 7 in terms of broadening of the ammonia lines. These results suggest that these condensations may not be protostars heated by gravitational energy released during collapse, but that they have an internal heating source. A flattened structure of ammonia emission is found extending parallel to the unipolar CO outflow structure, but displaced systematically to the east. The location of the high velocity outflow along the surface of the NH3 structure suggests that a wind is sweeping material from the surface of this elongated cloud core. Figure 1 is an overlay of the VLA ammonia emission (dotted area) on top of the C18O emission (thick contours) and the CO outflow (thin contours).
In this work we shed new light in the nature of spiral arm structures in galaxies. We present a disk kinematic and dynamic study of MW like galaxies using complementary approaches: analytical models, test-particle simulations, pure N-body and cosmological N-body plus hydrodynamic simulations. Using collisionless N-body data we have found that models with strong bar present a flat rotation frequency, i.e. rigid body rotation, whereas in the opposite extreme case, i.e. in unbarred systems, spiral arms are disk corotant (Roca-Fàbrega et al. 2013). Complementary to this work, we discuss how the vertex deviation parameter is a good tracer of corotation (CR) and outer Lindblad resonance radius (OLR) (Roca-Fàbrega et al. 2014). We have succeeded to produce MW like models in fully cosmological N-body plus hydrodynamic simulations with a high resolution (Roca-Fàbrega et al., in preparation). First results concerning disk phase space properties in terms of spiral arm nature using these simulations are presented (http://www.am.ub.edu/ sroca/shared/PosterRocaFabrega.pdf).
We use a 3D test particle simulation evolved under a potential that includes a Galactic bar. The test particles are given the properties of the disc Red Clump stars in order to convolve with the Gaia errors and to generate a mock catalogue with the stars up to Gaia magnitude, G, 20. In this work, we work in the space of Gaia observables, that is, trigonometric parallaxes. Thus, we show first how the bar structure is mapped in the parallax cartesian space derived from (parallax, galactic longitude). Secondly, we show the effect of the magnitude cut and the introduction o the Gaia errors. Finally, we also consider other possible error sources, for instance from IR photometric distances.
Snuff trays are conspicuous objects that are found in archaeological contexts throughout Andean South America. At San Pedro de Atacama, in northern Chile, snuff trays that exhibit iconographic motifs similar to those found on Tiwanaku megalithic monuments have been assigned to the Tiwanaku style. In the present work, we propose a new definition for this style based on the occurrence of three morphological features: an overall trapezoidal shape, incurving sides, and sharp top corners. This group includes trays with iconography from the previously defined Tiwanaku style, as well as other trays without iconography. Principal component analysis shows that Tiwanaku-style trays with and without iconography make up a single group that is significantly different from plain, largely rectangular San Pedro-style trays. The relative proportion of Tiwanaku-style trays with and without iconography does not differ between cultural periods and archaeological sites. The results point to shape as an important trait for assigning trays to styles. Furthermore, the results show that during the Middle period four main types of snuff trays were in use: Tiwanaku trays with and without iconography and local San Pedro trays, also with and without iconography. We explore the possible social implications of this co-occurrence of styles.
Human salmonellosis linked to contact with live poultry is an increasing public health concern. In 2012, eight unrelated outbreaks of human salmonellosis linked to live poultry contact resulted in 517 illnesses. In July 2012, PulseNet, a national molecular surveillance network, reported a multistate cluster of a rare strain of Salmonella Braenderup infections which we investigated. We defined a case as infection with the outbreak strain, determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with illness onset from 25 July 2012–27 February 2013. Ill persons and mail-order hatchery (MOH) owners were interviewed using standardized questionnaires. Traceback and environmental investigations were conducted. We identified 48 cases in 24 states. Twenty-six (81%) of 32 ill persons reported live poultry contact in the week before illness; case-patients named 12 different MOHs from eight states. The investigation identified hatchery D as the ultimate poultry source. Sampling at hatchery D yielded the outbreak strain. Hatchery D improved sanitation procedures and pest control; subsequent sampling failed to yield Salmonella. This outbreak highlights the interconnectedness of humans, animals, and the environment and the importance of industry knowledge and involvement in solving complex outbreaks. Preventing these infections requires a ‘One Health’ approach that leverages expertise in human, animal, and environmental health.
