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In this paper, the robustness of the dynamic instability mitigation mechanism is first examined, and then the instability mitigation phenomenon is demonstrated in a deuterium–tritium (DT) fuel target implosion by wobbling heavy-ion beams (HIBs). The results presented here show that the mechanism of the dynamic instability mitigation is rather robust against changes in the phase, the amplitude and the wavelength of the wobbling perturbation applied. In general instability would emerge from the perturbation of the physical quantity. Normally the perturbation phase is unknown, so that the instability growth rate is discussed. However, if the perturbation phase is known, the instability growth can be controlled by a superposition of perturbations imposed actively: if the perturbation is induced by, for example, a driving beam axis oscillation or wobbling, the perturbation phase could be controlled and the instability growth is mitigated by the superposition of the growing perturbations. In this paper, we realize the superposition of the perturbation by the wobbling HIBs’ illumination onto a DT fuel target in heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF). Our numerical fluid implosion simulations present that the implosion non-uniformity is mitigated successfully by the wobbling HIBs illumination in HIF.
In this paper, a study on a fusion reactor core is presented in heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF), including the heavy-ion beam (HIB) transport in a fusion reactor, an HIB interaction with a background gas, the reactor cavity gas dynamics, the reactor gas backflow to the beam lines, and an HIB fusion reactor design. The HIB has remarkable preferable features to release the fusion energy in inertial fusion: in particle accelerators HIBs are generated with a high driver efficiency of about 30–40%, and the HIB ions deposit their energy inside of materials. Therefore, a requirement for the fusion target energy gain is relatively low, that would be ~50 to operate an HIF fusion reactor with a standard energy output of 1 GW of electricity. In a fusion reactor, the HIB charge neutralization is needed for a ballistic HIB transport. Multiple mechanical shutters would be installed at each HIB port at the reactor wall to stop the blast waves and the chamber gas backflow, so that the accelerator final elements would be protected from the reactor gas contaminant. The essential fusion reactor components are discussed in this paper.
In inertial fusion, one of scientific issues is to reduce an implosion non-uniformity of a spherical fuel target. The implosion non-uniformity is caused by several factors, including the driver beam illumination non-uniformity, the Rayleigh–Taylor instability (RTI) growth, etc. In this paper, we propose a new control method to reduce the implosion non-uniformity; the oscillating implosion acceleration δg(t) is created by pulsating and dephasing heavy-ion beams (HIBs) in heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF). The δg(t) would reduce the RTI growth effectively. The original concept of the non-uniformity control in inertial fusion was proposed in [Laser Part. Beams (1993) 11, 757–768]. In this paper, it was found that the pulsating and dephasing HIBs illumination provide successfully the controlled δg(t) and that δg(t) induced by the pulsating HIBs reduces well the implosion non-uniformity. Consequently the pulsating HIBs improve a pellet gain remarkably in HIF.
During the last years it has become evident that blazar class of AGN emit a lot of energy in the gamma-ray regime. It is generally thought that the non-thermal emission from blazars, observed from radio to GeV/TeV 7-rays, is radiation of very energetic particles via both synchrotron and Compton processes. This underlines the importance of high-energy emission for models of the blazar class of active galactic nuclei. Most of the gamma-bright AGN are variable, and flares with time scales as short as a day have been observed. This suggests that the site of gamma-ray emission is very compact and situated in a fluid which moves relativistically at a small angle towards the observer. It is generally assumed that the emission originates from the jet of these objects.
We investigated electronic structure of one-dimensional biradical molecular chain which is constructed by exploiting the covalency between organic molecules of a diphenyl derivative of s-indacenodiphenalene (Ph2-IDPL). To control the crystallinity, we used gas deposition method. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) revealed developed band structure with wide dispersion of the one-dimensional biradical molecular chain.
NEWAGE is a direction-sensitive dark matter search experiment with a gaseous
time-projection chamber. We improved the direction-sensitive dark matter limits by our
underground measurement. In this paper, R&D activities sinse the first underground
measurement are described.
