To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We present first results from pilot observations using a phased array feed (PAF) mounted on the Parkes 64-m radio telescope. The observations presented here cover a frequency range from 1 150 to 1 480 MHz and are used to show the ability of PAFs to suppress standing wave problems by a factor of ~10, which afflict normal feeds. We also compare our results with previous HIPASS observations and with previous H i images of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Drift scan observations of the GAMA G23 field resulted in direct H i detections at z = 0.0043 and z = 0.0055 of HIPASS galaxies J2242-30 and J2309-30. Our new measurements generally agree with archival data in spectral shape and flux density, with small differences being due to differing beam patterns. We also detect signal in the stacked H i data of 1 094 individually undetected galaxies in the GAMA G23 field in the redshift range 0.05 ⩽ z ⩽ 0.075. Finally, we use the low standing wave ripple and wide bandwidth of the PAF to set a 3σ upper limit to any positronium recombination line emission from the Galactic Centre of <0.09 K, corresponding to a recombination rate of <3.0 × 1045 s−1.
The Square Kilometre Array will be an amazing instrument for pulsar astronomy. While the full SKA will be sensitive enough to detect all pulsars in the Galaxy visible from Earth, already with SKA1, pulsar searches will discover enough pulsars to increase the currently known population by a factor of four, no doubt including a range of amazing unknown sources. Real time processing is needed to deal with the 60 PB of pulsar search data collected per day, using a signal processing pipeline required to perform more than 10 POps. Here we present the suggested design of the pulsar search engine for the SKA and discuss challenges and solutions to the pulsar search venture.
An evolution of the low-frequency pulse profile of PSR B2217+47 is observed during a six-year observing campaign with the LOFAR telescope at 150 MHz. The evolution is manifested as a new component in the profile trailing the main peak. The leading part of the profile, including a newly-observed weak component, is steady during the campaign. The transient component is not visible in simultaneous observations at 1500 MHz using the Lovell telescope, implying a chromatic effect. A variation in the dispersion measure of the source is detected in the same timespan. Precession of the pulsar and changes in the magnetosphere are investigated to explain the profile evolution. However, the listed properties favour a model based on turbulence in the interstellar medium (ISM). This interpretation is confirmed by a strong correlation between the intensity of the transient component and main peak in single pulses. Since PSR B2217+47 is the fourth brightest pulsar visible to LOFAR, we speculate that ISM-induced pulse profile evolution might be relatively common but subtle and that SKA-Low will detect many similar examples. In this scenario, similar studies of pulse profile evolution could be used in parallel with scintillation arcs to characterize the properties of the ISM.
During 2016 February, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science and the Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy installed, commissioned, and carried out science observations with a phased array feed receiver system on the 64-m diameter Parkes radio telescope. Here, we demonstrate that the phased array feed can be used for pulsar observations and we highlight some unique capabilities. We demonstrate that the pulse profiles obtained using the phased array feed can be calibrated and that multiple pulsars can be simultaneously observed. Significantly, we find that an intrinsic polarisation leakage of −31 dB can be achieved with a phased array feed beam offset from the centre of the field of view. We discuss the possibilities for using a phased array feed for future pulsar observations and for searching for fast radio bursts with the Parkes and Effelsberg telescopes.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
While trauma-focused cognitive–behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is the ‘gold standard’ treatment for pediatric post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known about the neural mechanisms by which TF-CBT produces clinical benefit. Here, we test the hypothesis that PTSD symptom reduction during TF-CBT among adolescent girls with PTSD is associated with changes in patterns of brain functional connectivity (FC) with the amygdala during cognitive reappraisal.
