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Although specific phobia is highly prevalent, associated with impairment, and an important risk factor for the development of other mental disorders, cross-national epidemiological data are scarce, especially from low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents epidemiological data from 22 low-, lower-middle-, upper-middle- and high-income countries.
Data came from 25 representative population-based surveys conducted in 22 countries (2001–2011) as part of the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys initiative (n = 124 902). The presence of specific phobia as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition was evaluated using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview.
The cross-national lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of specific phobia were, respectively, 7.4% and 5.5%, being higher in females (9.8 and 7.7%) than in males (4.9% and 3.3%) and higher in high- and higher-middle-income countries than in low-/lower-middle-income countries. The median age of onset was young (8 years). Of the 12-month patients, 18.7% reported severe role impairment (13.3–21.9% across income groups) and 23.1% reported any treatment (9.6–30.1% across income groups). Lifetime co-morbidity was observed in 60.5% of those with lifetime specific phobia, with the onset of specific phobia preceding the other disorder in most cases (72.6%). Interestingly, rates of impairment, treatment use and co-morbidity increased with the number of fear subtypes.
Specific phobia is common and associated with impairment in a considerable percentage of cases. Importantly, specific phobia often precedes the onset of other mental disorders, making it a possible early-life indicator of psychopathology vulnerability.
We report the discovery of carbonates in the Planetary Nebulae NGC 6302 and NGC 6537 (Kemper et al. 2002). In the ISO LWS spectra far-infrared features have been identified with calcite and dolomite by comparison with laboratory spectra of these minerals. This is the first time that carbonates have been identified outside the solar system. In a follow-up study (Kemper et al., in prep.) a detailed analysis of the mineral composition of the dust in NGC 6302 is presented.
We present an overview of the survey for radio emission from active stars that has been in progress for the last six years using the observatories at Fleurs, Molonglo, Parkes and Tidbinbilla. The role of complementary optical observations at the Anglo-Australian Observatory, Mount Burnett, Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories and Mount Tamborine are also outlined. We describe the different types of star that have been included in our survey and discuss some of the problems in making the radio observations.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
The subsurface exploration of other planetary bodies can be used to unravel their geological history and assess their habitability. On Mars in particular, present-day habitable conditions may be restricted to the subsurface. Using a deep subsurface mine, we carried out a program of extraterrestrial analog research – MINe Analog Research (MINAR). MINAR aims to carry out the scientific study of the deep subsurface and test instrumentation designed for planetary surface exploration by investigating deep subsurface geology, whilst establishing the potential this technology has to be transferred into the mining industry. An integrated multi-instrument suite was used to investigate samples of representative evaporite minerals from a subsurface Permian evaporite sequence, in particular to assess mineral and elemental variations which provide small-scale regions of enhanced habitability. The instruments used were the Panoramic Camera emulator, Close-Up Imager, Raman spectrometer, Small Planetary Linear Impulse Tool, Ultrasonic drill and handheld X-ray diffraction (XRD). We present science results from the analog research and show that these instruments can be used to investigate in situ the geological context and mineralogical variations of a deep subsurface environment, and thus habitability, from millimetre to metre scales. We also show that these instruments are complementary. For example, the identification of primary evaporite minerals such as NaCl and KCl, which are difficult to detect by portable Raman spectrometers, can be accomplished with XRD. By contrast, Raman is highly effective at locating and detecting mineral inclusions in primary evaporite minerals. MINAR demonstrates the effective use of a deep subsurface environment for planetary instrument development, understanding the habitability of extreme deep subsurface environments on Earth and other planetary bodies, and advancing the use of space technology in economic mining.
Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6), coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) were the major enteroviruses causing nationwide hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics in Singapore in the last decade. We estimated the basic reproduction number (R0) of these enteroviruses to obtain a better understanding of their transmission dynamics. We merged records of cases from HFMD outbreaks reported between 2007 and 2012 with laboratory results from virological surveillance. R0 was estimated based on the cumulative number of reported cases in the initial growth phase of each outbreak associated with the particular enterovirus type. A total of 33 HFMD outbreaks were selected based on the inclusion criteria specified for our study, of which five were associated with CV-A6, 13 with CV-A16, and 15 with EV-A71. The median R0 was estimated to be 5·04 [interquartile range (IQR) 3·57–5·16] for CV-A6, 2·42 (IQR 1·85–3·36) for CV-A16, and 3·50 (IQR 2·36–4·53) for EV-A71. R0 was not significantly associated with number of infected children (P = 0·86), number of exposed children (P = 0·94), and duration of the outbreak (P = 0·05). These enterovirus-specific R0 estimates will be helpful in providing insights into the potential growth of future HFMD epidemics and outbreaks for timely implementation of disease control measures, together with disease dynamics such as severity of the cases.
