To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
There is a high need for evidence-based psychosocial treatments for adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to offer alongside treatment as usual (TAU). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a promising psychosocial treatment. This trial investigated the efficacy of MBCT + TAU v. TAU in reducing core symptoms in adults with ADHD.
A multicentre, single-blind, randomised controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02463396). Participants were randomly assigned to MBCT + TAU (n = 60), an 8-weekly group therapy including meditation exercises, psychoeducation and group discussions, or TAU only (n = 60), which reflected usual treatment in the Netherlands and included pharmacotherapy and/or psychoeducation. Primary outcome was ADHD symptoms rated by blinded clinicians. Secondary outcomes included self-reported ADHD symptoms, executive functioning, mindfulness skills, self-compassion, positive mental health and general functioning. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, 3- and 6-month follow-up. Post-treatment effects at group and individual level, and follow-up effects were examined.
In MBCT + TAU patients, a significant reduction of clinician-rated ADHD symptoms was found at post-treatment [M difference = −3.44 (−5.75, −1.11), p = 0.004, d = 0.41]. This effect was maintained until 6-month follow-up. More MBCT + TAU (27%) than TAU participants (4%) showed a ⩽30% reduction of ADHD symptoms (p = 0.001). MBCT + TAU patients compared with TAU patients also reported significant improvements in ADHD symptoms, mindfulness skills, self-compassion and positive mental health at post-treatment, which were maintained until 6-month follow-up. Although patients in MBCT + TAU compared with TAU reported no improvement in executive functioning at post-treatment, they did report improvement at 6-month follow-up.
MBCT might be a valuable treatment option alongside TAU for adult ADHD aimed at alleviating symptoms.
Under-ice sonar surveys were carried out in pack-ice fields near Fletcher’s Ice Island and at two sites north of Pt. Barrow, Alaska, U.S.A. A narrow-beam scanning sonar was used to measure the location and relative back-scattering of features on the under surface of Arctic sea ice. The 48 kHz sonar had a 1.5° by 51 ° beam width. Graphic records displaying the range and relative scattering levels were assembled into sonar maps which display location and shape of under-ice features. Two distinct types of back-scattering were found: (1) very high-level back-scattering from well defined under-ice ridges and (2) very low back-scattering from areas between ridges. Higher scattering at ridges was probably due to an increase of roughness and tilting of the average plane of the scattering surface. To measure depths of features, the sonar transducer was adjusted to give a wide horizontal beam and a narrow vertical beam. Polar scans were taken at several depths of the transducer to determine depths of ridges. The tops and bottoms of features were compared and the average ratio of peak elevation to keel depth was about 1:7.
We investigate the growth of the velocity dispersion in the initial stage of the cold dissipationless collapse of spherical collisionless systems by a perturbation theory. We show that the tangential velocity dispersion grows faster than the radial one for the system with centrally condensed initial density profile.
More than 4000 stars observed in both MOA and DENIS projects showing periodic or quasi-periodic light curves are studied. Almost all Mira stars are located on the classical period-luminosity relation, and the multiplicity of the period-luminosity relation is confirmed for small-amplitude stars. The colour-magnitude diagrams based on the MOA red band, Rm, and Ks constructed for the sequences, form a single strip with small successive shifts.
We report evidence for graphene layer rearrangements in heavy ion interactions with carbon onions at 140 MeV and 70 MeV per nucleon kinetic energies. Graphene layer rearrangements have been recently predicted in spherical and cylindrical multi-layer graphene systems. The implications of graphene layer rearrangement on the tribological performance of multi-layer nano-carbons in extreme environments are discussed.
Rapid thermal processing using halogen lamps was applied to the diffusion of Zn into GaAs0.6 P0.4:Te from Zn-doped oxide films. The Zn diffusion coefficient of the rapid thermal diffused (RTD) samples at 800°C for 6 s was about two orders of magnitude higher than that of the conventional furnace diffused samples at 800°C for 60 min. The enhanced diffusion of Zn by RTD may be ascribed to the stress field due to the difference in the thermal expansion coefficient between the doped oxide films and GaAs0.6P0.4 materials, and due to the temperature gradient in GaAs0.6P0 4 materials. The Zn diffusion coefficient at Zn concentration of 1.0 × l018 cm−3 was 3.6 × 10−11, 3.1 × 10−11 and 5.0 × 10−12 cm2 /s for the RTD samples at 950°C for 6 s from Zn-, (Zn,Ga)- and (Zn,P)-doped oxide films, respectively. This suggests that Zn diffusibility was controlled by the P in the doped oxide films.
