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Large numbers of evacuees arrived in Dallas, Texas, from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita just 3 weeks apart in 2005 and from Hurricanes Gustav and Ike just 3 weeks apart again in 2008. The Dallas community needed to locate, organize, and manage the response to provide shelter and health care with locally available resources. With each successive hurricane, disaster response leaders applied many lessons learned from prior operations to become more efficient and effective in the provision of services. Mental health services proved to be an essential component. From these experiences, a set of operating guidelines for large evacuee shelter mental health services in Dallas was developed, with involvement of key stakeholders. A generic description of the processes and procedures used in Dallas that highlights the important concepts, key considerations, and organizational steps was then created for potential adaptation by other communities. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:423–429)
A single specimen of a shrimp-like crustacean, Devonostenopus pennsylvaniensis, new genus and species is described from the Huntley Mountain Formation, which is Devonian–Carboniferous (Mississippian) in age. The specimen was collected in north-central Pennsylvania. Devonostenopus pennsylvaniensis is attributed to Stenopodidae. Co-occurrence of the specimen with pinnules of Archaeopteris halliana Goeppert, 1852, suggests that it is Devonian in age. Occurrence of a stenopodidean in the Devonian of North America is significant, as only three definitive decapods have been previously described from the Paleozoic and only two have been described from the Devonian. The earliest stenopodideans described to date are Cretaceous (Cenomanian and Santonian) in age. As such, Devonostenopus pennsylvaniensis extends the geologic range of Stenopodidea from Cretaceous to Late Devonian. Occurrence of a stenopodidean in the Devonian of North America, as well as the occurrence of the only two other known Devonian decapods in North America, suggests that Laurentia might have been a major area of endemism for Devonian decapods.
To determine whether multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative organisms are present in Afghanistan or Iraq soil samples, contaminate standard deployed hospital or modular operating rooms (ORs), or aerosolize during surgical procedures.
US military hospitals in the United States, Afghanistan, and Iraq.
Soil samples were collected from sites throughout Afghanistan and Iraq and analyzed for presence of MDR bacteria. Environmental sampling of selected newly established modular and deployed OR high-touch surfaces and equipment was performed to determine the presence of bacterial contamination. Gram-negative bacteria aerosolization during OR surgical procedures was determined by microbiological analysis of settle plate growth.
Subsurface soil sample isolates recovered in Afghanistan and Iraq included various pansusceptible members of Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio species, Pseudomonas species, Acinetobacter Iwojfii, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS). OR contamination studies in Afghanistan revealed 1 surface with a Micrococcus luteus. Newly established US-based modular ORs and the colocated fixed-facility ORs revealed no gram-negative bacterial contamination prior to the opening of the modular OR and 5 weeks later. Bacterial aerosolization during surgery in a deployed fixed hospital revealed a mean gram-negative bacteria colony count of 12.8 colony-forming units (CFU)/dm2/h (standard deviation [SD], 17.0) during surgeries and 6.5 CFU/dm2/h (SD, 7.5; P = .14) when the OR was not in use.
This study demonstrates no significant gram-negative bacilli colonization of modular and fixed-facility ORs or dirt and no significant aerosolization of these bacilli during surgical procedures. These results lend additional support to the role of nosocomial transmission of MDR pathogens or the colonization of the patient themselves prior to injury.
Fossil fuels are used throughout the United States Antarctic Program. Accidental releases of petroleum hydrocarbons are the leading source of environmental contamination. Since 1999 McMurdo Station has been the site of the most extensive environmental monitoring programme in Antarctica. Nearly 2500 surface soil samples were collected from 1999–2007 to determine the spatial “footprint” of petroleum hydrocarbons. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) concentrations were measured using a high-resolution capillary gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detection. Three distinct TPH patterns were detected: low molecular weight gasoline/JP5/AN8, residual weathered petroleum and an unresolved complex mixture of high molecular weight material. Overall TPH concentrations were low with 38% of the samples having TPH concentrations below 30 ppm and 58% below 100 ppm. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations above 30 ppm are largely confined to the central portions of the station, along roads and in other areas where elevated TPH would be expected. Peripheral areas typically have TPH concentrations below 15 ppm. Areas of elevated TPH concentrations are patchy and of limited spatial extent, seldom extending over distances of 100 m. This environmental monitoring programme is ongoing and can serve as an example to other Antarctic programmes concerned with monitoring environmental impacts.
