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The nonlinear evolution of electron Weibel instability in a symmetric, counterstream, unmagnetized electron–positron e−/e+ plasmas is studied by a 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) method. The magnetic field is produced and amplified by the Weibel instability, which extracts energy from the plasma anisotropy. A weakly relativistic drift velocity of 0.5c is considered for two counterstreaming e−/e+ plasma flows. Simulations show that in a homogeneous e−/e+ plasma distribution, the magnetic field amplifies exponentially in the linear regime and rapidly decays after saturation. However, in the case of inhomogeneous e−/e+ plasma distribution, the magnetic field re-amplifies at post-saturation. We also find that the amount of magnetic field amplification at post-saturation depends on the strength of the density inhomogeneity of the upstream plasma distribution. The temperature calculation shows that the finite thermal anisotropy exists in the case of an inhomogeneous plasma distribution which leads to the second-stage magnetic field amplification after the first saturation. Such density inhomogeneities are present in a variety of astrophysical sources: for example, in supernova remnants and gamma-ray bursts. Therefore, the present analysis is very useful in understanding these astrophysical sources, where anisotropic density fluctuations are very common in the downstream region of the relativistic shocks and the widely distributed magnetic field.
Nipah virus (NiV) outbreak occurred in Kozhikode district, Kerala, India in 2018 with a case fatality rate of 91% (21/23). In 2019, a single case with full recovery occurred in Ernakulam district. We described the response and control measures by the Indian Council of Medical Research and Kerala State Government for the 2019 NiV outbreak. The establishment of Point of Care assays and monoclonal antibodies administration facility for early diagnosis, response and treatment, intensified contact tracing activities, bio-risk management and hospital infection control training of healthcare workers contributed to effective control and containment of NiV outbreak in Ernakulam.
Recent epidemiology studies have reported the prevalence of adult ADHD to be approximately 4%, however approved treatments are limited.
Primary objectives were to confirm the clinically-effective and safe dosage range of MPH-LA in adults with ADHD and evaluate the 6-month maintenance of effect.
Treatment Period (TP) 1: Patients were randomized to double-blind placebo, MPH-LA 40, 60, or 80 mg/day for 9- weeks (3-week titration, 6-week fixed-dose) to evaluate change in DSM-IV ADHD-RS and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) total score in TP1. TP2: 5-week titration to individual optimal dose. TP3: Patients were randomized to their optimal dose or placebo for 6-months double-blind withdrawal period to evaluate percentage of treatment failures during TP3.
Improvement from baseline in total score on the DSM-IV ADHD-RS and SDS was significantly greater than placebo for all MPH-LA dose levels (table). Patients treated with MPH-LA had significantly lower treatment failure rates (21.34%) compared to placebo in TP3 (49.6%; odds-ratio (95%CI=0.3 (0.2, 0.4); p< 0.0001). The safety results were consistent with the established safety profile for MPH-LA.
[Improvement by week 9: DSM-IV ADHD-RS and SDS].
N=Full Analysis Set for TP1 (All randomized patients receiving one dose of study drug in TP1)
MPH-LA administered at 40-80mg/day demonstrated superior ADHD symptom control and reduction in functional impairment compared to placebo and demonstrated maintenance of effect over 6 months. No unexpected adverse events were observed.
Castor is a prime industrial crop belonging to a monotypic genus and its genetic improvement depends on creating desired variability in the primary gene pool. This study reports the development of tetraploid castor plants through colchicine treatment. Seeds of three castor genotypes were soaked in aqueous solutions of colchicine with variable concentrations, and the LD50 value was determined. Of 1010 treated field-raised plants, three were identified as potential polyploids based on increases in a guard cell size and reductions in the number of stomata. The putative polyploid plants were selfed and the progeny were subjected to meiotic analysis. All the progeny were found to be tetraploid. The pairing of chromosomes was abnormal with univalent to octavalent configurations during meiosis-I, but the later parts of meiosis were normal. Seasonal variations in pollen fertility indicated the possible role of temperature-sensitive male sterility in causing the sterility in tetraploid plants. The tetraploid plants were phenotypically comparable with their diploid counterparts, but produced substantially bigger seeds. Thus, these tetraploid plants are valuable resources for basic and applied research in castor.