Adolescent girls with PTSD related to physical or sexual assault (n = 34) were enrolled in TF-CBT, delivered in an approximately 12-session format, in an open trial. Before and after treatment, they were engaged in a cognitive reappraisal task, probing neural mechanisms of explicit emotion regulation, during 3 T functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Among adolescent girls completing TF-CBT with usable pre- and post-treatment scans (n = 20), improvements in self-reported emotion from pre- to post-treatment were positively related to improvements in PTSD symptoms. Adolescent girls with greater post-treatment symptom reduction were also able to suppress amygdala–insula FC while re-appraising, which was not evident in girls with less symptom reduction. Pre- to post-treatment changes in right amygdala to left insula FC that scaled with PTSD symptom reduction also scaled with improvements in emotion regulation.
These preliminary results suggest the neurocircuitry mechanisms through which TF-CBT produces clinical outcomes, providing putative brain targets for augmenting TF-CBT response.
Several studies in the last decade have explored dramatic instances of refractive fringing in dynamic spectra. We draw attention to a subtler but more widespread refractive effect: wisp-like structures extending (either linearly or with curvature) outward from the origin in the secondary spectrum plane. We have employed a simple pinhole screen simulation to investigate this phenomenon. It appears that the presence of one or more wisps in a secondary spectrum indicates a clump of scattering material that is significantly offset from the optical axis. Unlike the dramatic fringing events that have been investigated in the past, however, the interference that gives rise to a wisp is interference between rays within a scattering clump rather than between two major ray bundles. Furthermore, the scattering clump must be significantly elongated along the direction of pulsar motion. The range of fringe spacings that this produces, all with a similar slope in the secondary spectrum, gives rise to the linear extent of the wisp in the secondary spectrum.
Geothermal low enthalpy heat in non-magmatic areas can be produced by pumping hot water from aquifers at large depth (>1 km). Key parameters for aquifer performance are temperature, depth, thickness and permeability. Geothermal exploration in the Netherlands can benefit considerably from the wealth of oil and gas data; in many cases hydrocarbon reservoirs form the lateral equivalent of geothermal aquifers. In the past decades subsurface oil and gas data have been used to develop 3D models of the subsurface structure. These models have been used as a starting point for the mapping of geothermal reservoir geometries and its properties. A workflow was developed to map aquifer properties on a regional scale. Transmissivity maps and underlying uncertainty have been obtained for 20 geothermal aquifers. Of particular importance is to take into account corrections for maximum burial depth and the assessment of uncertainties. The mapping of transmissivity and temperature shows favorable aquifer conditions in the northern part of the Netherlands (Rotliegend aquifers), while in the western and southern parts of the Netherlands aquifers of the Triassic and Upper Cretaceous / Jurassic have high prospectivity. Despite the high transmissivity of the Cenozoic aquifers, the limited depth and temperature reduce the prospective geothermal area significantly.
The results show a considerable remaining uncertainty of transmissivity values, due to lack of data and heterogeneous spatial data distribution. In part these uncertainties may be significantly reduced by adding well test results and facies parameters for the map interpolation in future work. For underexplored areas this bears a significant risk, but it can also result in much higher flowrates than originally expected, representing an upside in project performance.
