To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Variability in antidepressant response is due to genetic and environmental factors. Among genetic factors, the ones controlling for availability of the drug at the target site are interesting candidates. Rs6295C/G SNP for 5-HT1A gene (HTR1A) has been found to effect the expression and function of HTR1A In fact rs6295C/G was in strong linkage disequilibrium with other polymorphisms of HTR1A suggesting that those functional effects could be associated with polymorphisms other than the synonymous rs6295C/G. In the present study we examine the possible association of a panel of markers in strong linkage disequilibrium of the HTR1A with SSRI/SNRI response in 137 Japanese major depression sample followed for 6 weeks. We observed the significant association of better response to antidepressant with rs10042486C/C (p<0.0001), rs6295G/G (p<0.0001) and rs1364043T/T (p=0.018) genotype carriers, that is mutant allele homozygote, independently from clinical variables. Furthermore mutant allele homozygote carriers in all these 3 SNPs was associated more solidly with treatment response by various assessment such as HAM-D score change over time (p=0.001), week 2 (p<0.0001), 4(p=0.007), and 6(p=0.048) as well as response rate (p=0.0005) and remission rate (p=0.004).
In conclusion, this is the first study that reports the significant association of antidepressant response with rs10042486C/T and rs1364043G/T variants of HTR1A and also with rs10042486-rs6295-rs1364043 combination. This finding adds an important piece of information for the pathway of detecting the genetics of antidepressant response even if results must be verified on larger samples.
To examine the 17-year clinical outcome of schizophrenia and its predictors in Bali.
Subjects were 59 consecutively admitted first-episode schizophrenia patients. Their clinical outcome was evaluated by standardized symptomatic remission criteria based on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores and operational functional remission criteria at 17-year follow-up. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) over 17 years was also calculated as another index of clinical outcome.
Among these 59 patients, 43 (72.9%) could be followed-up, 15 (25.4%) had died, and one (1.7%) was alive but refused to participate in the study. Combined remission (i.e. symptomatic and functional remission) was achieved in 14 patients (23.7% of original sample). Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) was a significant baseline predictor of combined remission. Mean age at death of deceased subjects was 35.7, and SMR was 4.85 (95% CI: 2.4–7.3), indicating that deaths were premature. Longer DUP was associated with excess mortality.
The long-term outcome of schizophrenia in Bali was heterogeneous, demonstrating that a quarter achieved combined remission, half were in nonremission, and a quarter had died at 17-year follow-up. DUP was a significant predictor both for combined remission and mortality.
Catatonia is a complication of bipolar disorder, which is a constellation of symptoms such as catalepsy, mutism, and stupor. Standard therapy for catatonia contains benzodiazepines and electroconvulsive therapy. An uncomplicated catatonia is usually a benign condition. On the other hand, malignant catatonia is a life-threatening condition that is complicated with fever, autonomic instability, delirium, and rigidity. The syndrome is typically fulminant and progresses rapidly within a few days without appropriate intervention. Several previous reports suggested that some catatonia are associated with the overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and that amantadine may have an effectiveness for catatonia, as a NMDA receptor antagonist. We report a case of successful treatment for malignant catatonia refractory to benzodiazepines, by using amantadine.
Materials and methods/case
A 64-year-old Japanese woman with bipolar disorder was referred to our hospital because of 8-week prolonged fever. On admission, she was in febrile and stuporous states. Severe rigidity was observed in her extremities. Blood tests, lumbar puncture, and blood cultures were all negative. Brain MRI was normal. Consequently, we reached a diagnosis of malignant catatonia, and thus we gave additional benzodiazepines for her catatonic symptoms. However, there was no improvement, and we finally add a 50 mg/day amantadine for her malignant catatonic state.
Her fever resolved in a few days. Gradual dose-titration of amantadine led her clinical manifestation to completely disappeared.
Amantadine can be a potential option as one of the pharmacological therapies for refractory malignant catatonia.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Maladaptive social interaction and its related-psychopathology have been highlighted in psychiatry especially among younger generations. “Hikikomori” defined as a syndrome with six months or longer of severe social withdrawal was initially reported in Japan, and the prevalence rate has been reported as 1.2% in Japanese population. The majority of hikikomori patients are adolescents and young adults who become recluses in their parents’ homes for months or years. They withdraw from contact with family, rarely have friends, and do not attend school or hold a job. An international vignette-used questionnaire survey indicates the spread of hikikomori in many other countries (Kato et al. Lancet, 2011; Kato et al. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 2012). In addition, our international clinical studies have revealed the prevalence of hikikomori outside Japan (Teo et al., 2015). On the other hand, a novel form of maladaptive psychopathology, called modern-type depression has emerged in Japan (Kato et al. J Affect Disord, 2011; Kato et al. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 2016).