Shunt-related adverse events are frequent in infants after modified Blalock–Taussig despite use of acetylsalicylic acid prophylaxis. A higher incidence of acetylsalicylic acid-resistance and sub-therapeutic acetylsalicylic acid levels has been reported in infants. We evaluated whether using high-dose acetylsalicylic acid can decrease shunt-related adverse events in infants after modified Blalock–Taussig.
In this single-centre retrospective cohort study, we included infants ⩽1-year-old who underwent modified Blalock–Taussig placement and received acetylsalicylic acid in the ICU. We defined acetylsalicylic acid treatment groups as standard dose (⩽7 mg/kg/day) and high dose (⩾8 mg/kg/day) based on the initiating dose.
There were 34 infants in each group. Both groups were similar in age, gender, cardiac defect type, ICU length of stay, and time interval to second stage or definitive repair. Shunt interventions (18 versus 32%, p=0.16), shunt thrombosis (14 versus 17%, p=0.74), and mortality (9 versus 12%, p=0.65) were not significantly different between groups. On multiple logistic regression analysis, single-ventricle morphology (odds ratio 5.2, 95% confidence interval of 1.2–23, p=0.03) and post-operative red blood cells transfusion ⩾24 hours [odds ratio 15, confidence interval of (3–71), p<0.01] were associated with shunt-related adverse events. High-dose acetylsalicylic acid treatment [odds ratio 2.6, confidence interval of (0.7–10), p=0.16] was not associated with decrease in these events.
High-dose acetylsalicylic acid may not be sufficient in reducing shunt-related adverse events in infants after modified Blalock–Taussig. Post-operative red blood cells transfusion may be a modifiable risk factor for these events. A randomised trial is needed to determine appropriate acetylsalicylic acid dosing in infants with modified Blalock–Taussig.
Maturing oocytes have diverse developmental potential and good quality oocytes exhibit a better ability to attain physiological milestones in a time-dependent manner. This situation necessitates the confirmation of oocyte developmental status more precisely under an in vitro embryo production (IVEP) regime. The aim of this study was to explain timely events in germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), an important milestone of oocyte nuclear maturation, to delineate the developmental capacity of Bubalus bubalis oocytes. In addition, the expression profile of genes responsible for GVBD was assessed in order to understand the molecular context responsible for GVBD. The chronology of GVBD events at different time intervals during in vitro maturation (IVM) suggests that the rate at which oocytes undergo GVBD was strikingly different in the brilliant cresyl blue (BCB)+ and BCB− groups. The expression of AKT and CDC25B genes for BCB+ oocytes was maximum at 8 h of IVM, and CCNB (cyclin B) peaked at around 10 h, which suggested that GVBD was finished after 10 h in BCB+ oocytes, whereas the expression of AKT and CDC25B was found to peak at around 12–14 h of IVM. This difference consequently delays the GVBD event by 2–4 h in BCB− oocytes. Poor abundance of gene transcripts was mainly implicated in delay and lower rate of GVBD in BCB− oocytes which in turn strongly affected the translational ability of oocytes to blastocysts. The findings of this study support the idea that there is a propensity in sub-optimal grade oocytes for delayed GVBD that compromises the developmental ability of low grade buffalo oocytes. The study highlights the very small, but importantly vital and separate, time window of the GVBD event during which the competence levels of buffalo oocytes are altered along with their translational ability to develop into the prospective embryos.
In this paper we have studied space weather conditions near 53 potentially habitable exoplanets reported in literature using available information on the chromoshperic activity of their host stars and nature of dynamical interactions possible in the respective star-planetary systems.
