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Many individuals ascertained for developmental dyslexia (DD) are also diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and approximately 20% of individuals with ADHD will have evidence for DD. The basis for this overlap is not completely understood but twin studies have provide support for common genetic influences, particularly for inattention symptoms. Genetic linkage studies have found significant evidence for linkage of DD to chromosomes 1p34-p36, 15q, 6p21.3-22, 2p15-16, 6q11.2-q12 and 18p11.2. Evidence for linkage/association to ADHD has also been found to overlap for some of these regions. The objective of this study is to identify genes contributing to both.
We examined evidence for the involvement of specific genes in these chromosomal regions using two samples of families, one ascertained through a proband with DD (n= 273 families) and the other through a proband with ADHD (n= 390 families).
Our studies of the 6p region indicate that the sample of DD families is associated to markers in this region and to ADHD but not to the same markers within the linked region. For the 15q region, we have found significant evidence for association for both the ADHD and reading phenotypes in both samples (Wigg et al., 2004; Wigg et al., 2005). We have also found evidence for the gene for the dopamine receptor D1 to be associated to the inattention symptoms in both samples
While the studies of the overlap in ADHD and DD are preliminary, they are promising in that they will ultimately help to disentangle the causal relationship.
Extensive research into the impact of nutrition labelling across Europe has shown that many consumers can effectively use a nutrition label to rank a food for healthiness. The present paper considers observational and laboratory evidence which has examined the impact of nutrition labelling (on food packaging and at point of purchase) on dietary behaviour. In addition, the potential counterproductive effects of foods bearing ‘healthy’ nutrition labels are examined. The observational evidence provides a useful insight into the key characteristics of nutrition label use. Those most likely to engage with nutrition labels are more likely to have a diet related disease and/or be on a weight loss diet and have a good overall diet quality. Experimental evidence, while limited, suggests that serving size information may be overlooked by consumers. In fact, there may be a tendency among consumers to overeat foods that are perceived to be healthier. The findings from the present paper suggest that if nutrition labelling is to be considered a strategy to facilitate consumers in managing their energy intake, it must coincide with salient, consistent and simple serving size information on the front of food packages and at the point of purchase. There is a clear need for more experimental research using robust methodologies, to examine the impact of nutrition information on dietary intake. In the meantime, there should be greater attention given to portion size within national dietary guidance.
Hospice patients often struggle with loss of meaning, while many experience meaningful dreams. The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary exploration into the process and therapeutic outcomes of meaning-centered dream work with hospice patients.
A meaning-centered variation of the cognitive–experiential model of dream work (Hill, 1996; 2004) was tested with participants. This variation was influenced by the tenets of meaning-centered psychotherapy (Breitbart et al., 2012). A total of 12 dream-work sessions were conducted with 7 hospice patients (5 women), and session transcripts were analyzed using the consensual qualitative research (CQR) method (Hill, 2012). Participants also completed measures of gains from dream interpretation in terms of existential well-being and quality of life.
Participants' dreams generally featured familiar settings and living family and friends. Reported images from dreams were usually connected to feelings, relationships, and the concerns of waking life. Participants typically interpreted their dreams as meaning that they needed to change their way of thinking, address legacy concerns, or complete unfinished business. Generally, participants developed and implemented action plans based on these interpretations, despite their physical limitations. Participants described dream-work sessions as meaningful, comforting, and helpful. High scores on a measure of gains from dream interpretation were reported, consistent with qualitative findings. No adverse effects were reported or indicated by assessments.
Significance of Results:
Our results provided initial support for the feasibility and helpfulness of dream work in this population. Implications for counseling with the dying and directions for future research were also explored.
In addition to the hundreds of known visual-wavelength Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs), a number of DIBs in the near-infrared (NIR) are now also known to exist. We present here high-resolution UKIRT echelle spectroscopy of two of the NIR DIBs toward sightlines exhibiting a range of visual extinctions. Variations in the strengths and profile shapes of the bands are considered in the context of known properties of the narrow DIBs at visual wavelengths.
