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We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between eosinophils in ascites and the diagnosis of intestinal anisakidosis in patients with peritoneal signs on physical examination. We reviewed retrospectively 16 patients diagnosed with intestinal anisakidosis, evaluated between 2012 and 2015. All patients had ingested raw anchovies. The analysis of ascites fluid in ten of these patients was compared with that of 15 patients with ascites and other abdominal pathology (except liver cirrhosis). All patients had an increased number of white blood cells in the ascites fluid. The eosinophil count was significantly higher in patients with intestinal anisakidosis (P < 0.01). All patients had a good outcome. Increased eosinophils in ascites fluid is strongly associated with the diagnosis of intestinal anisakidosis.
The cross power spectrum of the 21 cm signal and Lyman-α emitters (LAEs) is a probe of the Epoch of Reionization. Astrophysical foregrounds do not correlate with the LAE distribution, though the foregrounds contribute to the error. To study the impact of foregrounds on the measurement, we assume realistic observation by the Murchison Widefield Array using a catalogue of radio galaxies, a LAE survey by the Subaru Hyper Supreme-Cam and the redshift of LAEs is determined by the Prime Focus Spectrograph. The HI distribution is estimated from a radiative transfer simulation with models based on results of radiation hydrodynamics simulation. Using these models, we found that the error of cross power spectrum is dominated by foreground terms. Furthermore, we estimate the effects of foreground removal, and find 99% of the foreground removal is required to detect the 21 cm-LAE signal at k ∼ 0.4 h Mpc−1.
The Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plant workers experienced multiple stressors as both victims and onsite workers after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent nuclear accidents. Previous studies found that disaster-related exposures, including discrimination/slurs, were associated with their mental health. Their long-term impact has yet to be investigated.
A total of 968 plant workers (Daiichi, n = 571; Daini, n = 397) completed self-written questionnaires 2–3 months (time 1) and 14–15 months (time 2) after the disaster (response rate 55.0%). Sociodemographics, disaster-related experiences, and peritraumatic distress were assessed at time 1. At time 1 and time 2, general psychological distress (GPD) and post-traumatic stress response (PTSR) were measured, respectively, using the K6 scale and Impact of Event Scale Revised. We examined multivariate covariates of time 2 GPD and PTSR, adjusting for autocorrelations in the hierarchical multiple regression analyses.
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD at time 1 (β = 0.491, p < 0.001) and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.065, p = 0.025, adjusted R2 = 0.24). Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted with higher PTSR at time 1 (β = 0.548, p < 0.001), higher age (β = 0.085, p = 0.005), and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.079, p = 0.003, adjusted R2 = 0.36).
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1. Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted by higher PTSR, higher age, and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1.
Although human paranasal sinuses are critical organs for nitric oxide production, little information is available regarding the role of arginase in alterations of arginine metabolism and nasal nitric oxide levels that may be informative for classifying chronic rhinosinusitis subtypes.
The expression and localisation of arginase and nitric oxide synthase isoforms in paranasal sinus mucosa were examined, and the fractional exhaled nitric oxide was measured in chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (n=18) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (n = 27) patients.
Increased arginase-2 activities in chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps patients were associated with significantly lower levels of nasal fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps patients showed significant NOS2 messenger RNA upregulation with concomitant higher levels of oral and nasal fractional exhaled nitric oxide.
These results indicate that fractional exhaled nitric oxide is a valid marker for differentiating chronic rhinosinusitis phenotypes based on a delicate balance between arginase and nitric oxide synthase activities in nitric oxide production.
In rats, maternal exposure to restraint stress during pregnancy can induce abnormalities in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems of the offspring. These effects are mediated by long-lasting hyperactivation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. However, little is known about the potential effects of stress during pregnancy on metabolic systems. We examined the effect of restraint stress in pregnant mice on the liver function of their offspring. The offspring of stressed mothers showed significantly higher lipid accumulation in the liver after weaning than did the controls; this accumulation was associated with increased expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins such as alanine aminotransferase 2 diglyceride acyltransferase 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and glucocorticoid receptor. Additionally, we observed increased levels of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, an intercellular mediator that converts glucocorticoid from the inactive to the active form, in the foetal and postnatal periods. These results indicate that restraint stress in pregnancy in mice induces metabolic abnormalities via 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1-related pathways in the foetal liver. It is therefore possible that exposure to stress in pregnant women may be a risk factor for metabolic syndromes (e.g. fatty liver) in children.