We could find a new 5 year periodicity in the occurrences of peaks in sunspot activity and inferred deviations of annual Indian monsoon rainfall variations from the normal during the Maunder minimum (MM) period. This result is explained in terms of solar dynamo functioning in a different mode from normal during the MM where quadrupole field (first harmonic, 5-5.5 years) dominate over dipole field (fundamental, 11 years) causing extreme north south asymmetry in sunspot activity.
Respiratory symptoms are prevalent in vascular ring anomalies, including double aortic arch, which is considered the most common type of vascular ring. However, respiratory failure owing to critical airway obstruction in the neonatal period is rare with few reported cases in the literature. We report a case of a newborn patient who required emergent intubation within the first few hours of life and was later discovered to have a double aortic arch.
Unavailability of irrigation water for early sowing has remained a constant problem in cold arid deserts of Ladakh. In order to get a solution to this problem, a 2-yr farmers’ participatory research trial with best bet agronomic management on artificial glacier water harvesting technology was conducted. The technology involves collecting water from natural glaciers that melt during late December. The water is diverted toward a shed constructed with stone embankments set up at regular intervals. The area is chosen where there is minimum interference of solar radiation, generally between two mountain slopes or ridge that is on the leeward side. The melted water is that melts from the natural glacier impeded by the embankments and get frozen here. This frozen water starts melting in late March and is used for both pre sowing and initial crop water requirement. It also ensures early sowing of wheat by creating additional 45-day window which leads to introduction of long- and medium-duration wheat varieties to replace decades old locally grown short-duration varieties. The work was initiated with a benchmark survey of 100 farmers to get an understanding of present irrigation scenario, crop management practices and date of sowing. Data from 99 farmer participating trial of wheat conducted after or from bench mark survey clearly indicated that the effect of water shortage can be seen on yield and yield attributing characters due to unavailability of pre sowing irrigation and water requirement at imperative growth stages and may also lead to terminal heat stress in wheat crop. Out of total number of irrigations applied, initial two irrigations can be compensated by artificial glacier water harvesting technique, leading to a revolution in the agriculture scenario of the tribal population by introduction of long- and medium-duration wheat varieties in cold arid desert of Ladakh for the very first time. It was observed that wheat seeding done in first fortnight of April gave better yields in comparison to late seeded wheat. Moreover, the long-duration varieties (LDVs) or medium-duration varieties (MDVs) sown under late condition gave better yield in comparison to locally grown short-duration varieties sown at same time. Yield potential of LDVs and MDVs of wheat under late sowing was found quite low in comparison to early-sown wheat, still when compared with the performance of locally grown wheat the yields were more even if the local varieties were sown early. The outcome of this study will help the farmers of tribal, cold arid community in harvesting better wheat yields by timely sowing of the wheat crop accompanied with better bet agronomic management practices. Government initiative is further required to ensure better outreach of complete crop management strategies to the tribal farming community of the region in order to ensure food security and improve their socioeconomic status.
The cryptic nature and lack of consistent biological control of the stem fly, Melanagromyza sojae Zehntner, an emerging pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, necessitated the monitoring and assessment of the impact of the parasitoid complex on seasonal regulation of the pest population. In this paper, we measure and relate, using the host density as a predictor variable, the seasonal density dependence of M. sojae parasitoids and the level of parasitism in soybean fields. The results revealed density dependence of parasitioids. The populations built up concomitant with the host insect, reached their peak during the mid-season, and declined towards the end of the crop season. A complex of 10 species of hymenopteran parasitoids comprising six species from Pteromalidae and one species each from the families Eurytomitidae, Eucoilidae, Braconidae and Eulopidae had a significant impact on M. sojae populations with a peak parasitism of ~50%. The seasonality and relative abundance of parasitoids were explored. Eurytoma sp. (Eurytomitidae) and Gronotoma sp. (Eucoilidae) were the most prevalent parasitoids throughout the season, whereas the pteromalid Sphegigaster sp. was dominant during the mid-season. The modulation of management practices aimed at conservation of these bioagents could improve the biological control of M. sojae populations. We discuss the practicality of several management options aimed at achieving this goal.
