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We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between eosinophils in ascites and the diagnosis of intestinal anisakidosis in patients with peritoneal signs on physical examination. We reviewed retrospectively 16 patients diagnosed with intestinal anisakidosis, evaluated between 2012 and 2015. All patients had ingested raw anchovies. The analysis of ascites fluid in ten of these patients was compared with that of 15 patients with ascites and other abdominal pathology (except liver cirrhosis). All patients had an increased number of white blood cells in the ascites fluid. The eosinophil count was significantly higher in patients with intestinal anisakidosis (P < 0.01). All patients had a good outcome. Increased eosinophils in ascites fluid is strongly associated with the diagnosis of intestinal anisakidosis.
The cross power spectrum of the 21 cm signal and Lyman-α emitters (LAEs) is a probe of the Epoch of Reionization. Astrophysical foregrounds do not correlate with the LAE distribution, though the foregrounds contribute to the error. To study the impact of foregrounds on the measurement, we assume realistic observation by the Murchison Widefield Array using a catalogue of radio galaxies, a LAE survey by the Subaru Hyper Supreme-Cam and the redshift of LAEs is determined by the Prime Focus Spectrograph. The HI distribution is estimated from a radiative transfer simulation with models based on results of radiation hydrodynamics simulation. Using these models, we found that the error of cross power spectrum is dominated by foreground terms. Furthermore, we estimate the effects of foreground removal, and find 99% of the foreground removal is required to detect the 21 cm-LAE signal at k ∼ 0.4 h Mpc−1.
The Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plant workers experienced multiple stressors as both victims and onsite workers after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent nuclear accidents. Previous studies found that disaster-related exposures, including discrimination/slurs, were associated with their mental health. Their long-term impact has yet to be investigated.
A total of 968 plant workers (Daiichi, n = 571; Daini, n = 397) completed self-written questionnaires 2–3 months (time 1) and 14–15 months (time 2) after the disaster (response rate 55.0%). Sociodemographics, disaster-related experiences, and peritraumatic distress were assessed at time 1. At time 1 and time 2, general psychological distress (GPD) and post-traumatic stress response (PTSR) were measured, respectively, using the K6 scale and Impact of Event Scale Revised. We examined multivariate covariates of time 2 GPD and PTSR, adjusting for autocorrelations in the hierarchical multiple regression analyses.
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD at time 1 (β = 0.491, p < 0.001) and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.065, p = 0.025, adjusted R2 = 0.24). Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted with higher PTSR at time 1 (β = 0.548, p < 0.001), higher age (β = 0.085, p = 0.005), and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.079, p = 0.003, adjusted R2 = 0.36).
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1. Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted by higher PTSR, higher age, and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1.
About 10 X-ray binaries in our Galaxy and LMC/SMC are considered to contain black hole candidates (BHCs). Among these objects, Cyg X-1 was identified as the first BHC, and it has led BHCs for more than 25 years(Oda 1977, Liang and Nolan 1984). It is a binary system composed of normal blue supergiant star and the X-ray emitting compact object. The orbital kinematics derived from optical observations indicates that the compact object is heavier than ~ 4.8 M⊙ (Herrero 1995), which well exceeds the upper limit mass for a neutron star(Kalogora 1996), where we assume the system consists of only two bodies. This has been the basis for BHC of Cyg X-1.
Although human paranasal sinuses are critical organs for nitric oxide production, little information is available regarding the role of arginase in alterations of arginine metabolism and nasal nitric oxide levels that may be informative for classifying chronic rhinosinusitis subtypes.
The expression and localisation of arginase and nitric oxide synthase isoforms in paranasal sinus mucosa were examined, and the fractional exhaled nitric oxide was measured in chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (n=18) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (n = 27) patients.
Increased arginase-2 activities in chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps patients were associated with significantly lower levels of nasal fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps patients showed significant NOS2 messenger RNA upregulation with concomitant higher levels of oral and nasal fractional exhaled nitric oxide.