The electrical properties of epitaxial La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 films on a SrTiO3(STO) substrate prepared by changing the laser fluence, the irradiation time and the film thickness using excimer laser metal organic deposition(ELMOD) at 500/cm2, the film showed a 3.9 % maximum temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR: defined as 1/R•dR/dT) which was obtained by the ArF laser irradiation at 80mJ/cm2 for 10min. At a constant fluence of 80mJ/cm2, the Tm (temperature of the maximum TCR) of the La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 films increased from 225K to near 250K with an increase in the irradiation time to 90min at which the TCR was almost 3.9%. The La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 film that showed the maximum TCR of 4.0% at 275K was obtained by the ELMOD process at 500°C using the optimum conditions (Flence:80mJ/cm2, Irradiation time: 90min, Film thickness: 80nm).
The orthorhombic-tetragonal YBa2Cu3O7-δ phase boundary in the δ-T diagram was determined by the detailed isobar TG measurement under the oxygen partial pressures of 1 to 0.01 atm. The phase boundary was found not to be located at 5 = const, but to have a slope of dδ/dT∼−4.7 × 10-4K-1. Using the same method, the transformation temperatures of a series of lanthanide substituted systems were measured at 1 atm. O2. The transformation temperature increased with increasing the atomic number of the lanthanide element. All these experimental results are well explained in terms of the order-disorder transformation caused by the repulsion energy between the nearest neighbor oxygen atoms on the Cu plane sandwiched by Ba planes.
Tc variations observed in some Tl-based superconductors were studied. Clear correlations were found between Tc, carrier concentration, and c-axis length. In particular, for Tl2Ba2CuO6, a decrease in oxygen content of about 0.1 per formula unit, which corresponded to a decrease in hole concentration of about 0.2, increased Tc up to about 80K from a metallic non-superconductor, and elongated the c axis by about 0.4%. In addition, as Tc values increased systematic changes in metal-sheet separations were observed. Tc variations caused by a change in oxygen content were also observed in Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8 and Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10. It was demonstrated that superconductivity appears in a certain appropriate range of carrier concentration similar to those observed in other high-Tc superconductors.
The surprisingly high Tc for the superconductivity of alkali doped C60 has spurred wide interest in understanding its mechanism [1–7]. We first report the superconductive properties of CsxRbyC60 which has a Tc as high as 33 K when x=2 and y=1 in the feed [4, 5]. SQUID measurements show that in this material the coherence length is 45 A and the penetration depth about 1, 800 A . It has now been proven that the observed increase in the Tc with the size of the alkali dopant is due to the increase in the lattice constant . This is most likely due to the changes in the density of states at the Fermi level. The other important parameter according to BSC theory is the phonon which mediates the electron-electron coupling. In the second part of this paper we present recent results which show that the Tc is indeed strongly influenced by this parameter . The isotope effect is unexpectedly strong on the Tc.
Ba1-xSrxTiO3 thin films have been deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substra by the pulsed ArF laser deposition method. Deposition conditions, such as ambient gas and substrt temperatze, have been optmized to rrxove crystallinepropesty. Fe oelectric p e phasehasbeenobtainod ithe BSTthin filns deposited above 500°C in Q2 gas havingpressure ofabout 13Pa. Using N2O gas instead of O2 gas improved the crystallinity, because highly chemical active oxygen radicals produced due to ultraviolet inadiation of the laser. Doping of Bi ranging around 2% fills of the role of decrease leakage current of BST thin films. Temperature dependence of the dielectric constant (εr) shows a sharp change, peaking aroumd room temperature. The peak point exists below 25°C in the ratio of Ba/Sr=1.1 film, and shills above 50°C in Ba/Sr=5.7 film. When the Ba/Sr ratio is 1.4 the dielectric peak exists near 27°C and is very sharp. The maxinium differentW rate of dielectric constanttversus temperature is the largest in Ba/Sr=1.4 film and is about 100K-1. This value is equivalent to apyroelectric coefficient of 1.8 × 10-7 C/cm2K, which is almost the same as that of LiTaO3 single crystl, a typical pyroelectric material.