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis refers to the concept that ‘malnutrition during the fetal period induces a nature of thrift in fetuses, such that they have a higher change of developing non-communicable diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, if they grow up in the current well-fed society.’ Epigenetics is a chemical change in DNA and histones that affects how genes are expressed without alterations of DNA sequences. Several lines of evidence suggest that malnutrition during the fetal period alters the epigenetic expression status of metabolic genes in the fetus and that this altered expression can persist, and possibly lead to metabolic disorders. Similarly, mental stress during the neonatal period can alter the epigenetic expression status of neuronal genes in neonates. Moreover, such environmental, stress-induced, epigenetic changes are transmitted to the next generation via an acquired epigenetic status in sperm. The advantage of epigenetic modifications over changes in genetic sequences is their potential reversibility; thus, epigenetic alterations are potentially reversed with gene expression. Therefore, we potentially establish ‘preemptive medicine,’ that, in combination with early detection of abnormal epigenetic status and early administration of epigenetic-restoring drugs may prevent the development of disorders associated with the DOHaD.
Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a severe invasive infection characterized by the sudden onset of shock, multi-organ failure, and high mortality. In Japan, appropriate notification measures based on the Infectious Disease Control law are mandatory for cases of STSS caused by β-haemolytic streptococcus. STSS is mainly caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). Although an average of 60–70 cases of GAS-induced STSS are reported annually, 143 cases were recorded in 2011. To determine the reason behind this marked increase, we characterized the emm genotype of 249 GAS isolates from STSS patients in Japan from 2010 to 2012 and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The predominant genotype was found to be emm1, followed by emm89, emm12, emm28, emm3, and emm90. These six genotypes constituted more than 90% of the STSS isolates. The number of emm1, emm89, emm12, and emm28 isolates increased concomitantly with the increase in the total number of STSS cases. In particular, the number of mefA-positive emm1 isolates has escalated since 2011. Thus, the increase in the incidence of STSS can be attributed to an increase in the number of cases associated with specific genotypes.
There is an increased need for highly sensitive imaging devices to develop high resolution and high speed image sensors. Incident light intensity per pixel of image sensors is getting lower because the pixel resolution and frame rate of image sensors are becoming higher. We investigated the feasibility of using a photoconductor with tin-doped gallium oxide (Ga2O3:Sn)/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) hetero-junction for visible light image sensors. CIGS chalcopyrite thin films have great potential for improving the sensitivity of image sensors and CIGS chalcopyrite semiconductors have both a high absorption coefficient and high quantum efficiency. Moreover, the band gap can be adjusted for visible light. We applied Ga2O3 as an n-type semiconductor layer and a hole-blocking layer to CIGS thin film to reduce the dark current. The experimental results revealed that dark current was drastically reduced due to the application of Ga2O3 thin film, and an avalanche multiplication phenomenon was observed at an applied voltage of over 6 V. However, non-doped Ga2O3/CIGS hetero-junction only had sensitivity in the ultraviolet light region because their depletion region was almost completely spread throughout the Ga2O3 layer due to the low carrier density of the Ga2O3 layer. Therefore, we used Ga2O3:Sn for the n-type layer to increase carrier density. As a result, the depletion region shifted to the CIGS film and the cells had sensitivity in all visible regions. These results indicate that Ga2O3:Sn/CIGS hetero-junction are feasible for visible light photoconductors.