In this presentation, I will introduce “Hikikomori” and “modern-type depression” in Japan, and also propose novel diagnostic/therapeutic approach against them.
Disclosure of interest
The author has not supplied his declaration of competing interest.
Co-ingestion of almonds with carbohydrate prevents excessive increase in plasma glucose level (PGL), but information about the functional fraction is limited. Identifying the functional fraction is necessary to use almonds more efficiently in terms of controlling postprandial glycaemia after a high-carbohydrate meal. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of almond skin, oil, water-soluble fraction and water-insoluble fraction on both postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia. The effect of almond skin was tested by comparing the effect of whole almonds with the effect of skinless almonds. Male ICR mice were administered dextrin and 4 g/kg body weight test samples. After the administration, 2-h postprandial changes in glycaemia and insulinaemia were measured. Oil was the only fraction being able to blunt postprandial glycaemia. Interestingly, when co-ingesting with dextrin, almond oil did not change the insulin level compared with the control but whole almonds or skinless almonds triggered a 4-fold increase in insulin level. The co-ingestion of whole almonds or skinless almonds similarly suppressed the PGL at 15 and 30 min (P < 0·05), which means almond skin has no effect on postprandial glycaemia. Neither soluble nor insoluble fractions lead to any significant changes in postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia. In conclusion, oil is the main functional component accounting for the glycaemia-lowering effect without altering insulin level.
Diabetes mellitus is a global epidemic, characterised as a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders associated with high risk of CVD. Green banana biomass, which is composed of resistant starches (RS) and cannot be hydrolysed by amylases, delays gastric emptying and modulates insulin sensitivity, thus contributing to improve metabolic disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of consumption of RS from green banana biomass on body composition, fasting plasma glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in subjects with pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes on top of treatment. Middle-aged subjects (n 113) of both sexes with pre-diabetes (HbA1c: 5·7–6·4 %) or diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 6·5 %) were randomised to receive nutritional support plus green banana biomass (40 g) (RS: approximately 4·5 g, G1, n 62) or diet alone (G2, n 51) for 24 weeks. Body composition, biochemical analyses and dietary intake were evaluated at the beginning and end of the study. In the experimental group (G1), consumption of RS was associated with reduction in HbA1c (P = 0·0001), fasting glucose (P = 0·021), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0·010), body weight (P = 0·002), BMI (P = 0·006), waist and hip circumferences (P < 0·01), fat mass percentage (P = 0·001) and increase in lean mass percentage (P = 0·011). In controls (G2), reductions were observed in waist and hip circumferences (P < 0·01), HbA1c (P = 0·002) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P = 0·020). In pre-diabetes or diabetes, non-significant differences were observed in the percentage reduction in HbA1c and fasting glucose in exploratory analyses. Our results indicate that the consumption of bioactive starches is a good dietary strategy to improve metabolic control and body composition.
The number of tests performed is an important surveillance indicator. We illustrate this point using HIV surveillance data, focusing on Tokyo and Okinawa, two prefectures with high HIV notification rates in Japan. Restricting to data reported from local public health centres and affiliate centres where testing data are accessible, we assessed HIV surveillance data during 2007–2014, based on the annual HIV notification rate (per 100 000 population), HIV testing rate (per 100 000 population) and proportion testing HIV-positive (positivity). Nationally, testing activity and positivity showed an inverse relationship; in 2008, the testing rate peaked, but positivity was lowest. While notification rates were higher for Tokyo (median = 0.98, range = 0.89–1.33) than Okinawa (median = 0.61, range = 0.42–1.09), Okinawa had slightly higher testing rates (median = 187, range = 158–274) relative to Tokyo (median = 172, range = 163–210). Positivity was substantially lower in Okinawa (median = 0.34%, range = 0.24–0.45%) compared with Tokyo (median = 0.57%, range = 0.46–0.67%). Relative to the national testing rate (median = 85, range = 80–115) and positivity (median = 0.34%, range = 0.28–0.36%), Tokyo had higher positivity, despite more testing. In 2014 in Okinawa, all three indicators increased, providing a strong reason to be concerned as positivity increased despite more testing. Together with other information, accounting for testing and positivity improve interpretation of surveillance data to guide public health assessments.