The Herschel Space Observatory was the fourth cornerstone mission in the European Space Agency (ESA) science programme with excellent broad band imaging capabilities in the sub-mm and far-infrared part of the spectrum. Although the spacecraft finished its observations in 2013, it left a large legacy dataset that is far from having been fully scrutinised and still has a large potential for new scientific discoveries. This is specifically true for the photometric observations of the PACS and SPIRE instruments. Some source catalogues have already been produced by individual observing programs, but there are many observations that risk to remain unexplored. To maximise the science return of the SPIRE and PACS data sets, we are in the process of building the Herschel Point Source Catalogue (HPSC) from all primary and parallel mode observations. Our homogeneous source extraction enables a systematic and unbiased comparison of sensitivity across the different Herschel fields that single programs will generally not be able to provide. The catalogue will be made available online through archives like the Herschel Science Archive (HSA), the Infrared Science Archive (IRSA), and the Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center (CDS).
Although beta-amyloid, anxiety and depression have been linked cross-sectionally to reduced memory function in healthy older adults without dementia, prospective data evaluating these associations are lacking. Using data from an observational cohort study of 178 healthy older adults without dementia followed for 3 years, we found that anxiety symptoms significantly moderated the relationship between beta-amyloid level and decline in verbal (Cohen's d = 0.65) and episodic (Cohen's d = 0.38) memory. Anxiety symptoms were additionally linked to greater decline in executive function, irrespective of beta-amyloid and other risk factors. These findings suggest that interventions to mitigate anxiety symptoms may help delay memory decline in otherwise healthy older adults with elevated beta-amyloid.
Nanoscale superlattice-like (SLL) dielectric was employed to reduce the power consumption of the Phase-change random access memory (PCRAM) cells. In this study, we have simulated and found that the cells with the SLL dielectric have a higher peak temperature compared to that of the cells with the SiO2 dielectric after constant pulse activation, due to the interface scattering mechanism. Scaling of the SLL dielectric has resulted in higher peak temperatures, which can be even higher after material/structural modifications. Furthermore, the SLL dielectric has good material properties that enable the cells to have high endurance. This shows the effectiveness of the SLL dielectric for advanced memory applications.
In this paper the impact of the ESL (Etch Stop layer) nitride on the device performance especially the threshold voltage (Vt) has been studied. From SIMS analysis, it is found that different nitride gives different H concentration, [H] in the Gate oxide area, the higher [H] in the nitride film, the higher H in the Gate Oxide area and the lower the threshold voltage. It is also found that using TiSi instead of CoSi can help to stop the H from diffusing into Gate Oxide/channel area, resulting in a smaller threshold voltage drift for the device employed TiSi. Study to control the [H] in the nitride film is also carried out. In this paper, RBS, HFS and FTIR are used to analyze the composition changes of the SiN films prepared using Plasma enhanced Chemical Vapor deposition (PECVD), Rapid Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (RTCVD) with different process parameters. Gas flow ratio, RF power and temperature are found to be the key factors that affect the composition and the H concentration in the film. It is found that the nearer the SiN composition to stoichiometric Si3N4, the lower the [H] in SiN film because there is no excess silicon or nitrogen to be bonded with H. However the lowest [H] in the SiN film is limited by temperature. The higher the process temperature the lower the [H] can be obtained in the SiN film and the nearer the composition to stoichiometric Si3N4.
This paper reports on the structures and properties of Y1Ba2Cu3O9−x samples prepared in precisely controlled oxygen environments using a solid-state ionic technique. By titrating out oxygen at low temperatures, orthorhombic Y1Ba2Cu3O9−x samples were prepared with oxygen contents below 6.50. Resistivity and magnetometry studies indicated that these reduced, orthorhombic samples were marginally superconducting, with their superconductivity probably arising from local regions of higher oxygen content.
The polycation conducting polymer, oxidized polypyrrole (PPy), possesses the ability to form complexes with DNA. Our previously proposed diffusion limited binding model for double helical DNA was also found to be applicable to single stranded DNA in this study. Single stranded DNA was found to bind PPy at a nearly identical level to that of double helical DNA. An investigation of electropolymerized PPy film morphology using SEM revealed two distinctly differing surface morphologies for the Platinum (Pt) electrode face (smooth) and polymeric growth face (rough). The DNA uptake levels were found to be consistently different on either surface, being higher on the rough surface. DNA penetrated into the disk interior with increasing time periods of exposure while a similar phenomenon but to a lesser extent was observed for single stranded DNA.
This paper gives a brief overview of fabrication problems and solutions for microelectromechnical system (MEMS) using PZT films based on surface micromachining techniques. In addition we report characteristics of PZT films on diagnostic test structures designed to test the new bottom electrode for MEMS. PZT(53/47) films were deposited by metalorganic decomposition on a 3″ silicon wafer with Pt/Ti/TiO2/Poly-Si/Si3N4 structure in order to fabricate piezoelectric cantilever beam microaccelerometers and uncooled infrared (IR) detectors. In order to investigate the feasibility of RuO2/Ru and Pt/RuO2 conducting layers as a new bottom electrode for piezoelectric MEMS, the piezoelectric constant (d33) of the PZT films on each bottom electrode was measured. Furthermore, we show the fraction of working top electrodes among 20 total electrodes according to electrode size to investigate the stability of PZT with different bottom electrodes. These results suggest that RuO2/Ru and Pt/RuO2 are possible for bottom electrodes of MEMS.
