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The past few decades have seen the burgeoning of wide-field, high-cadence surveys, the most formidable of which will be the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) to be conducted by the Vera C. Rubin Observatory. So new is the field of systematic time-domain survey astronomy; however, that major scientific insights will continue to be obtained using smaller, more flexible systems than the LSST. One such example is the Gravitational-wave Optical Transient Observer (GOTO) whose primary science objective is the optical follow-up of gravitational wave events. The amount and rate of data production by GOTO and other wide-area, high-cadence surveys presents a significant challenge to data processing pipelines which need to operate in near-real time to fully exploit the time domain. In this study, we adapt the Rubin Observatory LSST Science Pipelines to process GOTO data, thereby exploring the feasibility of using this ‘off-the-shelf’ pipeline to process data from other wide-area, high-cadence surveys. In this paper, we describe how we use the LSST Science Pipelines to process raw GOTO frames to ultimately produce calibrated coadded images and photometric source catalogues. After comparing the measured astrometry and photometry to those of matched sources from PanSTARRS DR1, we find that measured source positions are typically accurate to subpixel levels, and that measured L-band photometries are accurate to $\sim50$ mmag at $m_L\sim16$ and $\sim200$ mmag at $m_L\sim18$. These values compare favourably to those obtained using GOTO’s primary, in-house pipeline, gotophoto, in spite of both pipelines having undergone further development and improvement beyond the implementations used in this study. Finally, we release a generic ‘obs package’ that others can build upon, should they wish to use the LSST Science Pipelines to process data from other facilities.
We describe here efforts to create and study magnetized electron–positron pair plasmas, the existence of which in astrophysical environments is well-established. Laboratory incarnations of such systems are becoming ever more possible due to novel approaches and techniques in plasma, beam and laser physics. Traditional magnetized plasmas studied to date, both in nature and in the laboratory, exhibit a host of different wave types, many of which are generically unstable and evolve into turbulence or violent instabilities. This complexity and the instability of these waves stem to a large degree from the difference in mass between the positively and the negatively charged species: the ions and the electrons. The mass symmetry of pair plasmas, on the other hand, results in unique behaviour, a topic that has been intensively studied theoretically and numerically for decades, but experimental studies are still in the early stages of development. A levitated dipole device is now under construction to study magnetized low-energy, short-Debye-length electron–positron plasmas; this experiment, as well as a stellarator device that is in the planning stage, will be fuelled by a reactor-based positron source and make use of state-of-the-art positron cooling and storage techniques. Relativistic pair plasmas with very different parameters will be created using pair production resulting from intense laser–matter interactions and will be confined in a high-field mirror configuration. We highlight the differences between and similarities among these approaches, and discuss the unique physics insights that can be gained by these studies.
Breeding values for feed intake and feed efficiency in beef cattle are generally derived indoors on high-concentrate (HC) diets. Within temperate regions of north-western Europe, however, the majority of a growing beef animal’s lifetime dietary intake comes from grazed grass and grass silage. Using 97 growing beef cattle, the objective of the current study was to assess the repeatability of both feed intake and feed efficiency across 3 successive dietary test periods comprising grass silage plus concentrates (S+C), grazed grass (GRZ) and a HC diet. Individual DM intake (DMI), DMI/kg BW and feed efficiency-related parameters, residual feed intake (RFI) and gain to feed ratio (G : F) were assessed. There was a significant correlation for DMI between the S+C and GRZ periods (r = 0.32; P < 0.01) as well as between the S+C and HC periods (r = 0.41; P < 0.001), whereas there was no association for DMI between the GRZ and HC periods. There was a significant correlation for DMI/kg BW between the S+C and GRZ periods (r = 0.33; P < 0.01) and between the S+C and HC periods (r = 0.40; P < 0.001), but there was no association for the trait between the GRZ and HC periods. There was a significant correlation for RFI between the S+C and GRZ periods (r = 0.25; P < 0.05) as well as between S+C and HC periods (r = 0.25; P < 0.05), whereas there was no association for RFI between the GRZ and HC periods. Gain to feed ratio was not correlated between any of the test periods. A secondary aspect of the study demonstrated that traits recorded in the GRZ period relating to grazing bite rate, the number of daily grazing bouts and ruminating bouts were associated with DMI (r = 0.28 to 0.42; P < 0.05 - 0.001), DMI/kg BW (r = 0.36 to 0.45; P < 0.01 - 0.001) and RFI (r = 0.31 to 0.42; P < 0.05 - 0.001). Additionally, the number of ruminating boli produced per day and per ruminating bout were associated with G : F (r = 0.28 and 0.26, respectively; P < 0.05). Results from this study demonstrate that evaluating animals for both feed intake and feed efficiency indoors on HC diets may not reflect their phenotypic performance when consuming conserved forage-based diets indoors or when grazing pasture.
