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We review recent chondrule oxygen isotope studies by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). We discuss primary O-isotope fractionation characteristics of chondrule phases, and how they are used to garner information related to the physicochemical environment from which they formed. This includes high temperature gas–melt interactions, sampling of common precursors among different chondrite types, and how precursor compositions influenced redox states during chondrule formation. We also explore how primary O-isotope ratios of chondrule phases are disturbed by secondary alteration.
The aims of this study were to show the existence of individual differences in the distribution of sperm acrosome-associated 1 (SPACA1) among male patients of infertile couples and to examine their possible impact on the outcomes of conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF). The spermatozoa were collected from male patients of infertile couples, washed by centrifugation, collected by the swim-up method, and then used for clinical treatments of conventional IVF. The surplus sperm samples were fixed and stained with an anti-SPACA1 polyclonal antibody for the immunocytochemistry. In the clinical IVF treatments, fertilization rates and blastocyst development rates were evaluated. The immunocytochemical observations revealed that SPACA1 were localized definitely in the acrosomal equatorial segment and variedly in the acrosomal principal segment. Specifically, the detection patterns of SPACA1 in the acrosomal principal segment could be classified into three categories: (A) strong, (B) intermediate or faint, and (C) almost no immunofluorescence. The SPACA1 indexes were largely different among male patients with the wide range from 13 to 199 points. The SPACA1 indexes were significantly correlated with developmental rates of embryos to blastocysts (r = 0.829, P = 0.00162), although they were barely associated with fertilization rates at 19 h after insemination (r = 0.289, P = 0.389). These results suggest that the distribution of SPACA1 in sperm affects the outcomes of conventional IVF. In conclusion, this study provides initial data to promote large-scale clinical investigation to demonstrate that the SPACA1 indexes are valid as molecular biomarkers that can predict the effectiveness of conventional IVF of infertile couples.
The hexagonal domain suppression-effects in cubic-GaNAs grown by metalorganic chemical-vapor deposition (MOCVD) is reported. A thin buffer layer (20 nm) was first grown on a substrate at 853 K using trimethylgallium and dimethylhydrazine (DMHy), and GaNAs samples were grown at different AsH3 flow rates (0 ∼ 450 μmol/min) at 1193 K. As a result, three types of surface morphologies were obtained: the first was a smooth surface (AsH3 = 0 μmol/min); the second was a mirrorlike surface having small and isotropic grains (AsH3 : 45 ∼ 225 μmol/min ); and the third involved three-dimensional surface morphologies (above 450 μmol/min of AsH3 flow rate). Furthermore, it was confirmed using X-ray diffraction that the mixing ratio of hexagonal GaNAs in cubic GaNAs decreased with an increase of the AsH3 flow rate. We could obtain GaNAs having a cubic component of above 85% at AsH3 flow rates above 20 μmol/min. Therefore, the MOCVD growth method using AsH3 and DMHy was mostly effective for suppressing hexagonal GaNAs. It was observed that the photoluminescence intensity of GaNAs was decreased with increase of arsine flow rate.
The prevalence and epidemiological traits of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in high-risk populations (HRPs) remained unclarified in Japan. We determined the prevalence of HIV, HBV and Treponema pallidum (TP) and the viral genotypes in HRPs who attended primary sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Osaka province during 2006–2011. Of 7898 specimens, 133 (1·7%) were HIV positive, which was significantly higher than the figures reported by Japanese Red Cross (0·0019%) and public health centres (0·27%) in Japan. The frequency of HIV-1 subtype B was 88·7%, followed by CRF01_AE (2·3%) and C (0·8%), which were almost identical to the national trend. HBV seroprevalence was surprisingly high in the HIV-positive group (63·2%), which was significantly higher than that in the HIV-negative group (25·6%). By contrast, there was no statistical correlation between HIV and TP infection. Interestingly, the distinct HBV genotypes Ae and G were prevalent in the HIV-positive population (60·0% and 20·0%, respectively), although both were rarely detected during nationwide surveillance. The transmission of HIV and HBV appeared to occur largely within a closed community early in life. Of note, about one-quarter of HIV-positive cases would have remained untested if health professionals had not motivated individuals to undergo HIV testing. This is the first evidence-based assessment of HIV positivity and HIV/HBV co-infection in HRPs at primary STIs in Japan and the effect of the involvement of health professionals in the diagnosis of HIV infections in asymptomatic carriers. The genotyping of HBV provided valuable information for understanding HIV epidemical traits.