A resource assessment methodology has been developed to designate prospective high permeable clastic aquifers and to assess the amount of potential geothermal energy in the Netherlands. It builds from the wealth of deep subsurface data from oil and gas exploration and production which is publicly and digitally available. In the resource assessment various performance indicator maps have been produced for direct heat applications (greenhouse and spatial heating). These maps are based on detailed mapping of depth, thickness, porosity, permeability, temperature and transmissivity (methodology presented in other papers in this NJG issue). In the resource assessment analysis 14 lithostratigraphic units (clastic aquifers) have been considered, ranging in age from the Permian to the Cenozoic. Performance maps have been made which include a) the expected doublet power (MWth) to be retrieved; b) the number of houses or hectares that can be heated from one doublet; and c) a potential indicator map, which provides insight in subsurface suitability for specific applications from a techno-economic perspective. To obtain a nationwide overview of the resource potential in terms of recoverable geothermal energy, a progressive filtering approach was used from total heat content of the reservoirs (Heat In Place – HIP) via the heat that can potentially be recovered (Potential Recovery Heat – PRH) to energy maps taking into account a techno-economic performance evaluation (Recoverable Heat – RH). Results show that the HIP is approximately 820,000 PJ which is significantly more than previous estimates of around 90,000 PJ. This considerable increase in geothermal energy potential is the result of accurate geological mapping of key reservoir properties and the development of state-of-the-art techno-economic performance assessment tools that performs Monte Carlo simulation. Moreover, for the previous estimates boundary conditions were set with the aim to compare the geothermal potential between different EU countries (Rijkers & Van Doorn, 1997). Taking into account techno-economic aspects, the RH is in the order of 85,000 PJ. This is equivalent to ~70% of the ultimate recoverable gas of the Slochteren Gas field. In total over 400 maps have been created or used as input for the resource assessment. Together, they provide comprehensive information for geothermal energy development from various stakeholder perspectives. The maps can be interactively assessed in the web-based portal ThermoGIS (www.thermogis.nl). This application complements existing subsurface information systems available in the Netherlands and supports the geothermal community in assessing the feasibility of a geothermal system on a regional scale.
We developed a syndromic surveillance (SyS) concept using emergency dispatch, ambulance and emergency-department data from different European countries. Based on an inventory of sub-national emergency data availability in 12 countries, we propose framework definitions for specific syndromes and a SyS system design. We tested the concept by retrospectively applying cumulative sum and spatio-temporal cluster analyses for the detection of local gastrointestinal outbreaks in four countries and comparing the results with notifiable disease reporting. Routine emergency data was available daily and electronically in 11 regions, following a common structure. We identified two gastrointestinal outbreaks in two countries; one was confirmed as a norovirus outbreak. We detected 1/147 notified outbreaks. Emergency-care data-based SyS can supplement local surveillance with near real-time information on gastrointestinal patients, especially in special circumstances, e.g. foreign tourists. It most likely cannot detect the majority of local gastrointestinal outbreaks with few, mild or dispersed cases.
We present an overview of the latest results from the PdBI Arcsecond Whirlpool Survey (PAWS, PI: E. Schinnerer), which has mapped CO(1-0) emission in the nearby grand-design spiral galaxy M51 at 40pc resolution. Our data are sensitive to GMCs above 105 M⊙, allowing the construction of the largest GMC catalog to date – containing over 1500 objects – using the CPROPS algorithm (Rosolowsky & Leroy 2006). In the inner disk of M51, the properties of the CO emission show significant variation that can be linked to the dynamical environment in which the molecular gas is located. We find that dynamically distinct regions host clouds with different properties and exhibit different GMC mass spectra, as well as distinct patterns of star formation. To understand how this sensitivity to environment emerges, we consider the role of pressure on GMC stabilization (including shear and star formation feedback-driven turbulence). We suggest that, in the presence of significant external pressure, streaming motions driven by the spiral arm can act to reduce the surface pressure on clouds. The resulting stabilization impacts the global pattern of star formation and can account for the observed non-monotonic radial dependence of the gas depletion time. Our findings have implications for the observed scatter in the standard GMC relations and extragalactic star formation laws.