Innovation Concept: Emergency physicians (EP) rarely receive timely, iterative feedback on clinical performance that aids their reflective practice. The Calgary zone ED recently implemented a novel email-based alert system wherein an EP is notified when a patient whose ED care they were involved in is admitted to hospital within 72-hours of discharge from an index ED visit. Our study sought to evaluate the general acceptability of this form of audit and feedback and determine whether it encourages practice reflection. Methods: This mixed methods realist evaluation consisted of two sequential phases. An initial quantitative phase used data from our electronic health record and a survey to examine the general features and acceptability of 72-hour readmission alerts sent from May 2017-2018. A subsequent qualitative phase involved semi-structured interviews exploring the alert's role in greater depth. Quantitative data were summarized using descriptive statistics and qualitative data were analyzed using thematic and template analysis techniques. Results of both phases were used to guide construction of context-mechanism-outcome statements to refine our program theory. Curriculum, Tool, or Material: 4024 alerts were sent over a 1-year period, with each physician receiving approximately 17 alerts per year (Q1: 7, Q3: 25, IQR: 18). The top five CEDIS complaints on index presentations were abdominal pain, flank pain, shortness of breath, vomiting and/or nausea, and chest pain (cardiac features). The majority of re-admissions (78.6%) occurred within 48 hours after discharge. Immediate alert survey feedback provided by EP's noted that 52.65% (N = 471) of alerts were helpful. Thematic analysis of 17 semi-structured interviews suggests that the alert was generally acceptable to physicians, However, certain EPs were concerned that the alert impacted hire/fire decisions even when leadership didn't endorse this sentiment. Physicians who didn't believe alerts were involved in hire/fire decisions, described greater engagement in the reflective process. Conversely, physicians, who believed alerts were involved in hire/fire decisions, were more likely to defensively change their practice. Conclusion: Most EPs noted that timely notification of 72-hour readmissions made them more mindful of documenting discharge instructions. Our implementation of a 72- hour readmission alert was an acceptable format for audit and feedback and appeared to facilitate physician reflection under certain conditions.
Childhood Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology persists in a substantial proportion of cases into adult life. ADHD is highly heritable but the etiology of ADHD is complex and heterogeneous, involving both genetic and non-genetic factors. In the present paper we analyzed the influence of both genetics and adverse life events on severity of ADHD symptoms in 110 adult ADHD patients. Subjects were genotyped for the norepinephrine transporter (NET), the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (SERTPR) and the more rare A/G variant within SERTPR. Three main outcomes were obtained: (1) adverse events showed a small but positive correlation with current ADHD severity; (2) NET, COMT and the A/G variant within SERTPR were not associated with ADHD severity; (3) taking into account stressors, the long (L) SERTPR variant showed a mild effect on ADHD, being associated with an increased severity, particularly as regard affective dysregulations; on the other hand, in subjects exposed to early stressors, it showed a protective effect, as compared to the S variant (see table). In conclusion, our data support the role of environmental factors in adult ADHD symptomatology. SERTPR may be involved in some features of the illness and act as a moderator of environmental influences in ADHD.
rTMS is an emerging treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) refractory to medications and psychotherapy. The conventional target for rTMS in MDD is the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, convergent evidence from lesion, stimulation, and neuroimaging studies suggests that the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) may play a more central role in emotion regulation. We have recently demonstrated robust and potentially superior antidepressant properties for excitatory rTMS of the DMPFC. However, one of the enduring limitations of rTMS is the long duration of each treatment session under conventional protocols, which require ~40 minutes per day over 20-30 sessions for maximum efficacy using conventional 10 Hz stimulation. More recent studies have suggested that theta-burst stimulation (TBS) protocols can achieve stronger and more durable effects in markedly less time. Intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) generates robust and long-lasting excitatory effects with 600 pulses over ~3 min. Pilot studies have previously reported antidepressant effects with TBS over the DLPFC. However, TBS over the DMPFC has not previously been studied. Here we report robust antidepressant effects for a 7 min course of iTBS, administered bilaterally over the DMPFC with MRI-guidance at 120% resting motor threshold, over 20-30 sessions, in an open-label series of 40 patients with refractory MDD. Safety, efficacy, and tolerability are comparable to a 10 Hz rTMS protocol requiring 30-40 min of treatment. iTBS of the DMPFC may effectively reduce the duration (and cost) of rTMS >4-fold, thus increasing patient capacity per clinic and improving the overall accessibility of rTMS in refractory MDD.