Mucosal mast cells (MMC) play a crucial role in the expulsion of Strongyloides ratti adults from the small intestine of mice. We reported the large intestinal parasitism of S. ratti in rats, and there has been no report on MMC in the large intestine of the natural host. We studied kinetics of MMC, together with eosinophils, in the upper and lower small intestines, caecum and colon of infected rats. Two distinct phases of mastocytosis were revealed: one in the upper small intestine triggered by stimulation of ‘ordinary’ adults, and the other in the colon stimulated by ‘immune-resistant’ adults that started parasitizing the colon around 19 days post-infection. In all 4 intestinal sites, the MMC peaks were observed 5–7 days after the number of adult worms became the maximum and the height of MMC peaks appeared to be dependent on the number of parasitic adults, suggesting an important role played by worms themselves in the MMC buildup.
A Mg(OH)2–C transparent conductive film was prepared using the sputtering method by the initial formation of a Mg-C film generated by the alternate layering of Mg and C on a rotating substrate and subsequent exposure of the film to atmospheric water vapor. To examine the influence exerted by the Mg/C layers of the starting film sample on semiconductivity,evaluations of the electrical conductivity properties of the film during the hydroxylation process and the optical properties after the hydroxylation process were carried out. As a result, although no effects on the characteristics of the electrical conductivity properties associated with the composition or number of layers in the films could be confirmed, it was determined that the films possessed the characteristics of semiconductors. On the other hand, the optical properties were found to be affected by the composition and number of layers of the Mg/C films.
During the development of oocytes from early antral follicles (EAFs) to antral follicles (AFs), the mitochondrial DNA copy number (Mt DNA number) increases, and granulosa cells markedly proliferate. This study examined the effect of supplementation of culture medium with estradiol-17β (E2) on the in vitro growth of oocytes, and increases in the Mt DNA number, and telomere length during the in vitro culture of oocytes derived from EAFs (0.4–0.7 mm in diameter). The E2 supplementation improved antrum formation and the ratio of oocytes reaching the metaphase II (MII) stage, and there was a significant difference in these values between addition E2 concentrations of 10 μg/ml and 0.1 μg/ml. When the oocytes were cultured in the medium containing 10 μg/ml E2, the Mt DNA number determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) significantly increased, and the ratio of the Mt DNA number at the end of culture to the Mt DNA number at the beginning of the culture was greatly different among cows, and could be predicted by the degree of the difference between the Mt DNA number of oocytes derived from EAFs and that of oocytes derived from AFs (3–6 mm in diameter). When oocytes were cultured for 16 days in a medium containing 10 μg/ml E2 or 0.1 μg/ml E2, the Mt DNA number of oocytes grown in vitro did not differ, but the telomere length of the granulosa cells was significantly greater in the 10 μg/ml E2 group than in the 0.1 μg/ml group. In conclusion, E2 supplementation in culture medium improved the growth of oocytes derived from EAFs, and a high E2 concentration increased the telomere length of the granulosa cells.