Recent results on metastable semiconducting alloys, concerning in particular the growth of new Sn-based alloys (GaSb)1−x(Sn2)x and Gel−xSnx and the physical properties of (GaAs)1−x(Ge2)x and (GaSb)1−x(Ge2)x, are discussed. (GaSb)1−x(Sn2)x and Ge1−xSnx alloy films were grown with x-values as high as 0.20 and 0.15, respectively, well in excess of equilibrium Sn solid solubility limits (<1%) while epitaxial (GaAs)1−x(Ge2) and (GaSb)1−x(Ge2)x alloys were obtained on (100) GaAs at compositions ranging across the pseudobinary phase diagram. Low energy ion bombardment induced collisional mixing and preferential sputtering during film growth played a critical role in obtaining single phase alloys. An optimal ion energy, which depended on the ion flux and the alloy composition, was determined, allowing in most cases growth at temperatures T, sufficient for obtaining single crystal alloys on (100) GaAs and (100) Ge substrates. Decomposition of the Sn-based alloys occurred above a critical Ts- value via α-Sn-rich precipitates which were stable above the β-Sn melting point. X-ray diffraction, STEM, EXAFS, and Raman spectroscopy measurements, performed on single crystal (GaAs)1−x(Ge2)x and (GaSb)1−x(Ge2)x alloys, indicate that there is a transition in the long-range order from zincblende to diamond with increasing x while the short-range order remains perfect at all compositions, i.e. no V-V or III-Ill bonds are observed. These results are discussed in light of recent models which relate (GaAs)1−x(Ge2)x atomic structure to its band structure and optical properties.
ESCA valence band and core level loss results have been determined that appear to be directly related to the degree of covalency/ionicity and other bonding features of certain semi-conductor systems. Specific applications are presented that aid in the characterization of the key chemistry of dielectric oxide/semiconductor interfaces and also may help to determine the relative metastability of the solid solution of Group IV elements (e.g., Ge) into certain III-V lattices (e.g., GaAs). It is shown that these features are not detectable through conventional core level shift arguments, and that the aforementioned novel approaches often require high resolution ESCA.
Simultaneous measurements of neutron reflectivity and prompt gamma ray emission, from samples with buried Gd layers, are shown to be of significant aid in determining the depth profile of the entire sample. Because of resonant enhancement of the neutron standing waves in the sample, the gamma ray signals are considerably enhanced making these experiments possible. A possible application of this technique to study grazing angle neutron diffraction is also mentioned.
Melt-spun Nd2Fe14B (2–14–1) ribbons were produced under active vacuum and different partial pressures of inert gases of Ar and He. Microstructure and thermal analyses were performed to understand the microstructural evolution and glass formability (GF) of the ribbons. He atmosphere enhances the quenchability of the ribbons over Ar and vacuum. Ribbons made under 250 Torr He have more uniform microstructure and smoother surfaces than those under 760 Torr He. The higher quenchability induced by He, which increases the interfacial heat transfer coefficient between the melt and rotating wheel during melt spinning, is due to its higher thermal conductivity compared to Ar. The lower pressure stabilizes the turbulence between the melt-pool and Cu wheel, enhancing the heat transfer resulting in a more uniform quench. As a result, a more uniform ribbon microstructure can be obtained at relatively low wheel speeds.
Between 1985 and 2008, a total of 102 387 wild boar sera originating from Eastern Germany covering an area of 108 589 km2 were tested for the presence of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV)-specific antibodies. From 1985 until 1991 and from 1992 until 2008, wild boar sera were exclusively investigated using either conventional seroneutralization assays (n=39 621) or commercial gB and full antigen ELISAs (n=62 766), respectively. Spatial-temporal analysis revealed an increasing ADV seroprevalence from 0·4% to 15·9%, on average, during the 24-year observation period that went along with a continuous spread of the infection in a western direction. During 2006 and 2008, 18% of the 66 affected districts had ADV seroprevalences >30%. There was a significant correlation between ADV seroprevalence and the hunting index of population density (HIPD) of wild boar in the entire study area, although this did not hold true for some regions. Seroprevalences did not differ between sexes but were age-dependent. East Germany has been officially free of Aujeszky's disease (pseudorabies) in domestic pigs since 1985. Although a risk for domestic pigs cannot be completely ruled out, experience has shown that ADV in domestic pigs could be eliminated although the virus was present in the wild boar population. Despite increasing ADV seroprevalence in the East German wild boar population no spillover infections from wild boar to domestic pigs have been reported. To further trace ADV infections in the wild boar population in Germany, a nationwide serological monitoring programme should be implemented.