To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Catatonia is a complication of bipolar disorder, which is a constellation of symptoms such as catalepsy, mutism, and stupor. Standard therapy for catatonia contains benzodiazepines and electroconvulsive therapy. An uncomplicated catatonia is usually a benign condition. On the other hand, malignant catatonia is a life-threatening condition that is complicated with fever, autonomic instability, delirium, and rigidity. The syndrome is typically fulminant and progresses rapidly within a few days without appropriate intervention. Several previous reports suggested that some catatonia are associated with the overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and that amantadine may have an effectiveness for catatonia, as a NMDA receptor antagonist. We report a case of successful treatment for malignant catatonia refractory to benzodiazepines, by using amantadine.
Materials and methods/case
A 64-year-old Japanese woman with bipolar disorder was referred to our hospital because of 8-week prolonged fever. On admission, she was in febrile and stuporous states. Severe rigidity was observed in her extremities. Blood tests, lumbar puncture, and blood cultures were all negative. Brain MRI was normal. Consequently, we reached a diagnosis of malignant catatonia, and thus we gave additional benzodiazepines for her catatonic symptoms. However, there was no improvement, and we finally add a 50 mg/day amantadine for her malignant catatonic state.
Her fever resolved in a few days. Gradual dose-titration of amantadine led her clinical manifestation to completely disappeared.
Amantadine can be a potential option as one of the pharmacological therapies for refractory malignant catatonia.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
Breast-feeding initiation rates have increased in the USA; however, maintenance of breast-feeding for recommended durations is low. The objective of the present study was to identify factors that may facilitate breast-feeding for longer durations among first-time mothers, including physiological and social experiences and changes in maternal perceptions.
Survival analysis and linear regression methods were used to explore the relationship between experiences and breast-feeding duration, and the possible mediating effect of changes in maternal perceptions.
Secondary data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, conducted in the USA between 2005 and 2007.
Data from 762 first-time mothers who ever breast-fed were analysed.
Experiencing trouble with baby’s latch, problems with milk flow/supply and painful breast-feeding were significantly associated with breast-feeding duration (64, 26 and 36 % shorter duration, respectively). Meanwhile, positive changes in perception with respect to breast-feeding self-efficacy, opinion about infant feeding and belief about breast milk were associated with 16–27 % longer duration. Furthermore, changes in perception were observed to partially mediate the impact of physiological experiences on breast-feeding duration.
Perceptions of breast-feeding self-efficacy, beliefs and opinions can change over time and are influenced by breast-feeding experiences. The combined effect of experience and perception plays a key role in influencing breast-feeding duration. Future research should explore interventions to maintain or improve these perceptions while accounting for physiological experiences to support breast-feeding for recommended durations among first-time mothers.
In the fields of engineering, nanoscience, and biomechanics, thin structural members, such as beams, plates, and shells, that are supported by an elastic medium are used in several applications. There is a possibility that these thin structures might buckle under severe loading conditions; higher-order, complicated elastic buckling modes can be found owing to the balance of rigidities between the thin members and elastic supports. In this study, we have shown a new and simple ‘power law’ relation between the critical buckling strain (or loads) and rigidity parameters in structural members supported by an elastic medium, which can be modelled as a Winkler foundation. The following structural members have been considered in this paper: i) a slender beam held by an outer elastic support under axial loading, ii) cylindrical shells supported by an inner elastic core under hydrostatic pressure (plane strain condition), and iii) complete spherical shells that are filled with an inner elastic medium.
The cold HI cloud in the region of the M17SW giant molecular cloud comprises three major fragments with a mean size of ~ 30 pc. Their overall distribution is rather similar to that of CO gas, but one of the fragments does not seem to have a molecular counterpart. It is shown that such a cloud is also a future site of star formation.
The liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, and the minute intestinal fluke, Haplorchis taichui, are prevalent in many Asian countries. This study analysed the patterns of infections of O. viverrini and H. taichui in Lahanam and Thakhamlien villages (Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR), in two cross-sectional investigations. Out of a total of 207 human participants, post-anthelmintic treatment positivity rates for expelled worms were 170 (82.1%) for H. taichui and 65 (31.4%) for O. viverrini. Both these species co-exist in the study villages. When each parasite was analysed separately, H. taichui infections reached a plateau among people aged >20 years. Opisthorchis viverrini infection rates were highest in the age group 21–30 years, with decreasing infection rates after the age of 30. Our findings indicated that fish-borne trematode infections were more prevalent among adults. Fish, common intermediate hosts, were acquired in the study area for analysis. The examination of 35 species of fish as intermediate hosts found O. viverrini metacercariae in only six species, and these were found mostly during the month of November. Many farmers who live on the rice fields obtain their food from their immediate environment, including these intermediate-host fish, potentially putting them at greater risk of O. viverrini infection. By contrast, H. taichui metacercariae were found in three species of fish obtained from the market, meaning that anyone could consume them and become infected. If people who work in rice fields limit the species of fish they consume, or avoid consuming raw fish during the month of November, they may reduce their risk of O. viverrini infection.