Rutile grains occur extensively in host phases of biotite and quartz-feldspar aggregate in high-temperature paragneisses of the Mogok metamorphic belt of Myanmar. They occur as an isolated phase and sometimes show intergrowth texture with ilmenite. Most rutile grains contain up to 3.7 wt.% Nb2O5, which shows positive correlations with Fe and trivalent elements. Niobium substitutes for Ti by a coupled substitution with the trivalent cations (M3+) of Nb5+M3+Ti4+-2. Fine-grained rutile grains included in ilmenite are distinctly poor in Nb (<0.1 wt.% as Nb2O5) and contain Fe of 1.7–3.2 wt.% as Fe2O3, suggesting vacancybearing substitution of Fe3+4 Ti4+-3□–1, where □ indicates a vacancy. The rutile grains in the felsic phases contain high Zr contents of up to 4200 ppm, suggesting equilibrium temperatures over 800°C using the Ti-in-rutile geothermometer. These high-temperature conditions are consistent with those estimated by conventional methods reported in the literature and suggest widespread occurrences of the upperamphibolite and granulite facies metamorphic rocks in the middle segment of the Mogok metamorphic belt. In contrast, the Zr contents of rutile grains in biotite are usually <1000 ppm, implying equilibrium temperatures lower than 750°C. Most of the rutile grains poorer in Zr might have been included in biotite and were isolated from the zircon-bearing system during an early stage of prograde metamorphism. Some other rutile grains poorer in Zr might have been an exsolved phase from Ti-rich biotite during retrograde metamorphism, which was furthered by the infiltration of metamorphic fluid under lower-amphibolite facies conditions.
The Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) is composed by four ground cosmic ray detectors distributed around the Earth: Nagoya (Japan), Hobart (Australia), Sao Martinho da Serra (Brazil) and Kuwait city (Kuwait). The network has operated since March 2006. It has been upgraded a few times, increasing its detection area. Each detector is sensitive to muons produced by the interactions of ~50 GeV Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) with the Earth′s atmosphere. At these energies, GCR are known to be affected by interplanetary disturbances in the vicinity of the earth. Of special interest are the interplanetary counterparts of coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and their driven shocks because they are known to be the main origins of geomagnetic storms. It has been observed that these ICMEs produce changes in the cosmic ray gradient, which can be measured by GMDN observations. In terms of applications for space weather, some attempts have been made to use GMDN for forecasting ICME arrival at the earth with lead times of the order of few hours. Scientific space weather studies benefit the most from the GMDN network. As an example, studies have been able to determine ICME orientation at the earth using cosmic ray gradient. Such determinations are of crucial importance for southward interplanetary magnetic field estimates, as well as ICME rotation.
We report on the formation of shallow junctions with high activation in both n+/p and p+/n Ge junctions using ion implantation and Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA). The shallowest junction depths (Xj) formed for the n+/p and p+/n junctions were 7.6 nm and 6.1 nm with sheet resistances (Rs) of 860 ohms/sq. and 704 ohms/sq., respectively. By reducing knocked-on oxygen during ion implantation in the n+/p junctions, Rs was decreased by between 5% and 15%. The lowest Rs observed was 235 ohms/sq. with a junction depth of 21.5 nm. Hall measurements clearly revealed that knocked-on oxygen degraded phosphorus activation (carrier concentration). In the p+/n Ge junctions, we show that ion implantation damage induced high boron activation. Using this technique, Rs can be reduced from 475 ohms/sq. to 349 ohms/sq. These results indicate that the potential for forming ultra-shallow n+/p and p+/n junctions in the nanometer range in Ge devices using FLA is very high, leading to realistic monolithically-integrated Ge CMOS devices that can take us beyond Si technology.
In this paper, the robustness of the dynamic instability mitigation mechanism is first examined, and then the instability mitigation phenomenon is demonstrated in a deuterium–tritium (DT) fuel target implosion by wobbling heavy-ion beams (HIBs). The results presented here show that the mechanism of the dynamic instability mitigation is rather robust against changes in the phase, the amplitude and the wavelength of the wobbling perturbation applied. In general instability would emerge from the perturbation of the physical quantity. Normally the perturbation phase is unknown, so that the instability growth rate is discussed. However, if the perturbation phase is known, the instability growth can be controlled by a superposition of perturbations imposed actively: if the perturbation is induced by, for example, a driving beam axis oscillation or wobbling, the perturbation phase could be controlled and the instability growth is mitigated by the superposition of the growing perturbations. In this paper, we realize the superposition of the perturbation by the wobbling HIBs’ illumination onto a DT fuel target in heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF). Our numerical fluid implosion simulations present that the implosion non-uniformity is mitigated successfully by the wobbling HIBs illumination in HIF.