High-silicon steel was rapidly solidified to thin strips by the double roller method. Two typical macrostructures were observed: one with an equiaxed zone and the other without. The formation of the equiaxed zone is caused by an excessive gap between the rollers. Heat transfer calculations and dendrite arm syacing measurements both suggested that the cooling rate is about 103 to 104 K/sec.
Ion beam channeling analysis has recently been applied to lattice strain measurements on strained-layer superlattices (SLS). In this review talk, we outline three different methods of strain measurement: axial dechanneling, angular scans, and planar resonance. We describe the principles and illustrate them with examples; we also give a detailed theoretical treatment of the planar resonance effect in SLS's.
The n+ layers on semi-insulating liquid encapsulated Czochralski GaAs and p+ layers on Si-doped n-type GaAs were formed by rapid thermal diffusion (RTD) from Te- and Zn-doped oxide films, respectively. The Zn diffusion coefficient of the RTD sample at 850°C for 6s with the heating rate of 50°C/s is about two orders of magnitude higher than that of a similar furnacediffused sample at the same temperature. In addition, Zn and Te diffusion are strongly enhanced by the high heating rate of RTD. The shallow and abrupt p+n junction in GaAs is formed by RTD of Zn with the low heating rate. This shallow p+n junction is suitable for the construction of a photodiode. It is observed that the short wavelength spectral response (<800 nm) of the photodiode fabricated by RTD from Zn-doped oxide film decreases as the heating rate of RTD increases. Deep levels in these photodiodes were characterized by deep level transient spectroscopy. A electron trap EZ (Ec -0.57eV) is produced by RTD of Zn in the n-type substrate under p+n junction. The concentration of this trap is independent of the heating rate of RTD.
This study reports on the use of zirconolite-rich Synroc to demonstrate the safe immobilisation of ‘high-fired’ Pu02. The zirconolite-rich Synroc used in this study was prepared by adding 13 wt% Pu with equimolar amounts of Gd and Hf, relative to Pu, as neutron absorbers. The incorporation of the Pu and neutron absorbers has been studied microstructurally as well as by longer-term leach testing. This work has shown that the sintered ceramic can immobilise 13 wt% of Pu with almost complete incorporation of the Pu (≃ 98%) into the zirconolite phase. Durability studies have shown that under a wide range of leaching conditions there is no major separation of the Pu and neutron absorbers, with the majority of these elements either remaining in the matrix or leaching at low (< 10−4 g m−2 d−1) and comparable rates from the waste form.
Recently, metal nanocrystal based carbon nanotube memory has been demonstrated with sub-5V low bias programming, single electron sensitivity but poor room temperature retention. The process integration of an ultra-thin tunnel dielectric is essential for lateral, vertical scaling and reliable room temperature operation. Low defect density and conformal deposition on the nanotube are required to enhance the performance as a tunnel barrier. Additionally, Au contamination in the CNT decreases the on/off current ratio in the CNTFETs by substantially increasing the off current. Consequently, the dielectric should function as a good diffusion barrier for Au in the nanocrystals. We have explored composite tunneling dielectric film with SiO2 seed layer for conformal high-k deposition to demonstrate minimal Au contamination and improved retention. Room temperature retention of better than three days has been observed.
Below the 65-nm technology node, scaling of Flash memory, NAND, NOR or embedded, needs smart and heterogeneous integration of materials in the entire device structure. In addition to maintaining retention, in the order of importance, we need to continuously make functional density (bits/cm2) higher, cycling endurance longer, program/erase (P/E) voltage lower (negated by the read disturbance, multi-level possibility and noise margin), and P/E time faster (helped by inserting SRAM buffer at system interface). From both theory and experiments, we will compare the advantages and disadvantages in various material choices in view of 3D electrostatics, quantum transport and CMOS process compatibility.
Molecular interface with CMOS is an area indispensable to the enhancement of our understanding of the nano-scale world. We report the integration of fullerenes in CMOS gate stack and demonstrate a functional molecular interface by effecting molecular redox operations through non-volatile charge injection in an EEPROM-type device. The gate stack of the MOS capacitor consists of a tunneling thermal oxide. A sub-monolayer of fullerenes is deposited. Then the control oxide is deposited and finally the gate metal is patterned. Charge injection occurs at a specific potential of the fullerene molecules with respect to the conduction band of Si at the Si/SiO2 interface, independent of the concentration of the fullerene sub-monolayer. This strongly indicates molecular redox in solid state that is electrostatically controllable. Such molecular interfaces can be used to enhance the spatial sensitivity of chemical sensors like the CνMOS to be able to interface with macromolecular systems.