Structural and ferroelectric properties of stoichiometric SrBi2Ta2O9 and Sr-deficient-and-Bi-excess Sr0.8Bi2.2Ta2O9 bulk ceramics materials are studied. The ferroelectric Curie temperatures for SrBi2Ta2O9 and Sr0.8Bi2.2Ta2O9 are 300 and 400°C, respectively. Structure analysis by neutron powder diffraction reveals that Bi2O2 layer and TaO6 octahedra are considerably distorted and that atomic displacement along the a-axis causes ferroelectric spontaneous polarization. In Sro8Bi22Ta2O9, both Bi-substitution and cation-vacancies exist at the Sr-site. The calculated polarization of Sr0.8Bi2.2Ta2O9 is higher than that of the stoichiometric sample, which is consistent with observations of remanent polarization in thin-film capacitors. The Bi-substitution and the cation-vacancies at the Sr site enhance structural distortion in the TaO6 octahedron and lead to the higher Curie temperature and the higher ferroelectric spontaneous polarization.
We have confirmed that grain boundaries are related to leakage problems in Ta2O5/SiON capacitors for high dielectric DRAMs. XRD studies using an intensity ratio of (200) to (001) showed that the crystallographic structure of Ta2O5 film was strongly dependent on preparation conditions. As the (200) oriented grains grew faster than the other grains, it became important to control its grain growth in forming uniform grain boundaries. TEM observation has shown that Ta2O5 film with a high intensity ratio of (200) to (001) was made up of large size grains and had SION interface intruding into grain boundaries. By using the current-mode AFM, we could monitor leakage current directly through grain boundaries on Ta2O5 film.
Real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE) method was applied to study thermal cleaning process of silicon surfaces for epitaxial growth by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV-CVD). For the first time, in-situ observation of oxide decomposition process under Si2H6 ambience was carried out. The substrates with thin oxide formed by wet chemical treatment were heated up by infrared heater under UHV or under Si2H6 ambience in an UHV-CVD chamber and the oxide decomposition processes were observed by RTSE. Ellipsometric parameters Psi and Delta increase with the progress of oxide decomposition process and become constant with the completion of the decomposition. It was found that the oxide decomposition process consists of two phases and rate-determing processes are different in each phase. It was also found that Si2H6 lowers the activation energies of oxide decomposition process in each phase.
Reflection spectroscopy was applied to evaluate the optical homogeneity and the refractive index of thin porous silicon (PS) layer. Variation in PS layer optical thickness was evaluated by measuring and mapping the reflectance over the surface area. For the circular anodization area of 17 mm diameter, the measured variation was less than 5 % on an area of 11 mm diameter. The anodization electrode position was found to have little influence on the homogeneity. A method to derive refractive index from a reflection spectrum is studied. The wavelength dependence of PS index measured by the method showed fair coincidence with the calculation based on effective medium approximation. In the two layer PS formation, optical thickness was found to change whether high porosity or low porosity layer is formed first.
To fill the gap between molecular design and the architecture of three-dimensional functional structures, we propose novel hyper-structured molecules (HSMs) based on welldefined and topologically controlled molecular systems. To this end we have developed carbazole dendrimers, trimers, cyclic oligomers and chromogenic calixarenes as HSMs. Photorefractivity was selected as the primary target function of these HSMs. Oligomers developed in our laboratory exhibit intrinsic photocarrier generation, transport, electro-optic, film-forming and poling properties. These multifunctional properties allow us to demonstrate optical image processing using optical phase conjugation. The topological shapes of indoaniline-derived calixarenes were studied by hyper-Rayleigh scattering. The two indoaniline moieties in calixarene derivatives were pre-aligned so as to enhance the net molecular hyperpolarizability. Besides dendric oligomers, cyclic oligomers can be used as a molecular platform which allows molecular level tuning of shape, size and topology for superior opto-electronic functions.