Early vigour in wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an important physiological trait to improve water-use efficiency and grain yield, especially on light soils in Mediterranean-type climates. Potential interactions for plant stand and seedling vigour between seed density and various seed quality treatments were examined for wheat grown in two experiments, conducted under controlled and field environments in Western Australia. Seed lots were graded into seed size classes and seed density fractions using saturated solutions of ammonium sulphate or sodium polytungstate. Dense seed improved plant stands or produced seedlings with greater early seedling vigour than their low-density counterparts in all three field environments. Artificial ageing reduced germination and emergence in the controlled environment. When grown in the field at Merredin, Western Australia, on the sandy soil, plant development was delayed with aged seed, and total leaf area and dry weight of plants were reduced. Fungicide application diminished total plant dry weight in sandy soils, but had a much larger detrimental effect when applied to aged and low-density seeds than normal seeds, retarding development, total leaf area and total plant dry weight. Our results indicate that an increase in seed density, particularly in small seed, can potentially improve plant stand and seedling vigour independently of seed size, and may be especially important for wheat grown on sandy soils of poor fertility and low water-holding capacity. The results also suggest consistency in seedling vigour may benefit from combined screening against small seed size and low seed density, which may also reduce the likelihood of adverse reactions to seed-applied fungicides. More attention should be paid to seed density as a valuable trait for improved reliability in plant stand and seedling vigour.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors take several weeks to achieve their full antidepressant effects. Post-synaptic 5-HT2A receptor activation is thought to be involved in this delayed therapeutic effect. Pipamperone acts as a highly selective 5-HT2A/D4 antagonist when administered in low doses. The purpose of this study was to compare citalopram 40 mg once daily plus pipamperone 5 mg twice daily (PipCit) versus citalopram plus placebo twice daily for magnitude and onset of therapeutic effect.
An 8-week, randomized, double-blind study in patients with major depressive disorder was carried out.
The study population comprised 165 patients (citalopram and placebo, n=82; PipCit, n=83) with a mean baseline Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score of 32.6 (s.d.=5.5). In the first 4 weeks, more citalopram and placebo than PipCit patients discontinued treatment (18% v. 4%, respectively, p=0.003). PipCit patients had significantly greater improvement in MADRS score at week 1 [observed cases (OC), p=0.021; last observation carried forward (LOCF), p=0.007] and week 4 (LOCF, p=0.025) but not at week 8 compared with citalopram and placebo patients. Significant differences in MADRS scores favoured PipCit in reduced sleep, reduced appetite, concentration difficulties and pessimistic thoughts. Mean Clinical Global Impression–Improvement scores were significantly improved after 1 week of PipCit compared with citalopram and placebo (OC and LOCF, p=0.002).
Although the MADRS score from baseline to 8 weeks did not differ between groups, PipCit provided superior antidepressant effects and fewer discontinuations compared with citalopram and placebo during the first 4 weeks of treatment, especially in the first week.
The atmospheres of chemically peculiar stars can be highly structured in both the horizontal and vertical dimensions. While most prevalent in the magnetic stars, these structures can also exist in non-magnetic stars. In addition to providing an important window to understanding the physical processes at play in these complex atmospheres, they can also be exploited to study stellar pulsations. This article reviews contributions to the session “A 3D look into the atmosphere” of the Joint Discussion “Progress in understanding the physics of Ap and related stars”. It is divided into 3 sections: “Magnetic field and surface structures”, “Pulsations in the atmospheres of roAp stars/inversions”, and “Spectral synthesis/atmospheric models”.
A comparative study of the low temperature conductivity of an ensemble of multiwall
carbon nanotubes and semiconductor nanowires is presented. The
quasi one-dimensional samples are made in nanoporous
templates by electrodeposition and CVD growth. Three different
structures are studied in parallel: multiwall carbon nanotubes,
nanowires, and silicon nanowires. It is shown that the Coulomb blockade
regime dominates the electronic transport below 50 K, together with weak and
strong localization effects. In the Coulomb blockade regime, a
scaling law of the conductance measured as a function of the
temperature and the voltage is systematically observed. This allows
a single scaling parameter α to be defined. This parameter
accounts for the specific realization of the “disorder”, and plays
the role of a fingerprint for each sample. Correlations between
α and the conductance measured as a function of temperature
and voltage, as a function of the perpendicular magnetic field, and
as a function of the temperature and voltage in the localized regime
below 1 K have been performed. Three universal laws are reported.
They relate the coefficient α (1) to the normalized Coulomb
, (2) to the phase coherence length
, and (3) to the activation energy
. These observations suggest a description of the wires
and tubes in terms of a chain of quantum dots; the wires and tubes
break into a series of islands. The quantum dots are defined by
conducting islands with a typical length on the order of the phase
coherence length separated by poorly conducting regions (low
density of carriers or potential barriers due to defects). A
corresponding model is developed in order to put the three
universal laws in a common frame.
