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In endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy, surgeons sometimes have concerns about performing an adequate incision with only a narrow intra-cavital view from one direction. In order to overcome these issues, fluoroscopic radiography was used during endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy.
Peri-operative fluoroscopic radiography was utilised to check the position of the diverticuloscope, and to confirm the extent of the incision during surgery. A balloon catheter was used to determine whether the cricopharyngeal muscle was sufficiently resected. Blood loss, peri-operative complications, and functional oral swallowing scale and penetration aspiration scale scores were evaluated.
In 12 out of 15 patients, intra-operative fluoroscopic radiography showed the diverticuloscope positioned in the post-cricoid area, and the cricopharyngeal muscle was raised and the surgery completed without adverse effect. Swallowing functions improved following surgery.
Intra-operative fluoroscopy might improve endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy by allowing surgeons to confirm the extent of resection, and by reducing peri-operative morbidity and complication rates.
Japan is still a medium-burden tuberculosis (TB) country. We aimed to examine trends in newly notified active TB incidence and TB-related mortality in the last two decades in Japan. This is a population-based study using Japanese Vital Statistics and Japan Tuberculosis Surveillance from 1997 to 2016. We determined active TB incidence and mortality rates (per 100 000 population) by sex, age and disease categories. Joinpoint regression was applied to calculate the annual percentage change (APC) in age-adjusted mortality rates and to identify the years showing significant trend changes. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates reduced from 33.9 to 13.9 and 37.3 to 11.3 per 100 000 population, respectively. Also, crude and age-adjusted mortality rates reduced from 2.2 to 1.5 and 2.8 to 1.0 per 100 000 population, respectively. Average APC in the incidence and mortality rates showed significant decline both in men (−6.2% and −5.4%, respectively) and women (−5.7% and −4.6%, respectively). Age-specific analysis demonstrated decreases in incidence and mortality rates for every age category, except for the incidence trend in the younger population. Although trends in active TB incidence and mortality rates in Japan have favourably decreased, the rate of decline is far from achieving TB elimination by 2035.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics and meteorological conditions. We used HFMD surveillance data of all 47 prefectures in Japan from January 2000 to December 2015. Spectral analysis was performed using the maximum entropy method (MEM) for temperature-, relative humidity-, and total rainfall-dependent incidence data. Using MEM-estimated periods, long-term oscillatory trends were calculated using the least squares fitting (LSF) method. The temperature and relative humidity thresholds of HFMD data were estimated from the LSF curves. The average temperature data indicated a lower threshold at 12 °C and a higher threshold at 30 °C for risk of HFMD infection. Maximum and minimum temperature data indicated a lower threshold at 6 °C and a higher threshold at 35 °C, suggesting a need for HFMD control measures at temperatures between 6 and 35 °C. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of maximum and minimum temperatures rather than the average temperature, to estimate the temperature threshold of HFMD infections. The results obtained might aid in the prediction of epidemics and preparation for the effect of climatic changes on HFMD epidemiology.
We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
The complex radio source Sgr A is embedded in a region near our Galactic Center. The dynamical center of our Galaxy is considered to be Sgr A*, the compact non-thermal radio source. Dynamical mass within ~0.1 pc from Sgr A* has been estimated to be ~ 3×106 M⊙. This places Sgr A* to be a candidate of a massive blackhole (Eckart and Genzel, 1997 and reference therein).
One major objective of our ASCA Galactic Plane Survey Project (AGPSP) is, utilizing the wide and high energy band (up to 10 keV) X-ray imaging capability and the high spectral resolving power of ASCA, to search possible X-ray SNRs in the Galactic inner disk. The observation of the field including G352.7-0.1 reported in this paper, was performed on 1996 March 14 during the first AO4 survey. We report on the X-ray SNR G352.7-0.1 found in AGPSP. G352.7-0.1 is one of the radio SNRs (Green 1996), and is classified as a shell-like SNR with the size of 8' x 6'.
The preliminary results of an mm-VLBI survey of spectral index on active galactic nuclei (AGN) are presented which suggest that their activities are only in the central regions. The difference in central activities may correspond to their different stages of evolution. We found a strong concentration to α = 0 for quasar and a spread distribution for HPQ.
