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Childhood Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology persists in a substantial proportion of cases into adult life. ADHD is highly heritable but the etiology of ADHD is complex and heterogeneous, involving both genetic and non-genetic factors. In the present paper we analyzed the influence of both genetics and adverse life events on severity of ADHD symptoms in 110 adult ADHD patients. Subjects were genotyped for the norepinephrine transporter (NET), the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (SERTPR) and the more rare A/G variant within SERTPR. Three main outcomes were obtained: (1) adverse events showed a small but positive correlation with current ADHD severity; (2) NET, COMT and the A/G variant within SERTPR were not associated with ADHD severity; (3) taking into account stressors, the long (L) SERTPR variant showed a mild effect on ADHD, being associated with an increased severity, particularly as regard affective dysregulations; on the other hand, in subjects exposed to early stressors, it showed a protective effect, as compared to the S variant (see table). In conclusion, our data support the role of environmental factors in adult ADHD symptomatology. SERTPR may be involved in some features of the illness and act as a moderator of environmental influences in ADHD.
Pharmacogenetic studies in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) primarily focussing on serotonergic and dopaminergic polymorphisms, provided inconsistent findings. There is recent evidence for glutamatergic abnormalities in OCD.
Examine the association glutamatergic genes with serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) response in OCD.
To study pharmacogenetic association between SLC1A1 and GRIN2B polymorphisms with SRI response in OCD.
DSM-IV OCD patients were recruited from a specialty OCD clinic and evaluated using the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (YBOCS), Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) plus, Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI). They were subsequently reassessed with YBOCS and CGI. To study extreme phenotypes, we included only full responders (> 35% YBOCS improvement and CGI-I score of 1 or 2) to any SRI (n = 191) and non-responders (< 25% YBOCS improvement and CGI-I score ≥ 4) to adequate trial of at least two SRIs (n = 84). Partial responders were excluded. Genotyping was performed using an ABI9700 PCR machine.
Genotype frequencies did not deviate significantly from the values predicted by the Hardy-Weinberg equation. Case-control association analyses revealed no significant association between genotype/allele frequencies with SRI response.
Our data does not show any association between polymorphisms in glutamatergic genes and SRI response in OCD though such associations have been found in other studies. More SNP's in the same gene could be responsible for the pharmacogenetic associations. More homogenous sample considering symptom dimensions and other phenotypic variables may be needed. It may be critical to go beyond “usual suspect” candidate gene research. In this regard, a novel approach to identify SRI response biomarkers is the use of cellular models.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Dementia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality without pharmacologic prevention or cure. Mounting evidence suggests that adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern may slow cognitive decline, and is important to characterise in at-risk cohorts. Thus, we determined the reliability and validity of the Mediterranean Diet and Culinary Index (MediCul), a new tool, among community-dwelling individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A total of sixty-eight participants (66 % female) aged 75·9 (sd 6·6) years, from the Study of Mental and Resistance Training study MCI cohort, completed the fifty-item MediCul at two time points, followed by a 3-d food record (FR). MediCul test–retest reliability was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland–Altman plots and κ agreement within seventeen dietary element categories. Validity was assessed against the FR using the Bland–Altman method and nutrient trends across MediCul score tertiles. The mean MediCul score was 54·6/100·0, with few participants reaching thresholds for key Mediterranean foods. MediCul had very good test–retest reliability (ICC=0·93, 95 % CI 0·884, 0·954, P<0·0001) with fair-to-almost-perfect agreement for classifying elements within the same category. Validity was moderate with no systematic bias between methods of measurement, according to the regression coefficient (y=−2·30+0·17x) (95 % CI −0·027, 0·358; P=0·091). MediCul over-estimated the mean FR score by 6 %, with limits of agreement being under- and over-estimated by 11 and 23 %, respectively. Nutrient trends were significantly associated with increased MediCul scoring, consistent with a Mediterranean pattern. MediCul provides reliable and moderately valid information about Mediterranean diet adherence among older individuals with MCI, with potential application in future studies assessing relationships between diet and cognitive function.