The hexagonal domain suppression-effects in cubic-GaNAs grown by metalorganic chemical-vapor deposition (MOCVD) is reported. A thin buffer layer (20 nm) was first grown on a substrate at 853 K using trimethylgallium and dimethylhydrazine (DMHy), and GaNAs samples were grown at different AsH3 flow rates (0 ∼ 450 µmol/min) at 1193 K. As a result, three types of surface morphologies were obtained: the first was a smooth surface (AsH3 = 0 µmol/min); the second was a mirrorlike surface having small and isotropic grains (AsH3 : 45 ∼ 225 µmol/min ); and the third involved threedimensional surface morphologies (above 450 µmol/min of AsH3 flow rate). Furthermore, it was confirmed using X-ray diffraction that the mixing ratio of hexagonal GaNAs in cubic GaNAs decreased with an increase of the AsH3 flow rate. We could obtain GaNAs having a cubic component of above 85% at AsH3 flow rates above 20 µmol/min. Therefore, the MOCVD growth method using AsH3 and DMHy was mostly effective for suppressing hexagonal GaNAs. It was observed that the photoluminescence intensity of GaNAs was decreased with increase of arsine flow rate.
Often, silver nanoparticles (AgNps) are looked at in the realm of their plasmonic effects that are characterized by unique absorptional bands in the visible spectrum. Herein, the kinetics of a simple gravity mediated sedimentation process of AgNps, in aqueous suspensions. The surface energy mismatch between the AgNps and the receiver substrate allow for the formation of irregularly shaped AgNp microclusters with interconnected microchannels with dimensions and particle density controlled by the distance between the exposed substrate surface and the water/suspension interface. An investigation of the interplay between these properties and the films’ nanoparticle density is presented.
(1-x)K0.5Na0.5NbO3-x(0.97BiScO3-0.03BiCoO3) (KNN-xBSC) piezoelectric ceramics were prepared by the conventional solid-state method, and effects of the BSC addition on the phase structure, relaxor behavior, and electrical properties of KNN ceramics were systematically investigated. The rhombohedral to orthorhombic phase transition around room temperature was identified for the KNN-xBSC ceramics in the composition range of 0.015≤ x ≤0.0175, and improved electrical properties (d33∼205 pC/N, kp∼0.43, εr∼1315, and tan δ∼0.054) were observed for the ceramic with x=0.015 because of the involvement of such a phase transition at room temperature. Moreover, a relaxor ferroelectric behavior is demonstrated for these KNN-xBSC ceramics because of a more complex occupation of A and B sites in the ABO3 perovskite structure, together with a weak ferromagnetic order at room temperature.
A transverse (d33) mode piezoelectric cantilever was fabricated for energy harvesting. Various dimensions of interdigital electrodes (IDE) were deposited on a piezoelectric layer to examine the effects of electrode design on the performance of energy harvesters. Modeling was performed to calculate the output power of the devices. The estimation was based on Roundy’s analytical modeling derived for a d31 mode piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH). In order to apply the Roundy’s model to d33 mode PEH, the IDE configuration was converted to the area of top and bottom electrodes (TBE). The power conversion in d33 mode PEH was commonly estimated by the product of piezoelectric layer’s thickness and finger electrode’s length. In addition, the spacing between fingers was regarded as gap between top and bottom electrodes. However, the output power in a transverse mode PEH increases continuously with the increase of finger spacing, which does not correspond to experimental results. In this research, the dimension of IDE was converted to that of TBE using conformal mapping, and variation of power of PEH was remodeled. The modified model suggests that the maximum power in a transverse mode PEH is obtained when the finger spacing is identical with effective finger spacing. The output power then decreases when finger spacing is larger than effective finger spacing. The decrease of efficiency may result from insufficient degree of poling and increased charged defect with increasing finger spacing.
Highly stable, organic-based barium titanate (BaTiO3) sols were developed by the low cost and straightforward “organosol”-precipitation and auto-combustion process of amorphous organic precursors. BaTiO3/CoFe2O4 nanocomposites with core/shell structures embedded in a BaTiO3 matrix were also obtained using this process. The particles are systematically characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TGA/DTA), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and by laser granulometry for particle size distribution determination.