In inertial fusion, one of scientific issues is to reduce an implosion non-uniformity of a spherical fuel target. The implosion non-uniformity is caused by several factors, including the driver beam illumination non-uniformity, the Rayleigh–Taylor instability (RTI) growth, etc. In this paper, we propose a new control method to reduce the implosion non-uniformity; the oscillating implosion acceleration δg(t) is created by pulsating and dephasing heavy-ion beams (HIBs) in heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF). The δg(t) would reduce the RTI growth effectively. The original concept of the non-uniformity control in inertial fusion was proposed in [Laser Part. Beams (1993) 11, 757–768]. In this paper, it was found that the pulsating and dephasing HIBs illumination provide successfully the controlled δg(t) and that δg(t) induced by the pulsating HIBs reduces well the implosion non-uniformity. Consequently the pulsating HIBs improve a pellet gain remarkably in HIF.
In this paper, a study on a fusion reactor core is presented in heavy-ion inertial fusion (HIF), including the heavy-ion beam (HIB) transport in a fusion reactor, an HIB interaction with a background gas, the reactor cavity gas dynamics, the reactor gas backflow to the beam lines, and an HIB fusion reactor design. The HIB has remarkable preferable features to release the fusion energy in inertial fusion: in particle accelerators HIBs are generated with a high driver efficiency of about 30–40%, and the HIB ions deposit their energy inside of materials. Therefore, a requirement for the fusion target energy gain is relatively low, that would be ~50 to operate an HIF fusion reactor with a standard energy output of 1 GW of electricity. In a fusion reactor, the HIB charge neutralization is needed for a ballistic HIB transport. Multiple mechanical shutters would be installed at each HIB port at the reactor wall to stop the blast waves and the chamber gas backflow, so that the accelerator final elements would be protected from the reactor gas contaminant. The essential fusion reactor components are discussed in this paper.
In order to investigate the distinguishability about the progenitors of FeCCSNe and ECSNe, we calculate the luminosities and spectra of their pre-SN neutrinos and estimate the number of events at neutrino detectors.
The overview of the recent results for discovery and investigations of a very exotic phenomenon – optical mirage in the X-ray spectral range – is presented. It was found that the mirage could be created in the form of coherent virtual point source, emerging in the vicinity of the second plasma in two-stage oscillator-amplifier X-ray laser. The X-ray source-mirage, rigidly phased with the initial radiation of generator, occurs only when amplification takes place in the amplifier plasma and leads to the appearance of the interference pattern in the form of concentric rings in the spatial profile of the output X-ray laser beam. The equation describing the emergence of X-ray mirage was found, numerical solution of which shows that its formation is similar to that of the optical mirages observed at propagation of light rays through an inhomogeneously heated air. Obtained results have already demonstrated novel comprehension into the physical nature of amplification of X-ray radiation, opening additional opportunities for X-ray interferometry, holography, and other applications, which require multiple rigidly phased sources of coherent radiation.
We studied GeTe structures in topological switching random access memories (TRAMs) with a [GeTe/Sb2Te3] superlattice by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We examined the electrical characteristics of the TRAMs deposited at different temperatures. We found that XRD spectra differed between the films deposited at 200 and 240°C and that the differences corresponded to the differences in the GeTe sequences in the films.
This paper describes an overview of our recent discovery – clear
demonstration that LiF crystals can be efficiently used as a high-performance neutron
imaging detector based on optically stimulated luminescence of color centers
generated by neutron irradiation. It is shown that the neutron images we have
obtained are almost free from granular noise, have a spatial resolution of
and a linear response with a dynamic range of at least
. The high contrast and good sensitivity of LiF crystals allow us to
distinguish two holes with less than 2% transmittance difference. We propose to use
such detectors in areas where high spatial resolution with high image gradation
resolution is needed, including diagnostics of different plasma sources such as laser
and z-pinch produced plasmas.
We report three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging findings in a patient with relapsing polychondritis.
A 76-year-old woman initially presented with bilateral auricular swelling together with dyspnoea. Three months later, she experienced left hearing loss and recurrent vertigo. A biopsy of the auricle was performed and relapsing polychondritis was diagnosed. The patient underwent three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging 4 hours after intravenous injection of a standard dose of gadolinium. Gadolinium enhancement was visible throughout the vestibule and the endolymphatic space could not be visualised, suggesting breakdown of the blood–labyrinth barrier.
This is the first radiological report to demonstrate breakdown of the blood–labyrinth barrier in a case of relapsing polychondritis with inner ear impairment.
The effects of N2O gas addition on the properties of zinc oxide films grown on a-plane (11-20) sapphire (a-Al2O3) substrates were investigated, using a chemical vapor deposition method based on the reaction between dimethylzinc and high-energy H2O produced by a Pt-catalyzed H2-O2 reaction. By employing an optimal N2O gas pressure, both the film crystallinity and crystal orientation were improved. Subsequent to treatment with N2O, the electron mobility of films at room temperature increased from 207 to 234 cm2/Vs while the electron concentration decreased at low temperatures. In addition, the photoluminescence peak intensity of the nearband-edge emission was increased.