Introduction: The proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology has the potential to change the way medical incident commanders respond to mass casualty incidents (MCI) in triaging victims. The aim of this study was to compare UAV technology to standard practice (SP) in triaging casualties at a MCI Methods: A randomized comparison study was conducted with forty paramedic students from the Holland College Paramedicine Program. Using a simulated motor vehicle collision with moulaged casualties, iterations of twenty students were used for both a day and a night trial. Students were randomized to an UAV or a SP group. After a brief narrative participants either entered the study environment or used UAV technology where total time to triage completion, green casualty evacuation, time on scene, triage order and accuracy was recorded Results: A statistical difference in the time to completing of 3.63 minutes (95% CI: 2.45, 4.85, p=0.002) during the day iteration and a difference of 3.49 minutes (95% CI: 2.08,6.06, p=0.002) for the night trial with UAV groups was noted. There was no difference found in time to green casualty evacuation, time on scene or triage order. One hundred percent accuracy was noted between both groups. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the feasibility of using an UAV at a MCI. A non clinical significant difference was noted in total time to completion between both groups. There was no increase in time on scene by using the UAV while demonstrating the feasibility of remotely triaging green casualties prior to first responder arrival.
Introduction: Situational awareness (SA) is essential for maintenance of scene safety and effective resource allocation in mass casualty incidents (MCI). Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can potentially enhance SA with real-time visual feedback during chaotic and evolving or inaccessible events. The purpose of this study was to test the ability of paramedics to use UAV video from a simulated MCI to identify scene hazards, initiate patient triage, and designate key operational locations. Methods: A simulated MCI, including fifteen patients of varying acuity (blast type injuries), plus four hazards, was created on a college campus. The scene was surveyed by UAV capturing video of all patients, hazards, surrounding buildings and streets. Attendees of a provincial paramedic meeting were invited to participate. Participants received a lecture on SALT Triage and the principles of MCI scene management. Next, they watched the UAV video footage. Participants were directed to sort patients according to SALT Triage step one, identify injuries, and localize the patients within the campus. Additionally, they were asked to select a start point for SALT Triage step two, identify and locate hazards, and designate locations for an Incident Command Post, Treatment Area, Transport Area and Access/Egress routes. Summary statistics were performed and a linear regression model was used to assess relationships between demographic variables and both patient triage and localization. Results: Ninety-six individuals participated. Mean age was 35 years (SD 11), 46% (44) were female, and 49% (47) were Primary Care Paramedics. Most participants (80 (84%)) correctly sorted at least 12 of 15 patients. Increased age was associated with decreased triage accuracy [-0.04(-0.07,-0.01);p=0.031]. Fifty-two (54%) were able to localize 12 or more of the 15 patients to a 27x 20m grid area. Advanced paramedic certification, and local residency were associated with improved patient localization [2.47(0.23,4.72);p=0.031], [-3.36(-5.61,-1.1);p=0.004]. The majority of participants (78 (81%)) chose an acceptable location to start SALT triage step two and 84% (80) identified at least three of four hazards. Approximately half (53 (55%)) of participants designated four or more of five key operational areas in appropriate locations. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the potential of UAV technology to remotely provide emergency responders with SA in a MCI. Additional research is required to further investigate optimal strategies to deploy UAVs in this context.
Introduction: Multiples barriers to appropriate analgesia are reported in the paediatric emergency department (PED), including limited accessibility to effective strategies. Our objective: was to evaluate the improvement in the accessibility of pain and anxiety management strategies in Canadian PEDs, after the creation of a national pediatric pain Quality Improvement Collaborative (QIC), through Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC). Methods: In 2013, the TRAPPED 1 survey was administered to Canadian PEDs, in order to evaluate what resources were in place for pain and anxiety management. A pain QIC was then created to stimulate the implementation of new strategies, through information sharing between PEDs. In 2015, the TRAPPED 2 cross sectional survey was administered. Its focus was to evaluate the improvement in the accessibility of specific strategies reported by each centre, after participating in this QIC, and working to implement change within their own PEDs. Results: All 15/15 Canadian PEDs responded to the TRAPPED 1 survey in 2013 and 11 agreed to participate in the national pain QIC. In-person, phone meetings, follow up surveys and email communications were employed for information sharing. Strategies identified by the QIC to be newly introduced in individual centres were educational initiatives, distraction options, nurse-initiated protocols and intranasal (IN) medications. All 15 PEDs completed the TRAPPED 2 survey. Compared to 2013, an increased number of PEDs used face-based pain scales (14/15 vs 6/15) and behavioural scales (5/15 vs 1/15) for pain assessment in 2015. Use of reminder posters on pain management at triage increased from 4/15 to 6/15 PEDs. Availability of tablets for distraction increased from 4/15 to 10/15 PEDs. Nurse-initiated protocols for topical anesthetic and oral sucrose (for needle procedures) increased from 10/15 to 12/15 sites and from 12/15 to 14/15 sites respectively. Availability of IN medications increased; fentanyl from 9/15 to 14/15 sites and midazolam from 8/15 to 10/15 sites. Ten of the 11 PEDs involved in the QIC strategy reported the implementation of at least one of their own identified strategies. Conclusion: This study suggests that the use of a QIC may improve the introduction of new strategies to reduce pain and anxiety in EDs. QICs may also be helpful to other centres when introducing new strategies.
Expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers were used to analyse genetic diversity among three Lens species. The SSR loci amplified successfully in wild species, with 94·82% transferability in Lens culinaris subsp. orientalis, 95·4% in Lens nigricans, 98·81% in L. culinaris subsp. odemensis, 94·82% in L. culinaris subsp. tomentosus and 96·55% in Lens ervoides. Ninety-nine alleles (average 3·41 alleles/locus) were detected by 29 SSR markers. Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis, all the genotypes were grouped into three clusters at a similarity level of 0·30. The diversity analysis indicated no species-specific clustering of the wild and cultivated species. Wild species L. nigricans and L. culinaris subsp. odemensis, L. culinaris subsp. orientalis and L. ervoides were grouped in Cluster I, whereas the Mediterranean land races of L. culinaris subsp. culinaris and L. culinaris subsp. tomentosus formed a separate group in Cluster II A. Cluster II B comprised L. ervoides, L. culinaris subsp. orientalis and L. culinaris subsp. culinaris. Clusters II C, II D and II F included cultivated Indian lentil genotypes. Cluster II E comprised Indian and Mediterranean germplasm lines. Cluster II F included three early maturing germplasm lines, whereas Cluster III included only two germplasm lines. The functional annotation of SSR-containing unigenes revealed that a majority of genes were involved in an important transport-related function or were a component of metabolic pathways. A high level of polymorphism of EST-SSRs and their transferability to related wild species indicated that these markers could be used for molecular screening, map construction, comparative genomic studies and marker-assisted selection.
Genetic diversity and relationship of 92 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes from India and exotic collections were examined using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and phenotypic traits to identify new sources of diversity that could accelerate the development of improved wheat varieties better suited to meet the challenges posed by heat stress in India. Genetic diversity assessed by using 82 SSR markers was compared with diversity evaluated using five physiological and six agronomic traits under the heat stress condition. A total of 248 alleles were detected, with a range of two to eight alleles per locus. The average polymorphic information content value was 0.37, with a range of 0.04 (cfd9) to 0.68 (wmc339). The heat susceptibility index was determined for grain yield per spike, and the genotypes were grouped into four categories. Two dendrograms that were constructed based on phenotypic and molecular analysis using UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean) were found to be topologically different. Genotypes characterized as highly heat tolerant were distributed among all the SSR-based cluster groups. This implies that the genetic basis of heat stress tolerance in these genotypes is different, thereby enabling wheat breeders to combine these diverse sources of genetic variability to improve heat tolerance in their breeding programmes.
Forage sorghum is an important component of the fodder supply chain in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world because of its high productivity, ability to utilize water efficiently and adaptability to a wide range of climatic conditions. Identification of high-yielding stable genotypes (G) across environments (E) is challenging because of the complex G × E interactions (GEI). In the present study, the performance of 16 forage sorghum genotypes over seven locations across the rainy seasons of 2010 and 2011 was investigated using GGE biplot analysis. Analysis of variance revealed the existence of significant GEI for fodder yield and all eight associated phenotypic traits. Location accounted for a higher proportion of the variation (0·72–0·91), while genotype contributed only 0·06–0·21 of total variation in different traits. Genotype-by-location interactions contributed 0·02–0·13 of total variation. Promising genotypes for fodder yield and each of the associated traits could be identified effectively using a graphical biplot approach. The majority of test locations were highly correlated. A ‘Which-won-where’ study partitioned the test locations into two mega-environments (MEs): ME1 was represented by five locations with COFS 29 as the best genotype, while ME2 had two locations with S 541 as the best genotype. The existence of two MEs suggested a need for location-specific breeding. Genotype-by-trait biplots indicated that improvement for forage yield could be achieved through indirect selection for plant height, leaf number and early vigour.
Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) have been applied to the study of structural and optical properties of ZnO nanocrystals prepared by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) at different temperatures. The variation of temperatures and times at the growth of ZnO films permits modifying the ZnO phase from the amorphous to crystalline, to change the size of ZnO nanocrystals (NCs), as well as to vary their photoluminescence spectra. The study has revealed three types of PL bands in ZnO NCs: defect related emission, the near-band-edge (NBE) PL, related to the LO phonon replica of free exciton (FE) recombination, and its second-order diffraction peaks. The PL bands, related to the LO phonon replica of FE, and its second-order diffraction in the room temperature Pl spectrum testify on the high quality of ZnO films prepared by the USP technology.
Several N-nitroso compounds (NOC) have been shown to be carcinogenic in a variety of laboratory animals, but evidence of their carcinogenicity in humans is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between NOC intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and possible effect modification by vitamins C and E and protein in a large case–control study carried out in Newfoundland and Labrador and Ontario, Canada. A total of 1760 case patients with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma and 2481 population controls were asked to complete a self-administered FFQ to evaluate their dietary intakes 1 year before diagnosis (for cases) or interview (for controls). Adjusted OR and 95 % CI were calculated across the quintiles of NOC (measured by N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)) intake and relevant food items using unconditional logistic regression. NDMA intake was found to be associated with a higher risk of CRC (highest v. lowest quintiles: OR 1·42, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·96; P for trend = 0·005), specifically for rectal carcinoma (OR 1·61, 95 % CI 1·11, 2·35; P for trend = 0·01). CRC risk also increased with the consumption of NDMA-containing meats when the highest tertile was compared with the lowest tertile (OR 1·47, 95 % CI 1·03, 2·10; P for trend = 0·20). There was evidence of effect modification between dietary vitamin E and NDMA. Individuals with high NDMA and low vitamin E intakes had a significantly increased risk than those with both low NDMA and low vitamin E intakes (OR 3·01, 95 % CI 1·43, 6·51; P for interaction = 0·017). The present results support the hypothesis that NOC intake may be positively associated with CRC risk in humans. Vitamin E, which inhibits nitrosation, could modify the effect of NDMA on CRC risk.
The antimicrobial properties of polymer materials are used in a verity of applications. Silver nanoparticles are commonly applied to polyurethane foams to obtain antifungal properties. For this study a series of nanocomposites (PU–Ag) from a urethane-type polymer (PU) were reinforced with various amounts of silver nanoparticles having an average size of 20 nm. The surface morphology and antifungal capacity of the nanocomposites were evaluated. As a result, a different surface morphology from PU was found in PU–Ag nanocomposites. The latter nanocomposite showed enhanced thermal and mechanical properties, when compared with the PU without silver nanoaprticles. The nanocomposite also exhibited good antifungal properties that can be used in a variety of applications.
Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3/ZrO2 heterostructured thin films with different individual layer ZrO2 thicknesses are deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by a sol-gel process. The current versus voltage (I-V) measurements of the above multilayered thin films in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) device structures are taken in the temperature range of 310 to 410K. The electrical conduction mechanisms contributing to the leakage current at different field regions have been studied in this work. Various models are used to know the different conduction mechanisms responsible for the leakage current in these devices. It is observed that Poole-Frenkel mechanism is the dominant conduction process in the high field region with deep electron trap energy levels (φt) whereas space charge limited current (SCLC) mechanism is contributing to the leakage current in the medium field region with shallow electron trap levels (Et). Also, it is seen that Ohmic conduction process is the dominant mechanism in the low field region having activation energy (Ea) for the electrons. The estimated trap level energy varies from 0.2 to 1.31 eV for deep level traps and from 0.08 to 0.18 eV for shallow level traps whereas the activation energy for electrons in ohmic conduction process varies from 0.05 to 0.17 eV with the increase of ZrO2 sub layer thickness. An energy band diagram is given to explain the dominance of the various leakage mechanisms in different field regions for these heterostructured thin films.
Ordered arrays of crystalline complex oxides nanostructures were synthesized onto single crystal insulating substrates using aqueous polyvinyl alcohol based electron beam resist precursors. The irradiated zones are insoluble in water (negative-tone resist) due to the electron induced cross linking of polyvinyl alcohol. The subsequent high temperature treatment of the developed precursor samples leads to the formation of ordered arrays of nanodots for low irradiation doses. For high irradiation dosages, epitaxially and oriented nanowires are obtained. These same precursors were shown to be nanoimprintable on single crystal substrates. This allows for future dual processing of a single precursor film gaining nano-structuration from both electron beam and nanoimprint lithography methods.