A novel hierarchical biomaterial capable of incorporating any biotinylated biomolecule has been created. Our strategy is to biotinylate one-dimensional electroactive polymers and use a bridging streptavidin protein on Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) organized films. The following copolymeric system which enables functionalization of other molecules and formation of good monolayers was employed. Biotinylated poly(3-methanolthiophene-co-3-undecylthiophene) (B-PMUT) demonstrated a significantly better isotherm implying superior molecular packing compared to poly(3-methanolthiophene-co-3-undecylthiophene) (PMUT) on the LB airwater surface. The isotherm showed significant area expansion when streptavidin was injected below the B-PMUT monolayer in 0.1mM NaH2PO4/0.1 M NaCl buffer (pH 6.8) subphase. We then incorporated biotinylated phycoerythrin (B-PE) into this novel biomaterial by binding the unoccupied biotin binding sites on the bound streptavidin (4 sites total). The pressure-area isotherm of the protein injected monolayer showed area expansion. A characteristic fluorescent emission peak at 576nm was detected from the monolayer transferred onto a solid substrate. These observations demonstrated the function of B-PMUT in hierarchical monolayer assembly of molecules incorporating the biotin / streptavidin interaction.
The development of micro- and nanofabrication, their applications, and their dependent industries has progressed to a point where a bifurcation of technology development will likely occur. On the one hand, the semiconductor industry (at least in the USA) has decided to develop EUV and SCALPEL to meet its future needs. Even if the semiconductor industry is successful in this (which is by no means certain) such tools will not be useful in most other segments of industry and research that will employ nanolithography. As examples, MEMS, integrated optics, biological research, magnetic information storage, quantum-effect research, and multiple applications not yet envisioned will not employ the lithography tools of the semiconductor industry, either because they are too expensive, insufficiently flexible, or lacking in accuracy and spatial-phase coherence. Of course, direct-write electron-beam lithography can meet many of these non-semiconductor-industry needs, but in other cases a technique of higher throughput or broader process-latitude is necessary. Our experience at MIT in applying low-cost proximity x-ray nanolithography to a wide variety of applications leads us to conclude that this technology can provide an alternative path of a bifurcation. A new projection lithography technique, zone-plate-array lithography (ZPAL), does not require a mask, can operate from UV to EUV to x-rays, and has the potential to reach the limits of the lithographic process.
We report the first observation of voids in sub-quarter micron Ti-salicided BF2-dopedpolycrystalline silicon (polySi) lines. Some of the voids, with sizes ranging from 10 to 100nm, can be clearly seen on the surface of the TiSi2 film whereas others are situated below the TiSi2 surface. The void density and size increase with decreasing polySi line-width, especially for line-widths < 0.24 µm. The voiding phenomenon was also observed to be moresevere for TiSi2 fabricated with enhanced salicidation techniques such as pre-amorphization-implant(PAl) and implant-through-metal (ITM) as compared to the conventional salicidationmethod without amorphization. The origin of the voids is found to coincide with the fluorinepeak at the TiSi2/polySi interface in the SIMS depth-concentration profiles.
The path for silicon materials development has been charted. By the year 2010 we will have fabricated integrated circuit chips containing 109 transistors with 40 Å thick gate oxides and 1000 Å minimum feature sizes running at 4 GHz clock speeds. It is conceivable that incremental advances on the current chip architecture will satisfy the required materials and process improvements. The interconnection problem is the only challenge without a proposed solution. The signal propagation delay between devices is now longer than the individual device gate delay. The resistance and capacitance associated with fine line Al interconnects limit speed and increase power consumption and crosstalk. High power line drivers are limited by the reliability constraint of electromigration. There is no current paradigm for 4 GHz, electronic clock distribution. Optical interconnection can remove the electronic transmission bandwidth limit. The main challenge is development of a silicon-compatible, microphotonic technology.
Rare earth doping has provided a means of sharp-line electroluminescence from silicon at λ = 1.54 μm. Silicon's high index of refraction and low absorption in the near infrared yield an ideal optical waveguide. As with microelectronics, the silicon / silicon-dioxide materials system allows high levels of integration and functionality. The applications of silicon materials to light emission (Si:Er), optical waveguides (Si/SiO2), photonic switching (Si/SiO2) and photon detection (SiGe) are reviewed. These developments are discussed in the context of systems applications to communications and computation.
We report flexible synthesis of III-Nitride nanowires and heterostructures by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) via a catalytic vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism. Indium is used as an in-situ catalyst to facilitate and sustain the stability of liquid phase droplet for VLS growth based on thermodynamic consideration. The employment of mesoporous molecular sieves (MCM-41) helps to prevent the coalescence of catalyst droplets and to promote nucleation statistics. Cathodoluminescence (CL) of GaN nanowires shows near band-edge emission at 370nm, and strong E2 phonon peak is observed at room temperature in Raman scattering spectra. Both binary GaN and AlN nanowires have been synthesized by MOCVD. Three-dimensional AlN/GaN trunk-branch nanostructures are reported to illustrate the versatility of incorporating the VLS mechanism into MOCVD process.