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Recovery Ice Stream has multiple branches reaching far into the East Antarctic ice sheet. We use new airborne and ground-based geophysics to give the first comprehensive overview of the upper catchment and, by constraining the physical setting, to advance our understanding of the controlling mechanisms for the onset of fast flow. The 400 km wide ice stream extends towards the Recovery Subglacial Lakes, a region characterized by a crustal boundary, a change in bed roughness, a bedrock topographic step and four topographic basins (A–D), three of which (A–C) contain subglacial water. All these characteristics are considered potential causal mechanisms that contribute to the onset of fast flow. In Lakes B and C the subglacial water is located in basins with sharp downstream ridges, in contrast to the gently sloping ridge on the downstream margin of Lake A. The fastest-flowing branch of the ice stream emanates from Lake A. The presence of multiple causal mechanisms along the four Recovery Lakes allows us to identify basal water as a dominant factor for the onset of fast flow, but only if it is stored in a shallow-sided basin where it can lubricate the flow downstream. Relatively minor topographic barriers appear to inhibit streaming.
Currently, IIIa-J objective-prism plates from the Calar Alto and ESO Schmidt telescopes are used at the Hamburg Observatory to search for and to identify new astronomical objects. Major projects are the Hamburg Quasar Survey, the Hamburg-ESO Survey, and the Hamburg-Munich collaboration to identify sources from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (cf. contributions to this conference by Hagen et al., Wisotzki, and Voges). The objective-prism plates are digitized with a PDS microphotometer. To determine the brightness of the digitized objects, a method to calibrate the plates was developed, using an internally determined characteristic curve and its external calibration with photometric sequences. Having spectral information, we are able to synthesize the Johnson B-filter as this filter is fully covered by the spectra.
The control of Johne's disease requires the identification of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-positive herds. Boot swabs and liquid manure samples have been suggested as an easy-to-use alternative to sampling individual animals in order to diagnose subclinical Johne's disease at the herd level, but there is a need to evaluate performance of this approach in the field. Using a logistic regression model, this study aimed to calculate the threshold level of the apparent within-herd prevalence as determined by individual faecal culture, thus allowing the detection of whether a herd is MAP positive. A total of 77 boot swabs and 75 liquid manure samples were taken from 19 certified negative and 58 positive dairy herds. Faecal culture, three different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods and the combination of faecal culture with PCR were applied in order to detect MAP. For 50% probability of detection, a within-herd prevalence threshold of 1·5% was calculated for testing both matrices simultaneously by faecal culture and PCR, with the threshold increased to 4·0% for 90% probability of detection. The results encourage the use of boot swabs or liquid manure samples, or a combination both, for identifying MAP-positive herds and, to a certain extent, for monitoring certified Johne's disease-negative cattle herds.
We investigated the course of decline in multiple cognitive domains in non-demented subjects from a memory clinic setting, and compared pattern, onset and magnitude of decline between subjects who progressed to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia at follow-up and subjects who did not progress.
In this retrospective cohort study 819 consecutive non-demented patients who visited the memory clinics in Maastricht or Amsterdam between 1987 and 2010 were followed until they became demented or for a maximum of 10 years (range 0.5–10 years). Differences in trajectories of episodic memory, executive functioning, verbal fluency, and information processing speed/attention between converters to AD dementia and subjects remaining non-demented were compared by means of random effects modelling.
The cognitive performance of converters and non-converters could already be differentiated seven (episodic memory) to three (verbal fluency and executive functioning) years prior to dementia diagnosis. Converters declined in these three domains, while non-converters remained stable on episodic memory and executive functioning and showed modest decline in verbal fluency. There was no evidence of decline in information processing speed/attention in either group.
Differences in cognitive performance between converters to AD dementia and subjects remaining non-demented could be established 7 years prior to diagnosis for episodic memory, with verbal fluency and executive functioning following several years later. Therefore, in addition to early episodic memory decline, decline in executive functions may also flag incident AD dementia. By contrast, change in information processing speed/attention seems less informative.
