The members of Anemone L. sect. Himalayicae (Ulbr.) Juz. (Ranunculaceae) are mainly distributed in the Himalaya of North India, Nepal and Bhutan and the neighbouring mountains of SW China at elevations between 1850 and 4800 m. Their taxonomy is re-evaluated on the basis of a critical morphological analysis of extensive herbarium material. The section is placed in Anemone subgen. Omalocarpus and differentiated into three new series: ser. Obtusilobae, ser. Trullifoliae and ser. Rupestres. A conspectus, keys to species, subspecies and varieties, descriptions of taxa, illustrations and distribution maps are presented. Eleven species with several infraspecific taxa are recognized and their synonymy, variability and relationships are discussed. In addition to the generally accepted species Anemone obtusiloba, A. trullifolia and A. rupestris, we recognize the following: A. polycarpa, A. rockii, A. geum and A. coelestina and four Chinese endemics, A. yulongshanica, A. patula, A. subpinnata and A. subindivisa. Anemone imbricata and A. fuscopurpurea are described but excluded from the section. The origins, morphological differentiations and eco-geographical radiations of Anemone sect. Himalayicae are discussed.