The turbulent energy cascade in an upward or downward bubbly pipe flow with a Reynolds number of 1.5 × 104 was experimentally investigated in order to examine the effects of the flow direction on the turbulence modifications by bubbles. The bubble diameter was approximately 1 mm. The combination of a particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) system with Kolmogorov-order spatial and temporal resolutions and a shape projection imaging (SPI) system was used to simultaneously capture the liquid and bubble motions. The physical mechanisms of turbulence modification at each length scale, or in wavenumber space, were investigated by introducing a filtering-based scaling analysis, in which the filtering techniques derived from large eddy simulation (LES) were applied to the PTV measurements. The analysis can be used to examine the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) exchange between bubbles and flows at each wavenumber. We observed significant differences in the flow statistics and turbulent energy budget of upward and downward flows, which are due to the sign of the relative velocity of bubbles. A negative relative velocity (downward flow) induces greater modifications in the energy budget than a positive relative velocity (upward flow), which suggests that the bubble-transport term of the turbulent energy is greater when the flow has to push down the bubbles. The flow provides more energy to the bubbles when it pushes them in the downward direction. The flow will also receive and dissipate more energy from the bubbles in a downward flow compared with an upward flow due to the greater transverse motion of the bubbles. The analysis introduced in the present study shows that the energy transfer from large to small scales is decreased in an upward flow and is increased in a downward flow. Similarly, the sign of the bubble term indicates that turbulent flow receives energy from bubbles in an upward flow, while it transfers energy to bubbles in a downward flow. We also observed that this energy transport is approximately 10 times larger in a downward flow than in an upward flow.
Blue-green emitted barium silicate phosphors, Ba4Si6O16:Eu2+ and Ba5Si8O21:Eu2+, were prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction. In these hosts, the corner-sharing [SiO4] tetrahedral formed a chain framework structure. These silicate phosphors can be efficiently excited by n-UV light, yielding an intense blue-green emission. Under excitation by near UV light, the emission bands are broader than that of the Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ phosphor.
Influence of the linear energy-momentum relationship in graphene on conductance and magnetoresistance (MR) in ferromagnetic metal (FM)/graphene/FM lateral junctions is studied in a numerical simulation formulated using the Kubo formula and recursive Green’s function method in a tight-binding model. It is shown that the contribution of electron tunneling through graphene should be considered in the electronic transport in metal/graphene/metal junctions, and that the Dirac point (DP) is effectively shifted by the band mixing between graphene and metal electrodes. It is shown that MR appears due to spin-dependent shift of DP or spin-dependent change in the electronic states at DPs. It is shown that the MR ratio caused by the latter mechanism can be very high when certain transition metal alloys are used for electrodes. These results do not essentially depend on the shape of the junction structure. However, to obtain high MR ratios, the effects of roughness should be small.
The Bi-based oxide superconducting wire is one of the most promising materials for practical uses such as electric power transmission, electromagnets and so on. For the higher performances required in these applications, it is necessary to increase the critical current (Ic). We have carried out synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction analysis to improve our manufacturing processes and thus to achieve higher Ic. We have performed in situ X-ray diffraction measurements during the sintering and cooling processes, and observed the decrease of Bi-2223(=(Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox) phase during the cooling process. We have also evaluated the distribution of the crystal orientation in whole wire thickness, by measuring the rocking curves. We have observed that the distribution of the crystal orientation is improved by a refinement of the process conditions.
A total of 100 serum samples including 22 acute phase sera and 39 paired sera collected from clinically diagnosed cases of leptospirosis in Ming-shan County, Sichuan Province, China were examined by the one-point microcapsule agglutination test (MCAT), which was developed in Japan, and by conventional microscopic agglutination tests (MAT). The one-point MCAT is more reactive to IgM antibody than MAT and is superior in detecting antibodies in the early stages of the disease.
We have examined effects of gas velocity and gas pressure on a deposition rate of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films and on a volume fraction of clusters in the films using a multi-hollow discharge plasma CVD method. The maximum deposition rate realized for each pressure exponentially increases with decreasing the pressure from 1.0 Torr to 0.1 Torr, whereas the volume fraction of clusters very slightly increases with increasing the deposition rate. Based on the results, we have succeeded in depositing highly stable a-Si:H films of 4.9×1015cm-3 in a stabilized defect density at a rate of 3.0nm/s using the method.
A thin-amorphous MnOx layer using self-forming barrier process with a Cu-Mn alloy shows good adhesion and diffusion barrier properties between copper and dielectric layer, resulting in excellent reliability for stress and electromigration. Meanwhile, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) can be employed for conformal deposition of the barrier layer in narrow trenches and vias for future technology node. In our previous research, a thin and uniform amorphous MnOx layer could be formed on TEOS-oxide by thermal metal-organic CVD (MOCVD), showing a good diffusion barrier property. In addition, a good adhesion strength is necessary between a Cu line and a dielectric layer not only to ensure good SM and EM resistance but also to prevent film delamination under mechanical or thermal stress conditions during fabrication process such as chemical mechanical polishing or high temperature annealing. To date, no information is available with regard to the adhesion property of CVD-MnOx. In this work, we report diffusion barrier property in further detail and adhesion property in PVD-Cu/CVD-MnOx/SiO2/Si. The temperature dependence of the adhesion property is correlated with the chemical composition and valence state of Mn investigated with SIMS and Raman spectroscopy.