A high performance VLBI recorder project using advanced digital technology started in 1995. TOSHIBA GBR 1000 and VLBI interface define 32 parallel, 32 MHz clock standard digital interface and support transparent recording/play-back to extremely high-speed digital bit stream. This is the formatter independent scientific recording bind the UTC to observed data. This highly reliable, low-bit-error-rate (10−16) recording system is also expected to be used in other scientific field. For the first example to examine the recorder performance in VLBI, we had been prepared 1024 Mbps sampler (256/512/1024 MSps, 2 bit, 4/2/1 ch). And here, an experimental giga-bit correlator specification for these VLBI acquisition system is introduced.
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
We have estimated the characteristic temperature T0 of GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. The density matrix theory including intraband relaxation broadening has been taken into account. The estimated T0 is about 300 K, which suggests a good temperature characteristic in GaN-based lasers.
We present the discovery of out-flow like plasma emissions with the Suzaku and ASCA data. Those plasmas have a size of ∼150 pc. Remarkably, the southern plasma is in a recombination dominant phase, which is not predicted by standard shock heating. A plausible scenario is either photoionization due to strong jet-like X-rays from Sgr A* or rapid cooling due to adiabatic expansion of a blowout plasma from the Galactic center about 105 years ago.
Progress and challenges for chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of GaN are discussed in detail by focusing on the importance of GaN surface oxidation during CMP. We report on the significant difference in the removal rates between Ga2O3 and GaN, suggesting that the surface oxidation reaction is the rate-limiting step for CMP of Ga-faced GaN. This is actually proved by the fact that ex-situ surface oxidation by annealing in air prior to CMP exhibits a marked reduction in the required CMP time to produce a damage-free surface. As a future challenge, we outline two of our recent developments, ultraviolet-assisted CMP and atmosphere-controlled CMP, that enable in-situ oxidation, since ex-situ oxidation must be modified to in-situ to further advance CMP.
We studied the electrical properties of thermally treated V2O5-CuO-Fe2O3-P2O5 (vanadate) glasses under reducing high-vacuum conditions. The glasses were prepared by using a melt-quenching method and then applied on Al2O3 substrates as ∼40μm-thick films. The glass films were then heat treated at 375−550°C under a vacuum of 10−6 Pa. Powder X-ray diffraction showed the formation of complex oxides of both MxV2O5 (M = Cu, Fe; x = 0.12−1.3) and vanadium oxides (VOx; x = 1.5−2.5). The resistivity of the glass film crystallized at 550°C measured at 50°C and 300°C were 1.8 × 100 Ωcm and 2.8 × 10−1 Ωcm, respectively, which was 10 times lower than that of the film crystallized in air. The Seebeck coefficient was −132 μV/K at 50°C and −130 μV/K at 300°C. These results show that the vanadate glasses crystallized under the appropriate condition become potential candidate materials for semiconductor and thermoelectric application.
We have investigated characteristic ferroelectric and structural antiphase domain structures in single crystals of hexagonal RMnO3 (R=Y, Ho, Lu, and Yb) by obtaining various electron diffraction patterns, dark-filed images and high-resolution lattice images. In the ferroelectric phase of RMnO3 characteristic domain structures consisting of six ferroelectric and structural antiphase domains, which can be identified as the “cloverleaf” pattern, is found in the (110) plane, in addition to the (001) plane, and are inherent to the ferroelectric phase of hexagonal RMnO3. In domain configuration with the cloverleaf pattern in the (110) plane, the structural antiphase boundaries are inclined to be parallel to the  direction.