To evaluate differences in interstage growth of pulmonary arteries between use of polytetrafluoroethylene and femoral vein homograft as Sano shunt during stage-I Norwood palliation.
A retrospective review of all patients who survived to the second stage following Norwood–Sano operation at two institutions was performed. Either polytetrafluoroethylene or the valved segment of femoral vein homograft was used for construction of the Sano shunt. The size of pulmonary arteries was compared at pre-Glenn catheterisation.
A total of 48 neonates with the diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome or its variants comprised the study population. Femoral vein homograft of 5–6 mm diameter was used in 14 and polytetrafluoroethylene graft of 5 mm was used in 34 patients. The two groups were comparable in terms of preoperative demographics and age at time of pre-Glenn catheterisation (3.9±0.7 versus 3.4±0.8 months, p=0.06). Patients who received femoral vein homograft demonstrated a significantly higher pre-Glenn Nakata index [264 (130–460) versus 165 (108–234) mm2/m2, p=0.004]. The individual branch pulmonary arteries were significantly larger in the femoral vein group (right, 7.8±3.6 versus 5.0±1.2, p=0.014; left, 7.2±2.1 versus 5.6±1.9, p=0.02). There were no differences in cardiac index, Qp:Qs, ventricular end-diastolic pressure or systemic oxygen saturations.
Utilisation of a valved segment of femoral vein homograft as right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit during Norwood–Sano operation confers better interstage growth of the pulmonary arteries. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of femoral vein homograft on single ventricle function.
Numerous advances in surgical techniques and understanding of single-ventricle physiology have resulted in improved survival. We sought to determine the influence of various demographic, perioperative, and patient-specific factors on the survival of single-ventricle patients following stage 1 palliation at our institution.
We conducted a retrospective study of all single-ventricle patients who had undergone staged palliation at our institution over an 8-year period. Data were collected from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery database and from patient charts. Information on age, weight at stage 1 palliation, prematurity, genetic abnormalities, non-cardiac anomalies, ventricular dominance, and type of palliation was collected. Information on mortality and unplanned reinterventions was also collected.
A total of 72 patients underwent stage 1 palliation over an 8-year period. There were 12 deaths before and one death after stage 2 palliation. There was no hospital mortality following Glenn or Fontan procedures. On univariate analysis, low weight at the time of stage 1 palliation and prematurity were found to be risk factors for mortality following stage 1 palliation. However, multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed weight at stage 1 palliation to be a strong predictor of mortality. The type of stage 1 palliation did not have any influence on the outcome. No difference in survival was noted following the Glenn procedure.
Low weight has a deleterious impact on survival following stage 1 palliation. This is mitigated by stage 2 palliation. The type of stage 1 palliation itself has no bearing on the outcome.
Background: The surgical risk factors and neuro-imaging characteristics associated with cerebellar mutism (CM) remain unclear and require further investigation. We aimed to examine surgical and MRI findings associated with CM in children following posterior fossa tumor resection. Methods: Using our data registry, we retrospectively collected data from pediatric patients who acquired CM and were matched based on age and pathology type with patients not acquiring CM after posterior fossa surgery. The strength of association between surgical and MRI variables and CM were examined using odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: A total of 22 patients were included. Medulloblastoma was the most common pathology among CM patients (91%). Tumor attachment to the floor of the fourth ventricle (OR, 6; 95% CI, 0.7-276), calcification/hemosiderin deposition (OR 7; 95% CI 0.9-315.5), and post-operative peri-ventricular ischemia on MRI (OR, 5; 95% CI, 0.5-236.5) were found to have the highest association with CM. Conclusions: Our results may suggest that tumor attachment to the floor of the fourth ventricle, pathological calcification, and post-operative ischemia are relatively more prevalent in patients with CM. Collectively, our work calls for a larger multi-institutional study of CM patients to further investigate the determinants and management of CM to potentially minimize its development and predict onset.