Experimental characterization of nanocrystal formation in gate trenches were performed, which includes the analyses of number fluctuation, the size distribution, and the correlation of the size and number density in gate patterns with various feature sizes from 50nm to 150nm. The gate regions with 51nm oxide wall are defined by e-beam lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). By using direct-deposit self-assembly (i.e., evaporation and post-annealing), Au, Ag, and Pt nanocrystals are formed on the gate tunneling oxide. From the statistical evaluation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, the number fluctuation of nanocrystals in a gate trench could be always controlled under 12%, while it follows the Poisson distribution in the unconstrained self-assembly. This is mainly due to the confinement effect by the trench sidewalls, corners, and edges. The current study demonstrated that the direct-deposit self-assembly process could be successfully adapted beyond 90nm metal nanocrystal memory technology with satisfactory parametric yield in the nanocrystal number density.
Ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) is believed to be the most promising candidate for the next generation non-volatile memory due to its fast access time and low power consumption. Fabrication technologies of FeRAM can be divided into two parts: CMOS technologies for circuits which are standard and can be shared with traditional IC process line, and process relating to ferroelectric which is separated with CMOS process and defined as backend module. This paper described technologies for integrating ferroelectric capacitors into standard CMOS, mainly about modeling of ferroelectric capacitors and backend fabrication technologies. Hysteresis loop of the ferroelectric capacitor is the basis for FeRAM to store data. Models to describe this characteristic are the key for the design of FeRAM. A transient behavioral ferroelectric capacitor model based on C-V relation for circuit simulation is developed. The arc tangent function is used to describe the hysteresis loop. “Negative capacitance” phenomenon at reversing points of applied voltage is analyzed and introduced to the model to describe transient behaviors of the capacitor. Compact equivalent circuits are introduced to integrate this model into HSPICE for circuit simulation. Ferroelectric materials fabrication, electrodes integration and etching are the main technologies of FeRAM fabrication process. An metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process is developed to fabricate high quality Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) films. Pt is known to cause the fatigue problems when used as electrodes with PZT. Ir is used as electrodes to improve the fatigue property of PZT based capacitors, and mechanism of the fatigue is analyzed. Hard mask is used to reduce the size of the capacitors and damage caused in etching process. In our process, Al2O3 is developed as hard mask, which simplifies the FeRAM backend integration process.
We present an overview of recent astrometric results with VERA. Since 2004, we have been conducting astrometry of tens of Galactic maser sources with VERA, and recently obtained trigonometric parallaxes for several sources, with distances ranging from 180 pc to 5.3 kpc. In this paper, we briefly summarize the results for Galactic star-forming regions, including S269, Orion-KL, NGC 1333, ρ-oph, NGC 281 and others.
Future space mission of astrometric satellite, GAIA and JASMINE (Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for Infrared Exploration), will produce astrometric parameter, such as positions, parallaxes, and proper motions of stars in the Galactic bulge. Then kinematical information will be obtained in the future. Accordingly it is expected that our understanding of the dynamical structure will be greatly improved. Therefore it is important to make a method to construct a kinematical and dynamical structure of the Galactic bulge immediately.
In this study, the transport of water-stable “nano-C60 particles” (a term used to refer to underivatized C60 crystalline nanoparticles, stable in water for months) through a soil column (packed with Lula soil, 0.27% organic carbon) was investigated for the first time. Nano-C60 particle breakthrough experiments were conducted at different flow rates, while other column operating parameters remained fixed through all the experiments. Nano-C60 particles were observed to be more mobile at higher flow velocity: at the flow velocity of 0.38 m/d, the maximum percent of nano-C60 breakthrough (C/C0) was 47%; at the flow velocity of 3.8 m/d, the plateau value of nano-C60 breakthrough was 60%; and at the flow velocity of 11.4 m/d, the plateau value of nano-C60 breakthrough was almost 80%. At the low flow velocity (0.38 m/d), which is typical of groundwater flow, nano-C60 particles showed very limited mobility: after about 57 pore volumes, they deposited to the soil column so rapidly that virtually no nano-C60 was detected in the effluent. This observed “favorable deposition” (attachment efficiency α = 1) was probably due to “filter ripening.” Also the release of nano-C60 particles after flow interruption was observed. The transport of naphthalene through the same soil column containing 0.18% nano-C60 particles deposited was measured. A retardation factor of about 13 was observed, possibly suggesting that sorbed nano-C60 particles in the soil column sorbed naphthalene similar to soil organic carbon. An asymmetric naphthalene breakthrough curve was observed, which is possibly due to “sorption nonequilibrium.”