The feasibility of using a photoconductor with a Ga2O3/CuGaSe2 heterojunction for visible light sensors was investigated. CIGS chalcopyrite semiconductors have both a high absorption coefficient and high quantum efficiency. However, their dark current is too high for image sensors. In this study, we applied gallium oxide (Ga2O3) as a hole-blocking layer for CIGS thin film to reduce the dark current. Experimental results showed that the dark current was drastically reduced, and an avalanche multiplication phenomenon was observed at an applied voltage of over 6 V. However, this structure had sensitivity only in the ultraviolet light region because its depletion region was almost completely spread in the Ga2O3 layer since the carrier density of the Ga2O3 layer was much lower than that of the CIGS layer. These results indicate that the Ga2O3/CuGaSe2 heterojunction has potential for use in visible light sensors but that we also need to increase the carrier density of the Ga2O3 layer to shift the depletion region to the CIGS film.
Estimation of 50% lethal doses from nuclear DNA contents and subsequent species sensitivity distribution analysis was performed to derive regional 5% hazardous doses (HD5) for major orders Anura (e.g., frogs) and Caudata (e.g., salamanders) of amphibians inhabiting Japan, Australia, France, Czech Republic, Canada and some US states, where nuclear power plants or uranium mines are located. The HD5 values ranged from 3.0 to 7.7 Gy for the Anura inhabiting there while they ranged from 2.9 to 4.6 Gy for the Caudata. Comparison of these results with the worldwide HD5s (5.3 Gy for the Anura and 3.3 Gy for the Caudata) suggests that benchmark values for the Asian and Oceanic Anura and the European Caudata can be set at higher doses than the global values. Regional differences should be, therefore, considered when benchmark values are derived for some taxonomic groups.
An understanding of the dose-effect relationships of ionising radiation for nonhuman biota establishes important baselines for the radiological protection of ecosystems. We used standard laboratory tests to examine the dose-effect relationships of gamma radiation on the survival, growth and reproduction of the earthworm, Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta). Adult E. fetida were acutely irradiated with increasing doses of gamma radiation, and the subsequent survival, growth in wet weight and number of offspring were examined. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) was 825 Gy, and the 10% and 50% effective doses (ED10 and ED50) for growth were 20.2 and 94.7 Gy, respectively. The ED10 and ED50 for reproduction were 3.3 and 11.1 Gy, respectively.
This paper summarizes research activities in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) for evaluation of the radiation effects on selected terrestrial and aquatic organisms as well as the ecosystems. Seven organisms, conifers, fungi, earthworms, springtails, algae, daphnia and Medaka are presently selected to study. For the estimation of possible radiation dose, transfers of radionuclides and related elements from medium to organisms are evaluated. Dose-effect relationships of acute gamma radiation on the survival, growth, and reproduction of selected organisms have been studied. Studies on the effect of chronic gamma radiation at low dose rate were also started. In order to understand the mechanism of radiation effects and to find possible indicators of the effects, information of genome- and metagenome-wide gene expression has been collected. Evaluation of ecological effects of radiation is more challenging task. Study methods by using three-species microcosm were established, and an index for the holistic evaluation of effects on various ecological parameters was proposed. The microcosm has been simulated as a computer simulation code. Developments of more complicated and practical model ecosystems have been started. The Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) has been applied on soil bacterial community in order to evaluate the radiation effects on soil ecosystems.
Previous studies have reported prefrontal cortex (PFC) pathophysiology in bipolar disorder.
We examined the hemodynamics of the PFC during resting and cognitive tasks in 29 patients with bipolar disorder and 27 healthy controls, matched for age, verbal abilities and education. The cognitive test battery consisted of letter and category fluency (LF and CF), Sets A and B of the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM-A and RCPM-B) and the letter cancellation test (LCT). The tissue oxygenation index (TOI), the ratio of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) concentration to total hemoglobin concentration, was measured in the bilateral PFC by spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy. Changes in HbO2 concentration were also measured.
