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A model is under development at this laboratory to predict the mobilization of Th from an estimated 20,000 metric ton deposit, in place and weathering as long as 80 million years on the Morro do Ferro, a hill on the Pacos de Caldas plateau in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The significance of this deposit lies in the marked similarities, chemically, between Th and Pu with reference to the problem of Pu waste management from the nuclear fuel cycle. One of the objectives of this program is to determine the elemental composition of the Morro do Ferro soil and its relationship to the mobilization of Th from the deposit. X-ray fluorescence is used for the analysis of Th, U, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Dy, Eu, Gd, Yb, Hf , Fe, Zr, N b , Mo and Pb. This paper describes the XRF system and methodology used for the determinations and presents the results of 72 core, soil and sediment sample analyses for the above 18 elements. Analyses of three United States Geological Survey (USGS) rock standards are also presented.
Using multilevel models, we examined mother-, father-, and child-reported (N = 1,336 families) externalizing behavior problem trajectories from age 7 to 14 in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). The intercept and slope of children's externalizing behavior trajectories varied both across individuals within culture and across cultures, and the variance was larger at the individual level than at the culture level. Mothers’ and children's endorsement of aggression as well as mothers’ authoritarian attitudes predicted higher age 8 intercepts of child externalizing behaviors. Furthermore, prediction from individual-level endorsement of aggression and authoritarian attitudes to more child externalizing behaviors was augmented by prediction from cultural-level endorsement of aggression and authoritarian attitudes, respectively. Cultures in which father-reported endorsement of aggression was higher and both mother- and father-reported authoritarian attitudes were higher also reported more child externalizing behavior problems at age 8. Among fathers, greater attributions regarding uncontrollable success in caregiving situations were associated with steeper declines in externalizing over time. Understanding cultural-level as well as individual-level correlates of children's externalizing behavior offers potential insights into prevention and intervention efforts that can be more effectively targeted at individual children and parents as well as targeted at changing cultural norms that increase the risk of children's and adolescents’ externalizing behavior.
Hemostasis, a process which causes bleeding to stop, can be enhanced using chitosan; but the detailed mechanism is unclear. Red blood cells (RBCs) adhere to chitosan because of their opposite charges, but the adhesion force is small, 3.83 pN as measured here using an optical tweezer, such that the direct adhesion cannot be the sole cause for hemostasis. However, it was observed in this study that layer structures of aggregated RBCs were formed next to chitosan objects in both static and flowing environments, but not formed next to cotton and rayon yarns. The layer structure is the clue for the initiation of hemostatsis. Through the supporting measurements of zeta potentials of RBCs and pH's using blood-chitosan mixtures, it is proposed here that the formation of the RBC layer structure next to chitosan objects is due to the reduction of repulsive electric double layer force between RBCs, because of the association of H+ deprotonated from chitosan with COO− on RBC membrane, under the DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek) theory. The results are beneficial for designing effective chitosan-based wound dressings, and also for general biomedical applications.
Using data from 1,177 families in eight countries (Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States), we tested a conceptual model of direct effects of childhood family adversity on subsequent externalizing behaviors as well as indirect effects through psychological mediators. When children were 9 years old, mothers and fathers reported on financial difficulties and their use of corporal punishment, and children reported perceptions of their parents’ rejection. When children were 10 years old, they completed a computerized battery of tasks assessing reward sensitivity and impulse control and responded to questions about hypothetical social provocations to assess their hostile attributions and proclivity for aggressive responding. When children were 12 years old, they reported on their externalizing behavior. Multigroup structural equation models revealed that across all eight countries, childhood family adversity had direct effects on externalizing behaviors 3 years later, and childhood family adversity had indirect effects on externalizing behavior through psychological mediators. The findings suggest ways in which family-level adversity poses risk for children's subsequent development of problems at psychological and behavioral levels, situated within diverse cultural contexts.