These results indicate that fractional exhaled nitric oxide is a valid marker for differentiating chronic rhinosinusitis phenotypes based on a delicate balance between arginase and nitric oxide synthase activities in nitric oxide production.
In rats, maternal exposure to restraint stress during pregnancy can induce abnormalities in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems of the offspring. These effects are mediated by long-lasting hyperactivation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. However, little is known about the potential effects of stress during pregnancy on metabolic systems. We examined the effect of restraint stress in pregnant mice on the liver function of their offspring. The offspring of stressed mothers showed significantly higher lipid accumulation in the liver after weaning than did the controls; this accumulation was associated with increased expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins such as alanine aminotransferase 2 diglyceride acyltransferase 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and glucocorticoid receptor. Additionally, we observed increased levels of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, an intercellular mediator that converts glucocorticoid from the inactive to the active form, in the foetal and postnatal periods. These results indicate that restraint stress in pregnancy in mice induces metabolic abnormalities via 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1-related pathways in the foetal liver. It is therefore possible that exposure to stress in pregnant women may be a risk factor for metabolic syndromes (e.g. fatty liver) in children.
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis refers to the concept that ‘malnutrition during the fetal period induces a nature of thrift in fetuses, such that they have a higher change of developing non-communicable diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, if they grow up in the current well-fed society.’ Epigenetics is a chemical change in DNA and histones that affects how genes are expressed without alterations of DNA sequences. Several lines of evidence suggest that malnutrition during the fetal period alters the epigenetic expression status of metabolic genes in the fetus and that this altered expression can persist, and possibly lead to metabolic disorders. Similarly, mental stress during the neonatal period can alter the epigenetic expression status of neuronal genes in neonates. Moreover, such environmental, stress-induced, epigenetic changes are transmitted to the next generation via an acquired epigenetic status in sperm. The advantage of epigenetic modifications over changes in genetic sequences is their potential reversibility; thus, epigenetic alterations are potentially reversed with gene expression. Therefore, we potentially establish ‘preemptive medicine,’ that, in combination with early detection of abnormal epigenetic status and early administration of epigenetic-restoring drugs may prevent the development of disorders associated with the DOHaD.
Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a severe invasive infection characterized by the sudden onset of shock, multi-organ failure, and high mortality. In Japan, appropriate notification measures based on the Infectious Disease Control law are mandatory for cases of STSS caused by β-haemolytic streptococcus. STSS is mainly caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). Although an average of 60–70 cases of GAS-induced STSS are reported annually, 143 cases were recorded in 2011. To determine the reason behind this marked increase, we characterized the emm genotype of 249 GAS isolates from STSS patients in Japan from 2010 to 2012 and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The predominant genotype was found to be emm1, followed by emm89, emm12, emm28, emm3, and emm90. These six genotypes constituted more than 90% of the STSS isolates. The number of emm1, emm89, emm12, and emm28 isolates increased concomitantly with the increase in the total number of STSS cases. In particular, the number of mefA-positive emm1 isolates has escalated since 2011. Thus, the increase in the incidence of STSS can be attributed to an increase in the number of cases associated with specific genotypes.
There is an increased need for highly sensitive imaging devices to develop high resolution and high speed image sensors. Incident light intensity per pixel of image sensors is getting lower because the pixel resolution and frame rate of image sensors are becoming higher. We investigated the feasibility of using a photoconductor with tin-doped gallium oxide (Ga2O3:Sn)/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) hetero-junction for visible light image sensors. CIGS chalcopyrite thin films have great potential for improving the sensitivity of image sensors and CIGS chalcopyrite semiconductors have both a high absorption coefficient and high quantum efficiency. Moreover, the band gap can be adjusted for visible light. We applied Ga2O3 as an n-type semiconductor layer and a hole-blocking layer to CIGS thin film to reduce the dark current. The experimental results revealed that dark current was drastically reduced due to the application of Ga2O3 thin film, and an avalanche multiplication phenomenon was observed at an applied voltage of over 6 V. However, non-doped Ga2O3/CIGS hetero-junction only had sensitivity in the ultraviolet light region because their depletion region was almost completely spread throughout the Ga2O3 layer due to the low carrier density of the Ga2O3 layer. Therefore, we used Ga2O3:Sn for the n-type layer to increase carrier density. As a result, the depletion region shifted to the CIGS film and the cells had sensitivity in all visible regions. These results indicate that Ga2O3:Sn/CIGS hetero-junction are feasible for visible light photoconductors.