The bipolar group showed slight but significant impairment in performance for the non-verbal tasks (RCPM-A, RCPM-B and LCT), with no significant between-group differences for the two verbal tasks (LF and CF). A group×task×hemisphere analysis of variance (ANOVA) on the TOI revealed an abnormal pattern of prefrontal oxygenation across different types of cognitive processing in the bipolar group. Post hoc analyses following a group×task×hemisphere ANOVA on HbO2 concentration revealed that the bipolar group showed a greater increase in HbO2 concentration in the LCT and in RCPM-B, relative to controls.
Both indices of cortical activation (TOI and HbO2 concentration) indicated a discrepancy in the PFC function between verbal versus non-verbal processing, indicating task-specific abnormalities in the hemodynamic control of the PFC in bipolar disorder.
A three-dimensional neutral transport model using the DEGAS version 63 Monte Carlo code is described in order to understand the behavior of neutrals in the non-axisymmetric anchor region of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. A precise mesh structure with three-dimensional geometry was built up and the simulation was carried out under a plausible assumption of the particle source on the basis of experimental data. In standard ion-cyclotron-range-of-frequency heated plasmas, detailed measurements of Hα line emission were performed using a 5-ch Hα detector array in the outer-transition region of the east anchor cell and the experimental results were compared with the simulation. The spatial profile of Hα emission predicted from the simulation agreed well with the experimental result and the distinctive behavior of neutrals in this region was clarified.
A series of MHfO3: Tm (M =Ca, Sr and Ba) composition spread films and superlattices (SLs) were quickly fabricated on SrTiO3 (001) substrate in the molecular layer-by-layer growth using combinatorial pulsed laser deposition (PLD) under in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) monitoring. Crystal structures and luminescence properties of composition-spread and SLs were evaluated by the concurrent X-ray diffractometer and cathode luminescence (CL), respectively. CL properties of the films were found strongly dependent on their composition and stacking sequence. Possible effect of the stress due to the film-substrate interaction on the CL property is discussed.
We have developed 100-kV, 200-kV, and 350-kV cold-field-emission transmission electron microscopes (FE-TEMs) successively up to this time. Using these instruments, we have been studying the magnetic structure of materials, high-resolution imaging by electron holography, and dynamic observation of the vortex in superconductors by Lorentz microscopy. To make more progress in our research, we need a better electron beam in terms of coherency, beam brightness, and penetration. Here, we report a new lMV-cold-field-emission transmission electron microscope we have developed. Historically, the pioneering projects on a lMV-field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM) (Zeitler and Crewe, 1974) and a 1.6MV FE-STEM (Jouffrey et al., 1984) have been reported. In 1988, Maruse and Shimoyama obtained a lMV-field-emission beam using their 1.25MV-STEM connected to a field-emission gun. Since then, continuous improvements in beam brightness has been made.
The target specifications of our 1 MV-cold-field-emission TEM (H-1000FT) are as follows: Acceleration voltage: 1MV, high-voltage stability :
In this study, we have sought to establish whether N2O and ketamine alter the bispectral index during propofol–fentanyl anaesthesia. Fourteen surgical patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the N2O group (n=7) and the ketamine group (n=7). In both groups, anaesthesia was induced with propofol 1.5–2 mg kg−1 and fentanyl 2 μg kg−1 and maintained with propofol 5–7 mg kg−1 hr−1 to target the bispectral index between 40 and 50. After the bispectral index value had stabilized the propofol infusion rate was fixed. In the N2O group, the following concentrations of N2O were subsequently inhaled at 20-min intervals; 20, 40, 60 and 70%, and then N2O was terminated. In the ketamine group, ketamine (0.4 mg kg−1+1.0 mg kg−1h−1) was given. The bispectral index and 95% spectral edge frequency were recorded 20 min after each change in concentration of N2O or ketamine infusion. The bispectral index and 95% spectral edge frequency did not change significantly in the N2O group, but increased significantly from 44.1±0.7 and 16.0±0.5 to 58.6±1.4 and 19.5±0.3 (P <0.01), respectively, in the ketamine group. Additional N2O or ketamine did not decrease the bispectral index and 95% spectral edge frequency values. The depth of sedation should be assessed carefully using a bispectral index monitor when these anaesthetic agents are used together.