The Hidaka Metamorphic Belt (HMB) in Hokkaido, northern Japan, consists of tilted metamorphic layers of an island-arc type crust from lower (granulite facies) to upper (very low-grade metasedimentary) horizons. Abundant granitic rocks, mainly S-type tonalites of crustal origin, intrude various metamorphic layers and are classified into four depth types, namely upper, middle, lower and basal. The basal orthopyroxene-garnet (S-type) tonalities were intruded into granulite facies country rocks. Textural and compositional evidence from minerals in the basal tonalite indicates that the crystallisation sequence is Grt-Pl-Opx-Bt-Qtz-Crd-Kfs, and that crystallisation took place at about 600 MPa and 900°C-700°C.
Some crystallisation experiments were carried out in an internally heated pressure vessel, using the basal tonalite, under the conditions of 300 and 600 MPa, 700-900°C, and with 0-20 wt% H2O, respectively. The results show that the primary S-type tonalite magma was at a temperature above 900°C and contained 3-4 wt% H2O at the beginning of crystallisation. In order to study the influence of normative orthoclase content on orthopyroxene crystallisation, some starting materials also included 15, 20 and 25% normative orthoclase, by adding KAlSi3O8 gel to the rock powder. Normative orthoclase content has an influence on the subliquidus crystallisation limit of orthopyroxene.
The changes in P-T conditions and chemical composition of the magma during ascent would generate the sequence from the basal to upper S-type granite. Opx-free S-type granitic magma can be generated from lower crustal Grt-Opx S-type granitic magma, by differentiation with falling magmatic temperature.