The mechanism for the gelation reaction of colloidal silica, Si(OH)4 +Si(OH)3 (O)- ----> Si2O8H5- + H2O, by an anionic pathway was investigated using density functional theory(DFT). Using transition state theory, the rate constants were obtained by analyzing the potential energy surface at the reactants, saddle point, and the products. In addition, reaction rate constants were investigated in the presence of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and sodium chloride (NaCl). These salts act as catalysts to induce gelation by destabilizing the double layer of colloidal silica to allow for Van der Waal interactions. Furthermore, it was observed that ammonium chloride plays an important role by initiating a hydride transfer allowing the reaction to proceed from the second transition state to the final product.
The aim of this study was to investigate the application of modified clay as a support in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) was used as the silver precursor in several concentrations (0.005 M, 0.01 M, 0.02 M, 0.05 M, and 0.1 M) to obtain Ag-MMT purified and modified clay nanocomposites. The properties of nanocomposites were also studied as a function of the concentration of the reducing agent, sodium borohydride (NaBH4). It was observed through X-ray Diffraction that the MMT purified structure was gradually exfoliated with increased concentrations of AgNO3, while the modified clay structure remained intact. As observed through UV-vis spectra, samples of Ag+-MMT were reduced with NaBH4 to produce Ago and its particle diameter is dependent on the concentration of NaBH4.
The 0.6(Bi0.85La0.15)FeO3-0.4PbTiO3 (BLF-PT) ceramics were prepared by tape casting method. Effects of binder (polyvinylbutyl dibutyl PVB), plasticizer (phthalate-polyethylene glycol DBP-PEG) and dispersant (triethylolamine, TEA) concentration on the rheological properties of BLF-PT slurry were investigated. The optimized component ratio for ceramics powders, binder, plasticizer, dispersant and solvent (ethanol, EtOH) in the slurry was 50 wt.%, 4 wt.%, 6 wt.%, 1 wt.% and 39 wt.%. The dielectric constant εr, loss tanδ, and remnant polarization Pr of BLF-PT ceramics laminated from the tapes were 525 (1 kHz), 1.7% (1 kHz) and 30 μC/cm2 (45 kV/cm), respectively, which were comparable to those of BLF-PT ceramics prepared by traditional solid state reaction method.
We have investigated the effects of two different strain-relief bilayer shell structures on the luminescent properties of colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs). CdSe QDs with a strain-compensated ZnS/ZnCdS bilayer shell were synthesized using the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction technique and their crystallinity of was examined by X-ray diffraction. The QDs enjoyed the benefits of excellent exciton confinement by the ZnS intermediate shell and strain compensation by the ZnCdS outer shell. The resulting CdSe/ZnS/ZnCdS QDs exhibited 40% stronger photoluminescence and a smaller peak redshift upon shell growth compared to conventional CdSe/ZnCdS/ZnS core/shell/shell QDs with an intermediate lattice adaptor. CdSe/ZnS/ZnCdS QD light-emitting diodes (LEDs) had a luminance of 558 cd/m2 at 20 mA/cm2, 28% higher than that of CdSe/ZnCdS/ZnS QD-LEDs. The former also had better spectral purity. These results suggest that nanocrystal shells may be strain-engineered in a different way to achieve QDs of high crystalline and optical quality well suited for full-color display applications.
We synthesized viscous precursors to indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) using three kinds of alcoholamines, ethanolamine (EA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA), by a simple process. The viscous precursors are obtained just by vigorous stirring of alcoholamine and urea in an aqueous solution containing the metal nitrates during heating at 150-160 °C. The precursor containing EA (EA-precursor) is a pale-orange suspension containing aggregates of the metal hydroxides and shows pseudoplastic flow. The precursors containing DEA (DEA-precursor) and TEA (TEA-precursor) are transparent pale-yellow and dark-orange sols, respectively. They give Newtonian flow in the lower shear rate and pseudoplastic flow in the higher shear rate. Higher concentration of metal salts leads to higher viscosity of the precursors. According to thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) for the EA- and DEA-precursors, evaporation of alcoholamine occurs at around each boiling point and subsequently formation of metal oxides occur at around 300 °C. In the case of the TEA-precursor, formation of metal oxides occurs before pyrolysis of TEA attributed to the higher boiling point of TEA. The thin IGZO film, which is prepared by spin-coating of the diluted DEA-precursor and subsequent sintering at 450 °C for 30 min, shows 0.02 cm2 ·V-1s-1 of the mobility and 10-5 of the on/off ratio. The highly viscous DEA-precursor containing high concentration of metal ions allows patterning in an area of 100 cm2 onto a surface of a silicon wafer with screen printing.