Linear gyrokinetic simulations of magnetically confined electron–positron plasmas are performed for the first time in the geometry and parameter regimes likely to be relevant for upcoming laboratory experiments. In such plasmas, the density will be sufficiently small as to render the plasma effectively collisionless. The magnetic field will be very large, meaning that the Debye length will exceed the gyroradius by a few orders of magnitude. We show the results of linear simulations in flux tubes close to the current carrying ring and also in the bulk of the plasma, demonstrating the existence of entropy modes and interchange modes in pair plasmas. We study linear stability and show that in the relevant configurations, almost complete linear stability is attainable in large swathes of parameter space.
Increasing weed control costs and limited herbicide options threaten vegetable crop profitability. Traditional interrow mechanical cultivation is very effective at removing weeds between crop rows. However, weed control within the crop rows is necessary to establish the crop and prevent yield loss. Currently, many vegetable crops require hand weeding to remove weeds within the row that remain after traditional cultivation and herbicide use. Intelligent cultivators have come into commercial use to remove intrarow weeds and reduce cost of hand weeding. Intelligent cultivators currently on the market such as the Robovator, use pattern recognition to detect the crop row. These cultivators do not differentiate crops and weeds and do not work well among high weed populations. One approach to differentiate weeds is to place a machine-detectable mark or signal on the crop (i.e., the crop has the mark and the weed does not), thereby facilitating weed/crop differentiation. Lettuce and tomato plants were marked with labels and topical markers, then cultivated with an intelligent cultivator programmed to identify the markers. Results from field trials in marked tomato and lettuce found that the intelligent cultivator removed 90% more weeds from tomato and 66% more weeds from lettuce than standard cultivators without reducing yields. Accurate crop and weed differentiation described here resulted in a 45% to 48% reduction in hand-weeding time per hectare.
Accurate localisation of target position is crucial when using techniques with sharp dose fall off such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Gold seed fiducial markers have been used for target localisation in image-guided radiation therapy for various tumors including intact prostate cancers. However, their role for target localisation in post-prostatectomy radiotherapy is unclear. This study was undertaken to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of gold seed fiducial markers in patients undergoing prostate bed VMAT.
Materials and methods:
The institutional radiation oncology database was used to analyse the treatment data of 18 post-prostatectomy patients with implanted gold seed fiducial markers. The shifts of the fiducial markers were reviewed, tabulated and statistically analysed.
Three hundred and eighty-six orthogonal pair images for 18 patients were reviewed. Specifically, the average gold seed fiducial shifts were 0·34 cm in the superior–inferior (S/I) axis (0·31 SD), 0·31 cm (0·29 SD) in the anterior–posterior (A/P) axis and 0·28 cm (0·25 SD) in the lateral axis (R/L). As a result, the 95% probability of fiducial marker displacement was 0·96 cm in the S/I, 0·89 cm in the A/P and 0·78 cm in the R/L axes. The most frequent shifts occurred in the inferior, left and posterior directions. The percentage of shifts more than 0·5 cm were 19·74, 21·56 and 12·47% for the S/I, A/P and R/L axes, respectively.
In the absence of fiducial markers, non-uniform planning target volume (PTV) margins of 1 cm for S/I, 9 mm for A/P and 8 mm for the lateral direction are necessary for target localisation in post-prostatectomy radiotherapy. By improving prostate bed localisation, gold seed fiducial markers can decrease PTV margins, reduce normal tissue radiation exposure and allow for dose-escalated and/or hypofractionated radiotherapy to be considered in appropriate clinical scenarios.
We present the case of a 17-year-old boy with a cardiac venous malformation. This case highlights the diagnostic challenges of such tumours and demonstrates the potential efficacy of a watch-and-wait management approach.