Single-phase samples of YCrxFe1−xO3 were synthesized by a mechanochemical method. X-ray diffraction data show linear reduction in the lattice parameters of YCrxFe1−xO3 perovskites with the Cr content, indicating that Cr ions substitute for Fe ions to form a solid solution. Magnetic measurements show hysteresis loops at 5K. The substitution of Cr for Fe enhances the magnetization for up to x=0.33 Cr doping level. For higher doping levels, 0.33<x<1, the system behaves as a frustrated system. At x=1, YCrO3 behaves as a week ferromagnet with TN ~140 K. The chloride salt based machenochemical method offers simple synthesis route for the synthesis of pure multiferroic compounds.
Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 ceramics were fabricated by mixed-oxide route. The compositions along morphotropic phase boundary were investigated. Dielectric properties and piezoelectric coefficient were measured. The maximum relative permittivity is 33600 found in the (PIN-PT)x(PMN-PT)1-x ceramics with x = 0.1 at 167 °C. When increasing the amount of Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3, the piezoelectric coefficient of the ceramics decreases but the phase transition temperature increases. The selected-area electron diffraction patterns show the pseudo-cubic perovskite symmetry. Diffuse scattering is found in the diffraction pattern taken at higher order zone axis. Transmission electron microscopy study shows that the morphology of ferroelectric/ferroelastic domains is neither tetragonal nor rhombohedral configuration.
Perfectly (111)-oriented rhombohedral Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 [PZT] films were successfully grown on (111) CaF2 substrates. These films have the polar-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface without non-180o domains. Well saturated polarization (P) –electric field (E) hysteresis loops were observed at various frequencies and temperatures. Temperature dependence of the saturation polarization (Psat.) was in good agreement with the estimated one by Haun et al. using phenomenological approach but did not strongly depend on the measured frequencies. On the other hand, the coercive field (Ec) increased with decreasing temperature and with increasing the measurement frequency.
Polycrystalline solutions of 0.6(Bi0.9La0.1)FeO3-0.4Pb(Ti1-xMnx)O3(BLF-PTM, x=0 and 0.01)have been fabricated by the so-gel process combined with a solid state reaction method. BLF-PTM exhibits the nonlinear dielectric and piezoelectric responses under applied fields. Rayleigh law has been used to evaluate the irreversible contribution of the domain walls movement to the nonlinear dielectric response. Rayleigh analysis reveals that a mechanism with no associated loss exists in the BLF-PTM of x=0.01. The real part piezoelectric coefficient of BLF-PTM linearly increases with increasing the electric fields. The dielectric and piezoelectric nonlinear coefficient of 0.17×10-3 m/V and 0.897 ×10-17 m2/V2 respectively are obtained for BLF-PTM of x=0.01,which are smaller than those of 0.22×10-3 m/V and 1.19 ×10-17 m2/V2 for BLF-PTM of x=0. Our results indicate that Mn doping increase the intrinsic piezoelectric properties of BLF-PTM reducing the extrinsic contributions to piezoelectric responses.
High dielectric tunability, low dielectric loss tangent and appropriate level of dielectric constant are the basic requirements for applications as electrically tunable dielectric microwave devices. In our experiments, the SrTiO3 green compacts made of the powder mixtures with various particle sizes were infiltrated with a BaTiO3 precursor solution and sintered at different temperatures between 1280 and 1350 ºC for 2 hours and 1350 ºC for 6 hours. The sintering, microstructural and dielectric properties were investigated. Results showed that the relative density of SrTiO3 ceramics could reached 93% when sintered at 1280 ºC for 2 hours. When sintered for 6 hours at 1350 °C, the room temperature dielectric constant of SrTiO3 reaches 900 at a frequency of 1MHz. It has only weak temperature dependence between 100 and 500K. The reason of the low sintering temperature for the dense SrTiO3 ceramics and the effects of sintering scheme on the dielectric properties from 100 K to 500 K are discussed in this paper.