The phase decomposition of the Al-rich γ TiAl intermetallic compound in the TiAl(L10) and Ti3Al5(P4/mbm) two phases region is investigated experimentally. On the phase decomposition of the Ti-56at%Al alloy, the single precipitate(Ti3Al5) shape is an oblate spheroid at the early stage of precipitation and each particle is aligned along certain direction of the orientation about 20 degrees from . During coarsening, the precipitates encounter each other, then, the shape of the particle becomes the slanted or bended plate. In the case of phase decomposition of the Ti-58at%Al alloy, the tweed-like structure is observed at the beginning of the aging. The precipitates are connected each other during coarsening, finally the microstructure becomes the large layered structure with a zigzag-shaped interface. These microstructure changes are simulated based on the phase field model. The morphology and the time development of the simulated microstructure are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Some optoelectronic effects in porous Si (PS) have been investigated in relation to the visible luminescence mechanism. As regards photoluminescence (PL), particular emphasis is placed on the relationship between photoconduction (PC) and PL excitation (PLE) spectra, the interaction of external electric field and PL emission, and polarization properties of PL Main subjects of electroluminescence (EL) studies reported here are the dynamic behavior of EL operation and the formation of a large-area contact by a conducting polymer (polypyrrole: PP). The observed experimental results (almost complete coincidence of PC spectra with PLE ones, linear polarization memory of PL definite correlation between the polarization degree and the PL efficiency, and comparable response time of electrical PL quenching and EL to the PL decay time) are consistent with our hypothesis that the major process of PL takes place within Si nanocrystallites. The electrical characterization of light-emitting PS diodes with PP contacts ensures the usefulness of the contact formation by electropolymerization as a technique for uniform and efficient carrier injection into PS.
Gas source silicon molecular beam epitaxial (Si-MBE) growth is microscopically governed by a disociative adsorption of silicon hydrides, such as Si2H6 source gas molecules on Si surface. The dissociative adsorption generates SiH species on the surface. From this hydride phase, hydrogen desorbs thermaly. The temperature dependence of the growth rate indicated that the hydrogen desorption from the SiH is the rate limiting step. In HBO2 Knudsen cell doping, B adsorbates block the surface migration. Such a blocking effect can be avoided by B2H6 gas dopant, because of the similar incorpration mechanism of B2H6 to that of Si2H6. However, in PH3 gas doping, a crystal quality degradation was observed at a high doping range due to the preferentially high sticking coefficient of PH3 and the resulting surface dangling bond termination. The selective epitaxial growth of a B doped layer using Si2H6 and B2H6 was applied to a novel structured base fabrication for super self-aligned selectively grown base transistor (SSSBT). A successful achievement of the SSSBT fabrication indicates the high potentiality of gas source Si-MBE to the sub-micron size ultra-high speed bipolar large scale integrated (LSI) circuits.
A single high Tc phase of Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor was obtained by following proper synthetic conditions:(a)addition of Pb, (b)proper starting composition, (c)codecomposition method, (d)sintering under low oxygen partial pressure and (e)long sintering. The composition analysis showed that every atomic site might be occupied by some element and there might not be defects or excess atoms in the structure. The hole donor in these samples is considered to be Pb on the Bi site and hole concentration seems to be, to some extent, controlled by the Pb content. A phase with four CuO2 layers have possibly grown on the surface of the grains of thi high Tc phase.
An interfacial mechanism for reactions between a Me-Ti thin film (Me=3d transition metals; Cu,Ni) and an A12O3 substrate is newly proposed. It has been clarified that Me3Ti3O (diamond cubic of Fd3m), which is formed as an intermediate phase in both the Cu-Ti/Al2O3 and Ni-Ti/Al2O3 systems, is responsible for the bonding between Me and A12O3. The solid-state reactions of the Me-Ti bilayer film/Al2O3 system were studied with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to clarify the interfacial reaction between Me-Ti and the A12O3 substrate. Me3Ti3O was observed at the interface between A12O3 and Me after annealing. Me3Ti3O was formed by oxidation of the Me-Ti compounds. The oxygen which reacted with the Me-Ti compounds has been found to be generated from the reduction of the A12O3 substrate.
Si KB X-ray emission spectra of SiO2—CaO binary glasses simulated with the DV-X α molecular orbital calculation were compared with ones measured by EPMA. The composition of the glass has been incorporated in the calculation of the Si 3p partial density of states (PDOS). The Si 3p PDOS, as a function of the CaO content, agreed well with the measured Si Kβ X-ray emission spectra of the 62.4mol%SiO2 – 37.6mol%CaO and 43.3mol%SiO2 – 56.7mol%CaO binary glasses. The present method was found to provide a very useful means of clarifying the change in the ionic configuration of the glass with the metal oxide content.