Global inequity in access to and availability of essential mental health services is well recognized. The mental health treatment gap is approximately 50% in all countries, with up to 90% of people in the lowest-income countries lacking access to required mental health services. Increased investment in global mental health (GMH) has increased innovation in mental health service delivery in LMICs. Situational analyses in areas where mental health services and systems are poorly developed and resourced are essential when planning for research and implementation, however, little guidance is available to inform methodological approaches to conducting these types of studies. This scoping review provides an analysis of methodological approaches to situational analysis in GMH, including an assessment of the extent to which situational analyses include equity in study designs. It is intended as a resource that identifies current gaps and areas for future development in GMH. Formative research, including situational analysis, is an essential first step in conducting robust implementation research, an essential area of study in GMH that will help to promote improved availability of, access to and reach of mental health services for people living with mental illness in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While strong leadership in this field exists, there remain significant opportunities for enhanced research representing different LMICs and regions.
Studies involving clinically recruited samples show that genetic liability to schizophrenia overlaps with that for several psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, major depression and, in a population study, anxiety disorder and negative symptoms in adolescence.
We examined whether, at a population level, association between schizophrenia liability and anxiety disorders continues into adulthood, for specific anxiety disorders and as a group. We explored in an epidemiologically based cohort the nature of adult psychopathology sharing liability to schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were calculated for 590 European-descent individuals from the Christchurch Health and Development Study. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between schizophrenia PRS and four anxiety disorders (social phobia, specific phobia, panic disorder and generalised anxiety disorder), schizophrenia/schizophreniform disorder, manic/hypomanic episode, alcohol dependence, major depression, and – using linear regression – total number of anxiety disorders. A novel population-level association with hypomania was tested in a UK birth cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children).
Schizophrenia PRS was associated with total number of anxiety disorders and with generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder. We show a novel population-level association between schizophrenia PRS and manic/hypomanic episode.
The relationship between schizophrenia liability and anxiety disorders is not restricted to psychopathology in adolescence but is present in adulthood and specifically linked to generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder. We suggest that the association between schizophrenia liability and hypomanic/manic episodes found in clinical samples may not be due to bias.
Prenatal adversity shapes child neurodevelopment and risk for later mental health problems. The quality of the early care environment can buffer some of the negative effects of prenatal adversity on child development. Retrospective studies, in adult samples, highlight epigenetic modifications as sentinel markers of the quality of the early care environment; however, comparable data from pediatric cohorts are lacking. Participants were drawn from the Maternal Adversity Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) study, a longitudinal cohort with measures of infant attachment, infant development, and child mental health. Children provided buccal epithelial samples (mean age = 6.99, SD = 1.33 years, n = 226), which were used for analyses of genome-wide DNA methylation and genetic variation. We used a series of linear models to describe the association between infant attachment and (a) measures of child outcome and (b) DNA methylation across the genome. Paired genetic data was used to determine the genetic contribution to DNA methylation at attachment-associated sites. Infant attachment style was associated with infant cognitive development (Mental Development Index) and behavior (Behavior Rating Scale) assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 36 months. Infant attachment style moderated the effects of prenatal adversity on Behavior Rating Scale scores at 36 months. Infant attachment was also significantly associated with a principal component that accounted for 11.9% of the variation in genome-wide DNA methylation. These effects were most apparent when comparing children with a secure versus a disorganized attachment style and most pronounced in females. The availability of paired genetic data revealed that DNA methylation at approximately half of all infant attachment-associated sites was best explained by considering both infant attachment and child genetic variation. This study provides further evidence that infant attachment can buffer some of the negative effects of early adversity on measures of infant behavior. We also highlight the interplay between infant attachment and child genotype in shaping variation in DNA methylation. Such findings provide preliminary evidence for a molecular signature of infant attachment and may help inform attachment-focused early intervention programs.