The porcine small intestinal extracellular matrix reportedly has the potential to differentiate into viable myocardial cells. When used in tetralogy of Fallot repair, it may improve right ventricular function. We evaluated right ventricular function after repair of tetralogy of Fallot with extracellular matrix versus bovine pericardium.
Subjects with non-transannular repair of tetralogy of Fallot with at least 1 year of follow-up were selected. The extracellular matrix and bovine pericardium groups were compared. We used three-dimensional right ventricular ejection fraction, right ventricle global longitudinal strain, and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion to assess right ventricular function.
The extracellular matrix group had 11 patients, whereas the bovine pericardium group had 10 patients. No differences between the groups were found regarding sex ratio, age at surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass time. The follow-up period was 28±12.6 months in the extracellular matrix group and 50.05±17.6 months in the bovine pericardium group (p=0.001). The mean three-dimensional right ventricular ejection fraction (55.7±5.0% versus 55.3±5.2%, p=0.73), right ventricular global longitudinal strain (−18.5±3.0% versus −18.0±2.2%, p=0.44), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursions (1.59±0.16 versus 1.59±0.2, p=0.93) were similar in the extracellular matrix group and in the bovine pericardium group, respectively. Right ventricular global longitudinal strain in healthy children is reported at −29±3% in literature.
In a small cohort of the patients undergoing non-transannular repair of tetralogy of Fallot, there was no significant difference in right ventricular function between groups having extracellular matrix versus bovine pericardium patches followed-up for more than 1 year. Lower right ventricular longitudinal strain noted in both the groups compared to healthy children.
Introduction: Although Tenofovir/Emtricitabine was approved in 2012 as a single-agent regimen for pre-exposure prophylaxis, there have been no studies to our knowledge that demonstrate the efficacy of single and dual agent regimens in post-exposure prophylaxis. Our goal was to compare outcomes of post-exposure prophylaxis with single and dual agent regimens versus triple therapy in victims of sexual assault. Methods: This was a before and after cohort study of patients seen by the Sexual Assault and Partner Abuse Care Program (SAPACP) at the Ottawa Hospital. We reviewed charts of patients seen by the SAPACP from Jan. 1-Dec. 31 2013, when triple therapy was usual care, and Jan. 1-Dec. 31 2015, after the introduction of alternative regimens. Patients who were deemed high risk or who did not get initial treatment at the SAPACP were excluded. Our primary outcome was the number of patients who completed the entire 28-day post-exposure prophylaxis regimen. Secondary objectives were to assess HIV seroconversion rates and patient reported side effects. Results: Six hundred-thirty charts were reviewed, and 429 were included in the study. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two years. We found no significant difference in completion rates of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis between the two cohorts (50.5% vs. 51.6%). However, we did note a decrease in reported side effects in the 2015 cohort (72.2% vs. 17.6%, p<0.0001). In our secondary analysis, we compared all patients in all years who received triple therapy (N=128) versus those who received alternative single or dual agent regimens (N=47). We found that the alternative regimen group had a higher completion rate (66.0% vs. 42.2%; p=0.03), and a dramatic decrease in rate of reported side effects (19.1% vs. 53.9%; p<0.0001). Specifically, we saw decreased reported rates of nausea (12.8% vs. 36.7 %), constipation (0% vs. 7.9%), diarrhea (2.1% vs. 21.1%), mood changes (0% vs. 10.9%), headache (2.1% vs. 16.4%), and fatigue (6.4% vs. 26.6%). There were no HIV seroconversions in either group. Conclusion: Our results suggest that single and dual agent HIV post-exposure prophylaxis regimens are better tolerated by patients and associated with higher rates of completion than triple therapy, and should be considered as stand-alone therapy in the sexual assault victim population.