In massive stars, magnetic fields are thought to confine the outflowing radiatively-driven wind, resulting in X-ray emission that is harder, more variable and more efficient than that produced by instability-generated shocks in non-magnetic winds. Although magnetic confinement of stellar winds has been shown to strongly modify the mass-loss and X-ray characteristics of massive OB stars, we lack a detailed understanding of the complex processes responsible. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between magnetism, stellar winds and X-ray emission of OB stars. In conjunction with a Chandra survey of the Orion Nebula Cluster, we carried out spectropolarimatric ESPaDOnS observations to determine the magnetic properties of massive OB stars of this cluster.
We present an overview of template synthesis as it
applies to our nanomaterials research. This bottom-up approach is motivated
by our desire to find an alternative to the big, top-down approaches to
nanoscience, such as clean-rooms and X-ray lithography. Using universally
available templates and materials, and very modest synthesis techniques, we
have created a variety of interesting and useful structures. Starting with
homogeneous ferromagnetic nanowires, we were able to study and manipulate
spin-dependent transport. Next, we branched into multi-layer GMR and
spin-valve structures for spintronics. As a side trip, we put
carbon-encapsulated fullerene nanoparticles into nanopores for ballistic
magnetoresistance studies. Carbon nanotube molecules were grown in templates
by CVD self assembly. The carbon nanotubes grown using a cobalt catalyzer
show spin-valve, ballistic transport, and Coulomb blockade effects. Very
recently, we have started to study templated semiconductor nanorods with the
amazing result that their behaviour is very similar to that of the carbon
nanotubes and can be reduced to a scaling law. Essentially, the template
acts as a skeleton for the nanoscale synthesis and macroscale contact of an
infinite variety of materials and structures. It is our hope that by the
following examples we demonstrate that high quality nanoscience research is
available to everybody.
Both psychiatric patients and their relatives benefit from learning about mental illness and how to cope with it, but the specific interests of these consumers remain unclear. To determine specific educational needs and to compare the needs of different consumers, a questionnaire survey was conducted with a sample of patients with schizophrenia and affective disorder and their relatives. Both patients and relatives reported strong interest in learning more about psychiatric illness and strategies for coping with common problems, but patients with schizophrenia were less interested than patients with affective disorder and both sets of relatives. Discriminant analyses revealed that needs differed as a function of patient diagnosis, patient/relative status, and relatives' membership of a self-help and advocacy organisation. Consumers of mental health services are capable of specifying their own educational needs, and educational programmes should be tailored to meet these.
Thirty-four schizophrenic patients in an acute in-patient hospital were compared with 24 in-patients with major affective disorder and 19 non-patient controls on a role-play test of social skills and a test of affect perception. The role-play test consisted of 12 simulated conversations in which the subject was confronted by parents and friends expressing high-EE criticism or non-critical dissatisfaction. Schizophrenic patients lacked assertiveness and social skills in all conditions, but they did not show any differential impairment when presented with high EE. They consistently lied and denied errors rather than responding assertively or apologising, whether confronted with high-EE or benign criticisms. On the affect perception test, schizophrenic patients consistently underestimated the intensity or negativeness of negative emotions, but they were not deficient in perception of positive emotional displays. The data do not support the hypothesis that schizophrenic patients are poor at dealing with high-EE behaviours, but do indicate that their ability to cope with even mild negative affect is impaired. Possible explanations for this impairment include limited attentional capacity, a neurologically based perceptual deficit, and a self-protective mechanism to reduce or avoid stress.
Molecular simulations that predict the molecular mechanical response of alpha-helical biopolymers with a reinforcing intra-molecular hydrogen bonding network, viz,, a ‘spring-like’ behavior, are presented in this study. Mechanical properties of extended biopolymer strands based on naturally occurring amino acids, namely poly(L-A1a) and for comparison poly(LGlu), versus synthetic PPTA containing an amide bond, are compared to those assuming alpha-helical structures. Thus, the pivotal role of such motifs in biological systems utilizing superior compressive mechanical properties can be inferred.
A combustion-synthesis method [Chick et al., Materials Letters 10, 6 (1990)] has been adapted for the efficient preparation of pure barium ferrite particles, BaFe12O19. Solutions of Ba(NO3)2 and Fe(NO3)3 · 9H2O were mixed in stoichiometric amounts and glycine (aminoacetic acid) was then added according to the desired glycine / nitrate ratio. The solution was heated to around 200°C, when combustion occured, yielding a highly magnetic ash, which XRD suggests consists of extremely fine-grained γ-Fe2O3 and Ba3Fe2O6. Subsequent heat-treatments of 1050°C for 1.5 hr or 1200°C for 1 hr converted the ash to pure barium ferrite, as determined by XRD and Mdssbauer spectroscopy. Single-crystal platelets of barium ferrite, identified by SEM, varied dramatically in size with heat-treatment (diameter ∼0.2 pm and 6 μm, respectively), as did coercivity, measured by VSM (∼5000 Oe and 2500 Oe, resp.), while magnetization was unaffected.
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