Substrates were p-type Si wafers having a plasma-TEOS oxide of 100nm in thickness. CVD was carried out in a deposition chamber. A manganese precursor was vaporized and introduced into the deposition chamber with H2 carrier gas. After the CVD, a Cu overlayer was deposited on some samples using a sputtering system in load lock chamber of the CVD machine. The diffusion barrier property of the MnOx film was investigated in annealed samples at 400 oC for 100 hours in a vacuum of better than 1.0×10-5 Pa. The Adhesion property of Mn oxide was investigated by Scotch tape test in the as-deposited and in the annealed Cu/CVD-MnOx/TEOS samples. The obtained samples were analyzed for thickness and microstructure with TEM, chemical bonding states of the MnOx layer with XPS, and composition of each layer with SIMS.
In the CVD deposition below 300 °C, no Cu delamination was observed both in the as-deposited and in the annealed Cu/CVD-MnOx/SiO2 samples. On the other hand, in the CVD deposition at 400 °C, the Cu films were delaminated from the CVD-MnOx/TEOS substrates. The XPS peak position of Mn 2p and Mn 3s spectra indicated that the valence state of Mn in the as-deposited barrier layer below 400 °C was 2+. Composition analysis with SIMS as well as Raman also indicated the presence of a larger amount of carbon at 400 °C than at less than 300 °C. The good adhesion between Cu and MnO could be attributed to an amount of carbon inclusion in the CVD barrier layer.
Bassel Atassi, Research Associate, Department of Radiology Section of Interventional Radiology Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center Northwestern Memorial Hospital Chicago, IL,
Saad Ibrahim, Research Fellow, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center Northwestern Memorial Hospital Chicago, IL,
Pankit Parikh, Research Assistant, Northwestern Memorial Hospital Chicago, IL,
Robert K. Ryu, Associate Professor, Department of Radiology Northwestern Memorial Hospital Chicago, IL,
Kent T. Sato, Assistant Professor, Department of Radiology Northwestern Memorial Hospital Chicago, IL,
Robert J. Lewandowski, Assistant Professor, Department of Radiology Section of Interventional Radiology Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center Northwestern Memorial Hospital Chicago, IL,
Riad Salem, Associate Professor, Department of Radiology Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center Northwestern Memorial Hospital Chicago, IL
90Yttrium (90Y) microspheres are 20- to 40-μ particles that emit beta radiation. Because the microspheres are delivered via the hepatic arterial route, the process can be considered “internal” rather than external radiation. The treatment algorithm is analogous to that followed with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Clinical history, physical examination, laboratory values and performance status are obtained. Patients are initially evaluated and staged using cross-sectional imaging techniques (computerized tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], positron emission tomography [PET]). Once a patient is considered a possible candidate for therapy, evaluation using mesenteric angiography followed by treatment on a lobar basis is undertaken. Patients are followed clinically to assess toxicities and response prior to proceeding with treatment to the other lobe. A comprehensive review of the technical and methodological considerations in 90Y has been previously published (1–3).
Two devices are commercially available. Thera- Sphere (glass) was approved in 1999 by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under a Humanitarian Device Exemption (HDE) for the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with or without portal vein thrombosis who can have appropriately positioned hepatic arterial catheters (4). SIR-Spheres (resin) were granted full pre-marketing approval in 2002 by the FDA for the treatment of colorectal metastases in conjunction with intrahepatic floxuridine (FUDR) (5). Both devices have European approval for liver neoplasia and approvals in various Asian countries.
Patients with metastatic cancer to the liver from a colorectal primary tumor may be treated using surgical resection alone, providing a chance for long-term cure.
Early results from the SAGE-SMC (Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the tidally-disrupted, low-metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud) Spitzer legacy program are presented. These early results concentrate on the SAGE-SMC MIPS observations of the SMC Tail region. This region is the high H i column density portion of the Magellanic Bridge adjacent to the SMC Wing. We detect infrared dust emission and measure the gas-to-dust ratio in the SMC Tail and find it similar to that of the SMC Body. In addition, we find two embedded cluster regions that are resolved into multiple sources at all MIPS wavelengths.
The Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics (MOA) is a microlensing survey conducted at Mt. John Observatory in New Zealand. We searched transiting planet candidates from the MOA-I Galactic bulge data, which have been obtained with a 61cm B&C telescope from 2000 to 2005 for a microlensing search. Although this survey data were dedicated to microlensing, they are also quite useful for searching transiting objects because of the large number of stars monitored (~7 million) and the long span of the survey (~6 years). From our analysis, we found 58 transiting planet candidates. We are planning to follow up these candidates with high-precision spectroscopic and photometric observations for further selection, toward the detection of planets by radial velocity observations.
Coloring on stainless steel by pulsed laser irradiation seemed like anodic oxidation surface but drawing fine art. The coloring area shows monochromatic surface, not optical interference coloring. Usually color marking by laser showed rainbow color, but in this technique the coloring area showed monochromatic.... why?