This study advances understanding of predictors of child abuse and neglect at multiple levels of influence. Mothers, fathers, and children (N = 1,418 families, M age of children = 8.29 years) were interviewed annually in three waves in 13 cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Multilevel models were estimated to examine predictors of (a) within-family differences across the three time points, (b) between-family within-culture differences, and (c) between-cultural group differences in mothers' and fathers' reports of corporal punishment and children's reports of their parents' neglect. These analyses addressed to what extent mothers' and fathers' use of corporal punishment and children's perceptions of their parents' neglect were predicted by parents' belief in the necessity of using corporal punishment, parents' perception of the normativeness of corporal punishment in their community, parents' progressive parenting attitudes, parents' endorsement of aggression, parents' education, children's externalizing problems, and children's internalizing problems at each of the three levels. Individual-level predictors (especially child externalizing behaviors) as well as cultural-level predictors (especially normativeness of corporal punishment in the community) predicted corporal punishment and neglect. Findings are framed in an international context that considers how abuse and neglect are defined by the global community and how countries have attempted to prevent abuse and neglect.
We recently fabricated and characterized a new class of multilayer dielectric elastomer films comprising alternating layers of two different polymers, at least one of which is an elastomer. The films discussed here contain THV (a terpolymer of poly(vinylidene fluoride)) and poly(ethylene octene) [EO] elastomer. The multilayer structure provides improved dielectric and electromechanical performance relative to monolithic films of THV or EO. These properties are controlled by the composition and the layer structure. For example, increasing the concentration of the elastomeric EO component increases the maximum axial strain (sz). Layering EO with THV also increases the breakdown strength (EB ∼ 265 - 300 V/µm) relative to monolithic EO (EB ∼ 150 V/µm) or THV (EB ∼ 245 V/µm) control films. This enhancement in breakdown strength is consistent with a barrier effect that is also observed in multilayer polymer capacitor films. The increase in breakdown strength allows 512-layer 75 vol% EO / 25 vol% THV films to achieve maximum axial strains of sz nearly 4%, higher than can be attained by either EO or THV films alone. In addition, layering reduces remnant strain and electromechanical hysteresis by limiting the effective field within the THV layers. The 75% EO/ 25% THV films show robust operational longevity with little loss in axial strain when subjected to repeated actuation at Emax = 225 V/µm (producing sz = 2.2%). Under these conditions, we observe 3,000 consecutive actuation cycles with no electrical breakdown. In comparison, single component EO control films undergo electrical breakdown at this field and THV control films survive only a few hundred actuation cycles under these conditions. The results demonstrate that multilayering is an effective technique to increase the dielectric strength of elastomer materials and in turn improve upon strain and operational longevity (repeated actuation cycles) characteristics.
This study examined whether parents’ social information processing was related to their subsequent reports of their harsh discipline. Interviews were conducted with mothers (n = 1,277) and fathers (n = 1,030) of children in 1,297 families in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States), initially when children were 7 to 9 years old and again 1 year later. Structural equation models showed that parents’ positive evaluations of aggressive responses to hypothetical childrearing vignettes at Time 1 predicted parents’ self-reported harsh physical and nonphysical discipline at Time 2. This link was consistent across mothers and fathers, and across the nine countries, providing support for the universality of the link between positive evaluations of harsh discipline and parents’ aggressive behavior toward children. The results suggest that international efforts to eliminate violence toward children could target parents’ beliefs about the acceptability and advisability of using harsh physical and nonphysical forms of discipline.
We study the cross-correlation between X-rays of different energies for the atoll-type source 4U 1608–52 with RXTE, and find the cross-correlation evolutes along the different branches. The anti-correlation is reported from the Galactic black hole candidates and Z-type luminous sources in their hard states. Our results are a little different from the Z-type sources. Here we provide the first evidence that a similar anti-correlated feature can also be found in atoll-type source, and it is not corresponding to the lowest accretion rate.
With RXTE data ranging from 1997 August to 1998 May, we detected 8 type I X-ray bursts from the atoll source 4U 1735–44. The bursts are present at all the branches, and most occur at an inferred low mass accretion rate. We find no correlation between the peak flux of the bursts and the mass accretion rate. The results are different from that of 4U 1728-34, whose bursts' peak flux are anti-correlated with the mass accretion rate.