Introduction/Innovation Concept: Emergency Medicine (EM) is a specialty that requires physicians to deal with acutely ill patients in a fast-paced environment, which can create stress, mental exhaustion and burnout. Continually changing working teams in the Emergency Department does not always allow appropriate debriefing for difficult patient encounters and outcomes on shift. To address these challenges, we sought to adapt and implement a peer-support rounds called ‘Ice Cream Rounds’ used in some Pediatric training programs for an EM training program. Methods: CCFP and Royal College EM residents were surveyed to determine interest and need for Ice Cream Rounds. Of the 31/50 respondents, 87% (26/31) identified their co-residents as their main source of support after difficult patient encounters and 71% (22/31) felt that current opportunities to debrief after difficult experiences were only “sometimes” or “rarely” adequate. Overall, 84% (26/31) were interested in attending Ice Cream Rounds. Residents expressed that they did not want staff present for Ice Cream Rounds so two residents (SCS and TK) obtained training to lead peer-support sessions from The Faculty of Medicine Wellness Program. Attendance at rounds was voluntary and the EM program provided funding for refreshments. Two Ice Cream Rounds were piloted. Attendance and feedback was recorded from pilot sessions. Curriculum, Tool, or Material: Resident-only, peer-run confidential debriefing sessions. Sessions were voluntary and lasted one hour. Approximately 20-30/50 residents attended each Ice Cream Rounds. Discussions were confidential but include topics such as difficult patient encounters, poor patient outcomes, challenges in residency, and ethical issues. In response to positive attendance and feedback, the EM program provided 3-4 one-hour protected time slots with a stipend for refreshments for future academic years. Comments from residents consistently reaffirmed that Ice Cream Rounds was a helpful forum to discuss important issues with colleagues and provided a safe and confidential resource to help cope with residency challenges. Conclusion: We adapted, implemented, and evaluated a novel Peer-Support Wellness Rounds for debriefing resident issues and difficult patient encounters in a EM training program. To our knowledge this is the first Canadian initiative to implement such rounds in an EM training program. We believe that this template can be easily adopted by any EM training program and will effectively address wellness challenges faced by residents during their training.
The Ranomena ultramafic complex in NE Madagascar consists of layered gabbro, harzburgite, orthopyroxenite, clinopyroxenite, garnet websterite and chromitite-layered peridotite. This study of the Ranomena chromite chemistry aims to better understand the petrogenesis and palaeotectonic environment of the complex. The chromite from the Ranomena chromitite is unzoned/weakly zoned and has a Cr# (Cr/(Cr + Al)) of 0.59–0.69, a Mg# (Mg/(Fe + Mg)) of 0.37–0.44, and low Al2O3 (15–23 wt %) suggesting derivation from a supra-subduction zone arc setting. Calculation of parental melt composition suggests that the parental magma composition of the Ranomena chromitite was similar to that of a primitive tholeiitic basalt formed at a high degree of mantle melting, suggesting the parental melt composition was equivalent to that of an island-arc tholeiite (IAT). The parental magma of the Ranomena chromite had a FeO/MgO ratio of 0.9 to 1.8, suggesting arc derivation. The parental magma was Al- and Fe-rich, similar to a tholeiitic basaltic magma. The composition of orthopyroxene from the chromitite indicates a crystallization temperature range of 1250–1300°C at 1.0 GPa. The chemistry of the chromite in the Ranomena chromitite further suggests that the complex formed in a supra-subduction zone arc tectonic setting.
The present study investigates the potential of algal oil (extracted from Nannochloropsis salina), cod liver oil, olive oil and yeast for live prey enrichments in A. percula larviculture. After hatching, larvae were divided into six experimental groups as follows. Larvae fed on non-enriched (control), cod liver oil enriched, olive oil enriched, algal oil enriched, yeast enriched live prey and wild collected mixed plankton. Growth (total length, standard length, body depth, head depth and weight), survival, carotenoid and PUFAs content were observed at higher levels in juveniles fed on wild plankton and algal oil enriched diets. Thyroid hormones (T3, T4 and TSH) levels were also higher in the juveniles fed on wild plankton followed by algal oil enriched diet. Based on the present study, it can be concluded that mixed zooplankton and algal oil enriched rotifers Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia nauplii may be considered suitable live prey for clownfish larviculture.