PolarBase contains stellar spectropolarimetric data collected with the NARVAL & ESPaDOnS instruments (Petit et al. 2014). Their respective spectral resolutions are 65 000 and 68 000, in spectropolarimetric mode. As the first part of this work, we use the NARVAL spectropolarimetric repositories. We selected spectra from a sample of cool stars with effective Temperature (Teff) ranging between 4900 to 6000 K. This sample contains stellar systems with and without reported exoplanets. We exploit the full wavelength range from 380 to 900 nm in order to obtain chromospheric indexes such as the Ca ii H&K S-Index, and a Ca ii IRT and Hα index. We calibrated our measurements using the Mount Wilson S-Index values. Furthermore, we employ lithium (Li) abundance measurements from the literature (Gonzalez et al. 2010; Delgado Mena et al. 2014; Israelian et al. 2004), investigating in this way a possible correlation between the chromospheric activity measurements and the Li abundance in 32 selected cool stars.
An overview of the Czech national R&D project HiLASE (High average power pulsed laser) is presented. The project focuses on the development of advanced high repetition rate, diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) systems with energies in the range from mJ to 100 J and repetition rates in the range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. Some applications of these lasers in research and hi-tech industry are also presented.
Enhancing healthy fatty acids (FAs) in ewe milk fat and suckling lamb tissues is an important objective in terms of improving the nutritional value of these foods for the consumer. The present study examined the effects of feeding-protected lipid supplements rich in unsaturated FAs on the lipid composition of ewe milk, and subsequently in the muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissues of lambs suckling such milk. Thirty-six pregnant Churra ewes with their new-born lambs were assigned to one of three experimental diets (forage/concentrate ratio 50 : 50), each supplemented with either 3% Ca soap FAs of palm (Control), olive (OLI) or fish (FO) oil. The lambs were nourished exclusively by suckling for the whole experimental period. When the lambs reached 11 kg BW, they were slaughtered and samples were taken from the Longissimus dorsi and subcutaneous fat depots. Although milk production was not affected by lipid supplementation, the FO diet decreased fat content (P<0.001), whereas the OLI milk FA profile resembled that of the Control diet. In contrast, although FO drastically diminished the contents of stearic and oleic acids (P<0.001), all the saturated even-numbered carbon FAs from 6:0 to 14:0 increased (P<0.05). FO also produced the highest levels of c9,t11-18:2 (2.21%) and n-3 FAs, 20:5 n-3 (0.58%), 22:5 n-3 (0.48%) and 22:6 n-3 (0.40%). The high levels of trans-11 18:1 (7.10%) obtained from the FO diet would suggest that Ca soaps only confer partial protection in the rumen. In contrast, the lack of significant differences in trans-10 18:1 levels (P>0.05) and other trans-FAs between Control and FO treatments would indicate that FO treatment does not alter rumen biohydrogenation pathways under the assayed conditions. Changes in dam milk FA composition induced differences in the FA profiles of meat and fat depots of lambs, preferentially incorporated polyunsaturated FAs into the muscle rather than storing them in the adipose tissue. In the intramuscular fat of the FO treatment, all the n-3 FAs reached their highest concentrations: 0.97 (18:3 n-3), 2.72 (20:5 n-3), 2.21 (22:5 n-3) and 1.53% (22:6 n-3). In addition, not only did FO intramuscular fat have the most cis-9, trans-11 18:2 (1.66%) and trans-11 18:1 (3.75%), but also the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio (1.80) and saturated FA content were not affected. Therefore, FO exhibited the best FA profile from a nutritional point of view.
John Aldrich is a positive scientist—in both the scholastic and colloquial sense. A progeny of the Rochester school, Aldrich's research displays a commitment to the tenets of positive political theory. He derives internally consistent propositions and subjects those claims to empirical testing, all in an attempt to explain scientifically phenomena and institutions at the heart of democratic theory. As a mentor and builder of academic institutions, Aldrich has shown unswerving kindness, modesty, and a commitment to foster new generations of political scientists. He is a positive influence on his students, his colleagues, and the political science discipline at large.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.