This article represents a systematic effort to answer the question, What are archaeology’s most important scientific challenges? Starting with a crowd-sourced query directed broadly to the professional community of archaeologists, the authors augmented, prioritized, and refined the responses during a two-day workshop focused specifically on this question. The resulting 25 “grand challenges” focus on dynamic cultural processes and the operation of coupled human and natural systems. We organize these challenges into five topics: (1) emergence, communities, and complexity; (2) resilience, persistence, transformation, and collapse; (3) movement, mobility, and migration; (4) cognition, behavior, and identity; and (5) human-environment interactions. A discussion and a brief list of references accompany each question. An important goal in identifying these challenges is to inform decisions on infrastructure investments for archaeology. Our premise is that the highest priority investments should enable us to address the most important questions. Addressing many of these challenges will require both sophisticated modeling and large-scale synthetic research that are only now becoming possible. Although new archaeological fieldwork will be essential, the greatest pay off will derive from investments that provide sophisticated research access to the explosion in systematically collected archaeological data that has occurred over the last several decades.
Laser annealing experiments on commercially available phase pure tenorite (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) were performed in air and nitrogen atmosphere to improve the structural and electronic properties, with respect to their suitability for photovoltaic applications. The particles exhibit size variations from about 30 nm to 100 nm. The influence of the thermal treatment is investigated by photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy. Annealing of the particles in air by a laser treatment improved the material quality by defect reduction. Additional laser annealing in N2 atmosphere leads to a phase transition of the NPs from tenorite to cuprite (Cu2O). Due to the low partial oxygen pressure, the transition is initiated at about 1/3 of the maximum laser power used for the series in air, which is indicated by a drastic increase of the band edge emission from Cu2O. However, annealing with higher laser power leads to strong defect luminescence, which originates from copper and oxygen vacancies. A weak remaining tenorite band edge emission shows an incomplete phase transition.
As physical activity may modify the effect of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele on the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia, we tested for such a gene–environment interaction in a sample of general practice patients aged ⩾75 years.
Data were derived from follow-up waves I–IV of the longitudinal German study on Ageing, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe). The Kaplan–Meier survival method was used to estimate dementia- and AD-free survival times. Multivariable Cox regression was used to assess individual associations of APOE ε4 and physical activity with risk for dementia and AD, controlling for covariates. We tested for gene–environment interaction by calculating three indices of additive interaction.
Among the randomly selected sample of 6619 patients, 3327 (50.3%) individuals participated in the study at baseline and 2810 (42.5%) at follow-up I. Of the 2492 patients without dementia included at follow-up I, 278 developed dementia (184 AD) over the subsequent follow-up interval of 4.5 years. The presence of the APOE ε4 allele significantly increased and higher physical activity significantly decreased risk for dementia and AD. The co-presence of APOE ε4 with low physical activity was associated with higher risk for dementia and AD and shorter dementia- and AD-free survival time than the presence of APOE ε4 or low physical activity alone. Indices of interaction indicated no significant interaction between low physical activity and the APOE ε4 allele for general dementia risk, but a possible additive interaction for AD risk.
Physical activity even in late life may be effective in reducing conversion to dementia and AD or in delaying the onset of clinical manifestations. APOE ε4 carriers may particularly benefit from increasing physical activity with regard to their risk for AD.
Commercially available tenorite (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) were investigated in particular with respect to their suitability for photovoltaic applications. NPs with a diameter of about 30 nm were step wise annealed up to 1000°C in nitrogen atmosphere. The influence of the annealing treatment on the structural and electronic properties was investigated by Raman, photoluminescence (PL) and photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS) as well as X-ray diffraction measurements. Size, shape, and phase of the untreated NPs are analyzed by TEM measurements. The PL and PDS results show a strong increase of the tenorite band edge emission at about 1.3 eV accompanied by a decreasing sub gap absorption with increasing annealing temperature up to 700°C. According to literature, a phase transition from tenorite to cuprite (Cu2O) was expected and observed after annealing at 800°C. Strong cuprite band edge emission at about 2 eV accompanied by very weak defect and possibly tenorite band edge emission was found for samples annealed at 800°C and 1000°C.
Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been used for the characterization of AlGaN/GaN and InGaN/GaN heterostructures. The resulting pseudodielectric function spectra were analyzed using a multilayer approach, describing the dielectric functions of the individual layers by a parametric oscillator model. From this analysis, the dielectric function spectra of GaN, AlxGa1−xN (x≤0.16), and In0.13Ga0.87N were deduced. Further, the dependence of the AlxGa1−xN band gap energy on the Al mole fraction was derived and compared with photoluminescence data recorded on the same material. The SE band gap data are compatible with a bowing parameter close to 1 eV for the composition dependence of the AlxGa1−xN gap energy. Finally, the parametric dielectric functions have been used to model the pseudodielectric function spectrum of a complete GaN/AlGaN/InGaN LED structure.
Melt textured YBCO samples with and without 211 inclusions were irradiated by fast neutrons. The enhancement of the critical current density was studied as a function of the 211 content by means of SQUID magnetometry at temperatures from 5 to 77 K and magnetic fields from 0 to 8 T. The highest enhancement factor, found at 77 K and 1.5 T for a 211-free sample, is 27. The enhancement is less effective for samples with 211 inclusions. However, the critical current densities after irradiation show a similar temperature and field dependence in all samples. The role of the initial microstructure on the radiation effects is discussed.
We crystallize amorphous silicon films with a frequency doubled Nd:YVO4 laser operating at a repetition frequency of up to 50 kHz. A sequential lateral solidification process yields polycrystalline silicon with grains longer than 100 μm and a width between 0.27 and 1.7 μm depending on film thickness and laser repetition frequency. The average grain size is constant over the whole crystallized area of 25 cm2. Thin film transistors with n- type and p-type channels fabricated from the polycrystalline films have average field effect mobilities of μn = 467 cm2/Vs and μp = 217 cm2/Vs respectively. As a result of the homogeneous grain size distribution, the standard deviation of the mobility is only 5%.
The relaxation of thermal stresses during the Czochralsky growth leads to frozen in deformations in the boules. These deformations lead to a nonintentional inhomogeneous miscut of the wafers. From the X-ray double crystal measurement of frozen in deformations in GaAs bulk crystals a nonintentional miscut of about 10−4 may be estimated. The measurement of the misorientation distribution over a LEC GaAs wafer yielded even higher inhomogeneities which are believed to be due to local curvature of the lcm2 samples. The relaxation of GaAs/AlAs Braggreflectors of 3μm overall thickness depends on the density of threading dislocations i.e. of the type of substrate (LEC or HB). The inhomogeneous strain field of misfit dislocations in InGaAs/GaAs multilayer systems and their inhomogeneous distribution leads to deformations in epitaxial layers limiting the dimensions of coherently scattering domains. The resulting mosaic spread in the epitaxial layer systems has been obtained using triple crystal measurements. The experimentally determined mosaic spread has to be taken into account to simulate the the diffraction pattern more correctly.
Lattice mismatched InxGa1−xAs layers with InAs mole fractions below 0.25 grow in a two dimensional growth mode on GaAs. If the thickness of these layers is beyond the critical layer thickness the strain relaxes through misfit dislocations. The misfit dislocation density in the <011> and <01-1> direction differs for n-type layers. This results in a highly anisotropic electron mobility for GaAs/InxGa1−xAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As inverted HEMT structures. A higher electron mobility in the < 011 > direction is measured in comparison to the <01-1> direction. The resistance ratio in the two perpendicular directions exceeds 105. For a three dimensional growth mode, the InxGa1−xAs layer shows interface roughness which degrades the transport properties of the normal Al0.3Ga0.7As/ InxGa1−xAs/ GaAs HEMT structures more than the inverted GaAs/InxGa1−xAs/ Al0.3Ga0.7As HEMT structures. For a three dimensional growth mode, an anisotropic electron mobility for Al0.3Ga0.7As/InxGal, As/GaAs HEMT structures is also observed. For these structures the highest electron mobility is measured in the < 01-1 > direction. This anisotropy could be explained by anisotropic growth rates in the <011> and < 01-1 > directions which results in growth islands with asymmetric extensions.
Neutron and X-ray diffraction techniques have been applied to the study of two samples of a-Si:C:H. Both samples were prepared using conventional glow discharge methods, but the hydrocarbon/silane precursor gas was diluted with hydrogen in one case. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction data gives a clear picture of the silicon network, since the scattering profile is dominated by the Si-Si correlations. The high real-space resolution neutron diffraction data, however allows one to comment on the effect of this dilution on the silicon-carbon bonding morphology, and in particular on the degree to which the additional hydrogen enhances hetero-coordination. In addition we present the results of a preliminary computer simulation study of the structure of a-C:H and a-Si:H using an approximate molecular dynamic density functional theory, and discuss its viability in the study of the more complex a-Si:C:H ternary alloy.