The feasibility of using a photoconductor with a Ga2O3/CuGaSe2 heterojunction for visible light sensors was investigated. CIGS chalcopyrite semiconductors have both a high absorption coefficient and high quantum efficiency. However, their dark current is too high for image sensors. In this study, we applied gallium oxide (Ga2O3) as a hole-blocking layer for CIGS thin film to reduce the dark current. Experimental results showed that the dark current was drastically reduced, and an avalanche multiplication phenomenon was observed at an applied voltage of over 6 V. However, this structure had sensitivity only in the ultraviolet light region because its depletion region was almost completely spread in the Ga2O3 layer since the carrier density of the Ga2O3 layer was much lower than that of the CIGS layer. These results indicate that the Ga2O3/CuGaSe2 heterojunction has potential for use in visible light sensors but that we also need to increase the carrier density of the Ga2O3 layer to shift the depletion region to the CIGS film.
Estimation of 50% lethal doses from nuclear DNA contents and subsequent species sensitivity distribution analysis was performed to derive regional 5% hazardous doses (HD5) for major orders Anura (e.g., frogs) and Caudata (e.g., salamanders) of amphibians inhabiting Japan, Australia, France, Czech Republic, Canada and some US states, where nuclear power plants or uranium mines are located. The HD5 values ranged from 3.0 to 7.7 Gy for the Anura inhabiting there while they ranged from 2.9 to 4.6 Gy for the Caudata. Comparison of these results with the worldwide HD5s (5.3 Gy for the Anura and 3.3 Gy for the Caudata) suggests that benchmark values for the Asian and Oceanic Anura and the European Caudata can be set at higher doses than the global values. Regional differences should be, therefore, considered when benchmark values are derived for some taxonomic groups.
A series of MHfO3: Tm (M =Ca, Sr and Ba) composition spread films and superlattices (SLs) were quickly fabricated on SrTiO3 (001) substrate in the molecular layer-by-layer growth using combinatorial pulsed laser deposition (PLD) under in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) monitoring. Crystal structures and luminescence properties of composition-spread and SLs were evaluated by the concurrent X-ray diffractometer and cathode luminescence (CL), respectively. CL properties of the films were found strongly dependent on their composition and stacking sequence. Possible effect of the stress due to the film-substrate interaction on the CL property is discussed.
The heteroepitaxy of InP on Si substrates was investigated using MOCVD. A thin GaAs intermediate layer was used to alleviate the 8.4% lattice mismatch between InP and Si. With the use of this intermediate layer, four inch size, single domain InP epilayer with small residual stress was reproducibly grown on off-(100) oriented Si substrates. The etch pit density (EPD) of as-grown InP layer was 5x107~1x108 cm-2 . The post growth annealing of this epilayer at 800~850ºC in aPH3+H2 ambient reduced EPD to 1~2x107 cm-2
We evaluated structural and electrical characteristics of undoped poly-Si oxide films. Poly-Si films made by solid phase crystallization at 600-900°C from undoped amorphous Si films were oxidized to form oxide layers of 140nm thickness. We observed protuberances on the surface of poly-Si layers after oxidation. Poly-Si oxide layers also generated protuberances above the protuberances of poly-Si films. The number of protuberances per unit area is larger in the case of high temperature crystallization. The measurement of current through the poly-Si oxide films shows that the conductivity of poly-Si oxide films depends on crystallization temperature of poly-Si films in the case of positive gate bias. When the gate is biased negatively, current through the poly-Si oxide films remained almost constant regardless of crystallization temperature. We find that poly-Si crystallized at lower temperatures offers poly-Si oxide films of lower leakage current in the case of electron injection from undoped poly-Si layers. The lower leakage current is due to highness of energy barrier for electron at undoped poly-Si/poly-Si oxide interface.
