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Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a pathogenic nematode and the cause of neuroangiostrongyliasis, an eosinophilic meningitis more commonly known as rat lungworm disease. Transmission is thought to be primarily due to ingestion of infective third stage larvae (L3) in gastropods, on produce, or in contaminated water. The gold standard to determine the effects of physical and chemical treatments on the infectivity of A. cantonensis L3 larvae is to infect rodents with treated L3 larvae and monitor for infection, but animal studies are laborious and expensive and also raise ethical concerns. This study demonstrates propidium iodide (PI) to be a reliable marker of parasite death and loss of infective potential without adversely affecting the development and future reproduction of live A. cantonensis larvae. PI staining allows evaluation of the efficacy of test substances in vitro, an improvement upon the use of lack of motility as an indicator of death. Some potential applications of this assay include determining the effectiveness of various anthelmintics, vegetable washes, electromagnetic radiation and other treatments intended to kill larvae in the prevention and treatment of neuroangiostrongyliasis.
Combined archaeological, ecological, and geologic research on Chuginadak and Carlisle Islands in the Islands of Four Mountains (IFM) probed questions about the sustainability of human settlements over the past 4000 years in the face of geologic, ecological, and social hazards. We use a human ecodynamics approach to frame the investigation and present original archaeological evidence from this poorly known region of the remote Aleutian Islands. Several village sites occupied during the last four millennia are clustered in locations that were not damaged by earthquake-induced tsunamis; however, new geologic evidence indicates that at least one volcanic eruption forced humans to abandon one or more prehistoric village sites. Combined archaeological, ecological, and geologic analyses demonstrate resilient Unangax̂ occupations of the IFM through long-term climate change as well as earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions with occasional community vulnerability to volcanic eruptions.
The GALLEX collaboration aims at the detection of solar neutrinos in a radiochemical experiment employing 30 tons of Gallium in form of concentrated aqueous Gallium-chloride solution. The detector is primarily sensitive to the otherwise inaccessible pp-neutrinos. Details of the experiment have been repeatedly described before [1-7]. Here we report the present status of implementation in the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy). So far, 12.2 tons of Gallium are at hand. The present status of development allows to start the first full scale run at the time when 30 tons of Gallium become available. This date is expected to be January, 1990.
This essay traces Edward Soja's “geography of labor” in the Mississippi catfish industry. Our interdisciplinary analysis integrates the socioeconomic realities of the Mississippi delta with Steve Yarbrough's literary rendering of that place in his 1999 novel The Oxygen Man. We argue that Yarbrough's novel closely maps changes in Mississippi delta agribusiness and urges readers to reimagine spatial justice in a landscape infamous for racism and poverty.
Attitudes to aging have been investigated in non-carer populations and found to have important relationships with physical and mental health. However, these have not been explored in an older carer sample, although it is becoming increasingly important to clarify variables which are linked with positive carer outcomes. This is one of the first studies to report on older carers, their attitudes to aging, and the relationship with carer-related factors.
A cross-sectional study of 202 carers with a mean age of 70.8 years was conducted in Victoria, Australia, using carer demographic data, carer factors such as depression (using the Geriatric Depression Scale), burden (using the Zarit Burden Inventory, ZBI), physical health, personality, and attitudes to aging (using the Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire, AAQ). Spearman rank correlation and hierarchical regression analyses were used.
This study showed that carers had overall positive attitudes to aging inspite of their caring role. It also identified that carer factors including depression and burden contributed a significant amount of the variance to attitudes to aging in terms of physical change and psychosocial loss. Personality traits, specifically neuroticism, and extraversion, were also important contributors to attitudes to aging.
Results from this study demonstrated that inspite of moderate levels of depression and spending significant time caring, carers reported positive attitudes to aging. Treating depression, decreasing burden, and investigating the benefits of caring may assist older carers maintain their well-being.