Using relative astrometry and ground based imaging, we study nearby stellar multiple
systems in order to detect the astrometric signal of exoplanets around one of the stellar
components. We suppress differential chromatic refraction effects by observing in the near
infrared with a narrow-band filter and by choosing an iterative calibration strategy
(using a stellar cluster) we obtain a precision down to 100 μas in our
relative astrometric measurements. This allows us to study the occurence and properties of
exoplanets in nearby (less than 100 pc) stellar multiple systems.
While trying to detect the astrometric signal of the exoplanet orbiting HD19994 A (Mayor
et al. 2004), we detected the
astrometric signal of a further object around the B component. This astrometric detection
is confirmed by speckle interferometry and follow-up radial velocity (RV) observations.
Thus, HD19994 is an exoplanet host-triple system.
Molybdenum-silicon (Mo-Si) multilayers for EUV lithography were prepared by ion beam sputter deposition at room temperature. The multilayer structure was determined by X-ray-diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Textured molybdenum layers with preferential (110) orientation normal to the surface are observed. At the interfaces of all Mo-Si and Si-Mo pairs additional intermixing resulting in molybdenum silicide layers were noticed. These layers have a thickness of about 0.7 and 1.5 nm each, respectively. Due to this intermixing, the nominal thickness of the Mo and Si layers is reduced. The optical index contrast at the interface is also expected to decrease. This is in accordance with the obtained EUV reflectivity results of 64–65% at 13.4 nm which remains below the theoretical value of 74%. The formation of the silicide interface layers is discussed and an optimized deposition process focused on narrowing these transition layers is suggested.
Recent results on the local bonding of nitrogen in dilute GaInAsN and AlGaAsN on GaAs are reviewed, revealing that bonding of nitrogen in GaInAsN is controlled by an interplay between bond cohesive energy and reduction of local strain. Thus, III-N bonding in GaInAsN can be changed from Ga-N to In-N by post-growth thermal annealing. In AlGaAsN, in contrast, nitrogen bonds preferentially to Al, i.e. Al-N bonds are formed, due to the much larger cohesive energy of the Al-N bond. Further, results on indium-rich highly strained GaInAsN quantum wells on InP substrate are reported, showing room-temperature photoluminescence at wavelengths up to 2.3 μm. This result demonstrates the potential of high indium content dilute GaInAsN for InP-based long wavelength diode lasers.
In an effort to direct the structure formation and subsequently the catalytic properties of novel materials, both organic molecules and transition metals have been systematically incorporated into zinc phosphate materials, and various transition metals into zirconium phosphate materials. The resultant phases in the Zn/P experiments are determined not by the organic template, but by the type and stoichiometric amount of metal incorporated and by the organic template's anion. Furthermore, only one of the phases, a Ni/Zn/P, shows any acidic catalytic behavior. Similarly, the transition metals incorporated in stoichiometric amounts into the catalytically active novel zirconium phosphate are highly structure directing. Their presence inhibits the formation of the phosphate phase, instead promoting the formation of tetragonal ZrO2. The catalytic activity of the products are greatly diminished from the baseline material.
The synthesis and characterization methods for each phase will be presented. Characterization techniques employed include single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, thermal analysis, DCP and FTIR.
The strain distribution inside and in the vicinity of coherently strained self-organized islands has been investigated by high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD). Finite element method (FEM) calculations were carried out in order to calculate the strain field, which was then used to simulate x-ray reciprocal space maps on the basis of kinematical scattering theory. For Si0 75Ge0.25 islands an abrupt increase in the Ge-concentration at about one third of the island height has been found. This behavior can be attributed to different nucleation stages during growth. Highly strained buried CdSe quantum dots (QDs) strongly influence the surrounding ZnSe matrix. From reciprocal space maps and FEM simulations we were able to estimate the shape and size of the islands. The results are in agreement with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UHV atomic force microscopy (AFM) data.