Fe and Si layers were deposited alternately by using ion beam sputtering apparatus and the relationship between crystal structure and soft magnetic properties of these multi-layered films have been investigated in detail. The clear periodicity of multi-layered films was confirmed even at the thicknesses of Fe and Si layers δFe and δSi as small as 8.5 Å.
The saturation magnetization 4πMs for all Fe layers decreased with decrease of δFe and δSi, and the coercivity Hc of these films took minimum of 1.0 Oe at δFe of 8.5 Å.
Such a significant decrease of 4TEMs may be attributed to the formation of nonmagnetic regions at both side of each Fe layers. The thickness of these nonmagnetic regions may be estimated at approximately 1.5 Å from the measured value of 4flMs. This thickness seems to be very small because it is almost equal to that of one monolayer of bcc α-Fe. The low Hc of the films with δFe and δSi of 8.5 Å may be due to the formation of ultra-fine crystallites in Fe layer by insertion of amorphous Si layer and the direct magnetostatic interaction among Fe layers.
Preparation processing to obtain 124 single phase films has been studied by MOCVD. The YBCO thin films which were fabricated on MgO(100) and SrTiO3(100) substrates, respectively, were obtained under both conditions of Ts(temperature of susceptor)=800°C and Po2(oxygen partial pressure)=17.5torr. It was found that the oriented peaks of 124 c-axis and of 123 a-axis were more prominent than others at the composition ratio(Y/Ba/Cu=l.0/2.7/4.7), using the MgO(100) substrates. The 123 a-axis oriented grain was observed by using SEM and TEM. We have obtained thin films which were dominant in the 124 phase on the SrTiO3(100) substrates. The film surface morphology on the SrTiO3(100) substrate was smoother than that on the MgO(100) substrate. The origin of a-axis oriented grain growth was explained by the surface step(about 10 À) on MgO(100).
Semiconducting TiO2 has some photoelectrochemical reactions under ultra-violet irradiation. These photoelectrochemical behaviors studied as possible protection from corrosion. TiO2 thick films were prepared on stainless steel by plasma-spray coating. The film thicknesses were 50∼100μm. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and the diffraction patterns clearly showed a rutile type structure. The crystallization of the films depends on the spray coating conditions. We have investigated the protection properties of the films by measuring the electrode potential. The electrode potential of the films were reduced by about 250m V under ultra-violet irradiation. This potential drop value is sufficient for protection from the corrosion.
The catalytic interaction of noble metal and main group elements in Rh/one-atomic layer GeO2/SiO2 and Pt/SbOx was investigated. The high temperature reduction produced RhGe and PtSb bimetallic particles in which Pt and Rh were electronically modified to retard catalytic activity. However, unique selective catalyses of Rh/one-atomic layer GeO2/SiO2 for CO hydrogenation reaction to oxygenate compounds and for NO+CO reaction to N2 were found. Under the low temperature reduction of Rh/one-atomic layer GeO2/SiO2 and the high temperature calcination of Pt/SbOx, the oxide phases, GeO2 and SbOx, were stable and the selective reduction of ethylacetate to ethanol and the selective oxidation of iso-C4H10 to methacrolein were observed. The high selectivities were ascribed to synergistic interaction between the noble metals and the main group element oxides through the diffusion of adsorbed species and reaction intermediates. The possibility of chemical control of noble metal-catalyses by main group elements is discussed.