Immune mapped protein 1 (IMP1) is a newly discovered protein in Eimeria maxima. It is recognized as a potential vaccine candidate against E. maxima and a highly conserved protein in apicomplexan parasites. Although the Neospora caninum IMP1 (NcIMP1) orthologue of E. maxima IMP1 was predicted in the N. caninum genome, it was still not identified and characterized. In this study, cDNA sequence encoding NcIMP1 was cloned by RT-PCR from RNA isolated from Nc1 tachyzoites. NcIMP1 was encoded by an open reading frame of 1182 bp, which encoded a protein of 393 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 42·9 kDa. Sequence analysis showed that there was neither a signal peptide nor a transmembrane region present in the NcIMP1 amino acid sequence. However, several kinds of functional protein motifs, including an N-myristoylation site and a palmitoylation site were predicted. Recombinant NcIMP1 (rNcIMP1) was expressed in Escherichia coli and then purified rNcIMP1 was used to prepare specific antisera in mice. Mouse polyclonal antibodies raised against the rNcIMP1 recognized an approximate 43 kDa native IMP1 protein. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that NcIMP1 was localized on the membrane of N. caninum tachyzoites. The N-myristoylation site and the palmitoylation site were found to contribute to the localization of NcIMP1. Furthermore, the rNcIMP1-specific antibodies could inhibit cell invasion by N. caninum tachyzoites in vitro. All the results indicate that NcIMP1 is likely to be a membrane protein of N. caninum and may be involved in parasite invasion.
Dielectric polymers with high energy density with low loss at high electric fields are highly desired for many energy storage and regulation applications. A polar-fluoropolymer blend consisting of a high energy density polar-fluoropolymer of poly(vinylidene fluoride-chlorotrifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-CTFE)) with a low dielectric loss polymer of poly(ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene) (ECTFE) was developed and investigated. We show that the two polymers are partially miscible which leads to blends with high energy density and low loss. Moreover, by introducing crosslinking to further tailor the nano-structures of the blends a markedly reduction of losses in the blend films at high field can be achieved. The crosslinked blend films show a dielectric constant of 7 with a dielectric loss of 1% at low field. Furthermore, the blends maintain a high energy density and low loss (∼3%) at high electric fields (> 250 MV/m).
Undoped Bi2FeCrO6, 5%Ti- and 10%La-doped Bi2FeCrO6 were prepared by a high pressure solid-state sintering method. The phase structure, electrical, ferroelectric and magnetic properties have been investigated. It is shown that undoped Bi2FeCrO6 has a serious leakage current problem, and doping either Ti or La can enhance the resistivity by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, both Ti- and La-doped Bi2FeCrO6 show an antiferromagnetic spin order due to disordered B-site cation alignment. Weak ferromagnetism was only observed in undoped Bi2FeCrO6 and the reason is tentatively explained.
Due to its outstanding thermal and chemical stability, single-crystal sapphire is a crucial material for high-temperature optical sensing applications. The potential for using hydrogen ion implantation to fabricate stable, high temperature optical waveguides in single crystal sapphire is investigated in this work. Hydrogen ions were implanted in c-plane sapphire with energies of 35 keV and 1 MeV and fluences 1016-1017/cm2. Subsequent annealing was carried out in air at temperatures ranging from 500˚C to 1200˚C. Complementary techniques were used to characterize the samples, including ellipsometry and prism coupling to examine optical properties, Rutherford backscattering/ion channeling for crystal defects, and nuclear reaction analysis for hydrogen profiling. Several guiding modes were observed in H-implanted (1 MeV) samples annealed above 800˚C through prism coupling, and a maximum index modification of 3% was observed in the 35 keV samples and 1% in the 1 MeV samples through ellipsometry, with the 1 MeV index variation being confirmed through prism coupling. The possible causes of the index modifications, such as H related defects, as well as implications for tailoring the refractive index of sapphire are discussed.
Ultra-thin HfOxNy gate dielectric films were deposited by pulse-mode metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with [(C2H5)2N]4Hf (TDEAH) and either NO or O2 as oxidants. Nitrogen incorporation was studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and spatially-resolved elemental profiles were obtained by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results indicate that nitrogen is incorporated throughout the high-k film with a higher concentration in the interface layer between the deposited layer and the Si(100) substrate. The concentration of nitrogen is increased in both layers by using NO instead of O2 as the oxidant. The N in the deposited and interface layers can be replaced by oxygen during oxygen ambient annealing at temperatures above 500 °C. Films with 8 at.% nitrogen remain amorphous following vacuum annealing at temperatures up to 800 °C. By encapsulating vacuum-annealed films with amorphous Si from an e-beam evaporator prior to removal from the cluster tool, it was possible to reduce the thickness of the interface layer upon air exposure to the 0.5 nm range.