We compared changes in the dietary patterns of morbidly obese patients undergoing either laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery or a comprehensive lifestyle intervention programme. The present 1-year non-randomised controlled trial included fifty-four patients in the lifestyle group and seventy-two in the surgery group. Dietary intake was assessed by a validated FFQ. ANCOVA was used to adjust for between-group differences in sex, age, baseline BMI and baseline values of the dependent variables. Intakes of food groups and nutrients did not differ significantly between the intervention groups at baseline. At 1-year follow-up, the lifestyle group had a significantly higher daily intake of fruits and vegetables (561 (sd 198) v. 441 (sd 213) g, P= 0·002), whole grains (63 (sd 24) v. 49 (sd 16) g, P< 0·001) and fibre (28 (sd 6) v. 22 (sd 6) g, P< 0·001) than the surgery group and a lower percentage of total energy intake of saturated fat (12 (sd 3) v. 14 (sd 3) %, P< 0·001). The intake of red meat declined significantly within both groups, vegetables and fish intake were reduced significantly in the surgery group and added sugar was reduced significantly in the lifestyle group. The lifestyle patients improved their dietary patterns significantly (compared with the surgery group), increasing their intake of vegetables, whole grains and fibre and reducing their percentage intake of saturated fat (ANCOVA, all P< 0·001). In conclusion, lifestyle intervention was associated with more favourable dietary 1-year changes than gastric bypass surgery in morbidly obese patients, as measured by intake of vegetables, whole grains, fibre and saturated fat.
Suicide rates in Scotland have increased markedly relative to those in England in recent decades.
To compare changing patterns of suicide risk in Scotland with those in England & Wales, 1960–2008.
For Scotland and for England & Wales separately, we obtained national data on suicide counts and population estimates. Gender-specific, directly age-standardised rates were calculated.
We identified three distinct temporal phases: 1960–1967, when suicide rates in England & Wales were initially higher than in Scotland, but then converged; 1968–1991, when male suicide rates in Scotland rose slightly faster than in England & Wales; and 1992–2008, when there was a marked divergence in national trends. Much of the recent divergence in rates is attributable to the rise in suicide among young men and deaths by hanging in Scotland. Introduction of the ‘undetermined intent’ category in 1968 had a significant impact on suicide statistics across Great Britain, but especially so in Scotland.
Differences in temporal patterns in suicide risk between the countries are complex. Reversal of the divergent trends may require a change in the perception of hanging as a ‘painless' method of suicide.
Electro photography („ laser printing“) has emerged to one of the leading two-dimensional (2D) print technologies during the last decades. However, in contrast to the well-established ink jet process, the examination of three-dimensional (3D) electro photography has just been started. A newly developed non-contact fusing procedure based on click chemistry methodology has been developed to reduce the mechanical as well as thermal stress during the curing. The inorganic SiOx-coating of the toner particles has been modified for the prospective attachment of the cell-growth promoting amino acid sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) for an improved cell attachment behavior onto the hydrophobic polymeric material.
A technique is described to measure the rotations of the crystal lattice in the deformed region around a nanoindent from volumes smaller than 3 × 10−5 μm3. To demonstrate this method, a copper crystal has been indented on its (001) face to depths of 500 and 1300 nm. Cross-sections of nanoindents were prepared for transmission electron microscopy by focused ion beam milling, and rotations were measured about the ,  and  axes using convergent beam electron diffraction.
Previously we showed that 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra eliminate corticostriatal LTP and that the neuroimmunolophilin ligand (NIL), GPI-1046, restores LTP.
We used cDNA microarrays to determine what mRNAs may be over- or under-expressed in response to lesioning and/or GPI-1046 treatment. Patch clamp recordings were performed to investigate changes in NMDA channel function before and after treatments.
We found that 51 gene products were differentially expressed. Among these we found that GPI-1046 treatment up-regulated presenilin-1 (PS-1) mRNA abundance. This finding was confirmed using QPCR. PS-1 protein was also shown to be over-expressed in the striatum of lesioned/GPI-1046-treated rats. As PS-1 has been implicated in controlling NMDA-receptor function and LTP is reduced by lesioning we assayed NMDA mediated synaptic activity in striatal brain slices. The lesion-induced reduction of dopaminergic innervation was accompanied by the near complete loss of NDMA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission between the cortex and striatum. GPI-1046 treatment of the lesioned rats restored NMDA-mediated synaptic transmission but not the dopaminergic innervation. Restoration of NDMA channel function was apparently specific as the sodium channel current density was also reduced due to lesioning but GPI-1046 did not reverse this effect. We also found that restoration of NMDA receptor function was also not associated with either an increase in NMDA receptor mRNA or protein expression.
As it has been previously shown that PS-1 is critical for normal NMDA receptor function, our data suggest that the improvement of excitatory neurotransmission occurs through the GPI-1046-induced up-regulation of PS-1.