Larger portion sizes (PS) may be inciting over-eating and contributing to obesity rates. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the effectiveness of serving size (SS) guidance. The aims of the present review are to evaluate SS guidance; the understanding, usability and acceptability of such guidance, its impact on consumers and potential barriers to its uptake. A sample of worldwide SS guidance schemes (n 87) were identified using targeted and untargeted searches, overall these were found to communicate various inconsistent and often conflicting messages about PS selection. The available data suggest that consumers have difficulty in understanding terms such as ‘portion size’ and ‘serving size’, as these tend to be used interchangeably. In addition, discrepancies between recommended SS and those present on food labels add to the confusion. Consumers generally understand and visualise SS best when expressed in terms of household measures rather than actual weights. Only a limited number of studies have examined the direct impact of SS guidance on consumer behaviour with equivocal results. Although consumers recognise that guidance on selecting SS would be helpful, they are often unwilling to act on such guidance. The challenge of achieving consumer adherence to SS guidance is formidable due to several barriers including chronic exposure to larger PS, distorted consumption norms and perceptions, the habit of ‘cleaning one's plate’ and language barriers for ethnic minorities. In conclusion, the impact of SS guidance on consumers merits further investigation to ensure that future guidance resonates with consumers by being more understandable, usable and acceptable.
We examined and described colonization of MRSA in the anterior nares and throat from 184 community-recruited injection drug users. Thirty-seven (20%) were positive for MRSA: most (34, 92%) were carriers in the nares; while only three (8%) were carriers detected by throat swabs alone. The majority (29, 78%) of MRSA isolates were PVL positive.
Endothelial damage is central to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, while in addition vascular endothelial cells secrete several anti-atherogenic substances including the potent vasodilator nitric oxide. Increased adhesion molecule expression, in response to pathophysiological stimuli is perhaps the earliest indicator of compromised endothelial integrity. Obesity and adiposity are associated with an increased risk of CVD, influencing disease progression via a number of mechanisms, including enhanced endothelial activation. This review discusses possible mechanisms linking adiposity and more specifically regional fat depots with endothelial function and evaluates studies investigating the effect of weight loss on endothelial function, assessed by biochemical and physiological measurements. Overall, the research to date suggests that visceral adiposity is a stronger predictor of endothelial activation than overall adiposity, possibly mediated via the action of NEFA in circulation. While in general there is a suggestion that weight loss is associated with significant improvements in endothelial function, this is not apparent in all interventions and published literature to date provides less than convincing evidence for the effects of weight loss on endothelial activation.
Injection drug users (IDUs) have an elevated risk for carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Cutaneous injection-related infections are common in IDUs but detailed studies are few. Based on a subsample of 218 individuals from a community-recruited cohort of IDUs at a supervised injection facility, we investigated the microbiology and related antibiotic susceptibility profiles of isolates from 59 wounds. Twenty-seven percent of subjects had at least one wound and 25 (43%) were culture positive for S. aureus alone [14 MRSA and 11 (19%) methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) isolates]. Sixteen of 18 MRSA isolates were classified as community associated (CA) by the presence of genes encoding for PVL. MRSA and MSSA occurred in mixed infection with other organisms on three and six occasions, respectively. All CA-MRSA isolates were susceptible to tetracycline, vancomycin and linezolid but only 13% were susceptible to clindamycin compared to 63% of MSSA isolates. The frequency of CA-MRSA is a cause for concern in wound infection in the IDU setting.
Surface scratches in a series of controlled epoxy networks (CEN) were measured using a combination of instrumented indentation protocols and laser scanning confocal microscopy. Identical epoxy chemistry with increasing molecular weight between crosslinks provided different viscoelastic relaxation behaviors with the same modulus at ambient conditions. The glass transition temperatures (Tg)ranged between 70°C and 117°C. The high Tg CEN exhibited the lowest penetration depth and the highest elastic recovery. The results are analyzed with respect to the macroscale bulk properties and underlying molecular architecture of the CEN materials.
Significant conductive polymer-based composites consisting of immiscible semi-crystalline polymers PP and PVDF, at different volume ratios loaded with a certain concentration of CB were prepared by blending and sequent hot-pressing technology. The distributing status of CB in the polymers was evaluated through the micrographs of the composite. The percolation threshold of this kind of composite is much lower than those of the individual polymers. Even more, the composite at 1/1 volume ratio of PP and PVDF displays the best conductivity among different ratios at a certain concentration of CB, and it displays an outstanding PTC effect more than five orders of magnitude, and synchronously an enhanced dielectric permittivity about 24.9 at 100 Hz. These inimitable properties may owe to the formation of PP/PVDF co-continuous phases and a double-percolation effect in the composite. The novel polymer-based composite with ultra-low percolation threshold, enhanced PTC effect, as well as the significant dielectric permittivity is promising a potential application.