Vortex-current filaments have been used to study phenomena such as coronal loops and solar flares as well as tokamaks, and recent experimental work has demonstrated dynamics akin to vortex-current filaments on a table-top plasma focus device. While MHD vortex dynamics and related applications to turbulence have attracted consideration in the literature due to a wide variety of applications, not much analytical progress has been made in this area, and the analysis of such vortex-current filament solutions under various geometries may motivate further experimental efforts. To this end, we consider the motion of open, isolated vortex-current filaments in the presence of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) as well as the standard hydrodynamic effects. We begin with the vortex-current model of Yatsuyanagi, Hatori & Kato (J. Phys. Soc. Japan, vol. 65, 1996, pp. 745–759) giving the self-induced motion of a vortex-current filament. We give the ‘cutoff’ formulation of the Biot–Savart integrals used in this model, to avoid the singularity at the vortex core. We then study the motion of a variety of vortex-current filaments, including helical, planar and self-similar filament structures. In the case where MHD effects are weak relative to hydrodynamic effects, the filaments behave as expected from the pure hydrodynamic theory. However, when MHD effects are strong enough to dominate, then we observe structural changes to the filaments in all cases considered. The most common finding is reversal of vortex-current filament orientation for strong enough MHD effects. Kelvin waves along a vortex filament (as seen for helical and self-similar structures) will reverse their translational and rotational motion under strong MHD effects. Our findings support the view that vortex-current filaments can be studied in a manner similar to classical hydrodynamic vortex filaments, with the primary role of MHD effects being to change the filament motion, while preserving the overall geometric structure of such filaments.
Eating fruit and vegetables (FV) offers important health benefits for children and adolescents, but their average intake is low. To explore if negative trends with age exist as children grow, this study modelled differences in FV consumption from childhood to young adulthood. A pseudo-panel was constructed using years 1–4 (combined) of the Rolling Programme of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008/2009–2011/2012). Intake of FV in the NDNS was recorded using 4-d unweighted food diaries. The data consisted of 2131 observations of individuals aged 2–23 years. Age-year-cohort decomposition regression analyses were used to separate age effects from year and cohort effects in the data. Total energy intake was included to account for age differences in overall energy consumption. Fruit intake started to decrease from the age of 7 years for boys and girls, and reached its lowest level during adolescence. By 17 years, boys were consuming 0·93 (P=0·037) less fruit portions compared with the age of 2 years. By 15 years, girls were consuming 0·8 fruit portions less (P=0·053). Vegetable intake changed little during childhood and adolescence (P=0·0834 and P=0·843 for change between 7 and 12 years, boys and girls, respectively). There was unclear evidence of recovery of FV intakes in early adulthood. Efforts to improve FV intake should consider these trends, and focus attention on the factors influencing intake across childhood and adolescence in order to improve the nutritional quality of diets during these periods.
To assess whether exposure to fast-food outlets around schools differed depending on socio-economic status (SES).
Binary logistic regression was used to investigate the presence and zero-inflated Poisson regression was used for the count (due to the excess of zeroes) of fast food within 1000 m and 15000 m road network buffers around schools. The low and middle SES tertiles were combined due to a lack of significant variation as the ‘disadvantaged’ group and compared with the high SES tertile as the ‘advantaged’ group. School SES was expressed using the 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics, socio-economic indices for areas, index of relative socio-economic disadvantage. Fast-food data included independent takeaway food outlets and major fast-food chains.
Metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia.
A total of 459 schools were geocoded to the street address and 1000 m and 1500 m road network distance buffers calculated.
There was a 1·6 times greater risk of exposure to fast food within 1000 m (OR=1·634; 95 % 1·017, 2·625) and a 9·5 times greater risk of exposure to a fast food within 1500 m (OR=9·524; 95 % CI 3·497, 25·641) around disadvantaged schools compared with advantaged schools.
Disadvantaged schools were exposed to more fast food, with more than twice the number of disadvantaged schools exposed to fast food. The higher exposure to fast food near more disadvantaged schools may reflect lower commercial land cost in low-SES areas, potentially creating more financially desirable investments for fast-food developers.
In species that aggregate for reproduction, the social and fitness costs of movement between groups frequently lead to restricted exchange between breeding areas. We report on four individual humpback whales identified in both the Cape Verde Islands and Guadeloupe; locations separated by an ocean basin and >4000 km. This rate of exchange is rarely encountered between such geographically discrete breeding areas. Two individuals returned to the area where they were originally identified. In contrast, no individuals from the Cape Verde Islands were resighted to the much larger sample from the Dominican Republic, though the migratory distances from the feeding areas are comparable between these areas. The social factors driving the stark difference between groups that is observed here are not clear. Effective conservation requires an understanding of the extent and pattern of movement between population units. The findings presented here suggest that there may well be more than one behaviourally distinct group within the West Indies. More broadly, they argue that considerable caution is warranted in assumptions made regarding the number, boundaries and status of population units based solely on spatial separation or proximity.