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Ultracompact H II regions are small, dense regions of ionised gas surrounding high-mass stars which are still embedded in their natal molecular clouds. A survey of such regions has been commenced in an attempt to improve our understanding of the processes of high-mass star formation. The initial stages of the survey have involved selection of likely candidates from the IRAS Point Source Catalogue, correlation with radio continuum emission at 4·85 GHz and subsequent observations of methanol maser emission at 6·668 GHz. Preliminary results of the methanol maser survey are given.
Pain is a common symptom of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). We investigated the effects of the treatments used in the PACE trial [cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), graded exercise therapy (GET), adaptive pacing therapy (APT) and specialist medical care (SMC)] on pain in CFS.
We compared pain outcomes including individual painful symptoms, taken from the CDC criteria for CFS and co-morbid fibromyalgia. We modelled outcomes adjusting for baseline variables with multiple linear regression.
Significantly less frequent muscle pain was reported by patients following treatment with CBT compared to SMC (mean difference = 0.38 unit change in frequency, p = 0.02), GET versus SMC (0.42, p = 0.01) and GET versus APT (0.37, p = 0.01). Significantly less joint pain was reported following CBT versus APT (0.35, p = 0.02) and GET versus APT (0.36, p = 0.02). Co-morbid fibromyalgia was less frequent following GET versus SMC (0.03, p = 0.03). The effect sizes of these differences varied between 0.25 and 0.31 for muscle pain and 0.24 and 0.26 for joint pain. Treatment effects on pain were independent of ‘change in fatigue’.
CBT and GET were more effective in reducing the frequency of both muscle and joint pain than APT and SMC. When compared to SMC, GET also reduced the frequency of co-morbid fibromyalgia; the size of this effect on pain was small.
Aqueous phase mass transfer through the rocks surrounding a radioactive waste repository will take place by diffusion and convection. This paper presents a comprehensive set of measurements of the mass transfer characteristics for a single, naturally occurring, clay. These data have been compared with the results predicted by mathematical models of mass transport in porous media, in order to build confidence in these models.
We present observations of the high mass star forming region S88B taken with the VLA with the aim of measuring magnetic fields via the Zeeman effect. By observing thermal absorption lines of OH at 1665 and 1667 MHz, we obtain magnetic fields between 90 and 210 μG. We find these magnetic fields to be dynamically significant in this region.
The combination of spatial and spectral resolution allow us to use Chandra in the study regions of massive star formation which had been inaccessible even from the ground until the last decade. IRAC and MIPS data from Spitzer can be combined with the X–ray data to provide insight into the presence of a disk and the activity of the star. The total package allows us to better understand the evolution of the clusters. We have an ongoing program to study several young star forming clusters including distant clusters between 1-3 kpc which support O stars, RCW 38, NGC 281 and RCW 108 and well as clusters within a kpc including IRAS 20050+2720 and NGC 1579, which is a small cluster centered on the Be star LkHα101 and is of uncertain distance although the X-ray data help us refine the current distance estimates. Given the space constraints we only discuss RCW 108 below.
Significant deficiencies in personal social networks and social support in non-psychotic psychiatric out-patients have been reported by Henderson and his colleagues. In a replication study, 50 non-psychotic psychiatric out-patients were compared with 50 matched controls. Patients reported spending less time in social interaction, but more time in unpleasant interaction during the previous week; they also had fewer attachment figures, close relatives and good friends and fewer social contacts than controls. However, the separate analysis of Neurotic and Retarded depressives (using the Present State Examination) failed to replicate all these findings in the Retarded depressives. It is concluded that these associations are confirmed in neurotic patients, but that the more severe depressive disorders require further investigation.
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