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Whitehouse's article posits several plausible hypotheses, but suffers from an unwarranted reliance on the importance of distinct social groups in the causation of self-sacrificing behavior. A focus on relationships between individual kin is better able to account for both the evolution of self-sacrifice and present forms of self-sacrifice. The practical importance of this point is discussed.
The interactions of strong-field few-cycle laser pulses with metastable states of noble gas atoms are examined. Metastable noble gas atoms offer a combination of low ionization potential and a relatively simple atomic structure, making them excellent targets for examining ionization dynamics in varying experimental conditions. A review of the current work performed on metastable noble gas atoms is presented.
The Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland and University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand radiocarbon laboratories have undertaken a series of high-precision measurements on decadal samples of dendrochronologically dated oak (Quercus patrea) and cedar (Libocedrus bidwillii) from Great Britain and New Zealand, respectively. The results show a real atmospheric offset of 3.4 ± 0.6% (27.2 ± 4.7 14C yr) between the two locations for the interval ad 1725 to ad 1885, with the Southern Hemisphere being depleted in l4C. This result is less than the value currently used to correct Southern Hemisphere calibrations, possibly indicating a gradient in Δ14C within the Southern Hemisphere.
We have conducted a series of radiocarbon measurements on decadal samples of dendrochronologically dated wood from both hemispheres, spanning 1000 years (McCormac et al. 1998; Hogg et al. this issue). Using the data presented in Hogg et al., we show that during the period AD 950–1850 the 14C offset between the hemispheres is not constant, but varies periodically (∼130 yr periodicity) with amplitudes varying between 1 and 10% (i.e. 8–80 yr), with a consequent effect on the 14C calibration of material from the Southern Hemisphere. A large increase in the offset occurs between AD 1245 and 1355. In this paper, we present a Southern Hemisphere high-precision calibration data set (SHCal02) that comprises measurements from New Zealand, Chile, and South Africa. This data, and a new value of 41 ± 14 yr for correction of the IntCal98 data for the period outside the range given here, is proposed for use in calibrating Southern Hemisphere 14C dates.
The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand and The Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland radiocarbon dating laboratories have undertaken a series of high-precision measurements on decadal samples of dendrochronologically dated oak (Quercus petraea) from Great Britain and cedar (Libocedrus bidwillii) and silver pine (Lagarostrobos colensoi) from New Zealand. The results show an average hemispheric offset over the 900 yr of measurement of 40 ± 13 yr. This value is not constant but varies with a periodicity of about 130 yr. The Northern Hemisphere measurements confirm the validity of the Pearson et al. (1986) calibration dataset.
Leaf mass per area (MA) is a central ecological trait that is intercorrelated with leaf life span, photosynthetic rate, nutrient concentration, and palatability to herbivores. These coordinated variables form a globally convergent leaf economics spectrum, which represents a general continuum running from rapid resource acquisition to maximized resource retention. Leaf economics are little studied in ancient ecosystems because they cannot be directly measured from leaf fossils. Here we use a large extant data set (65 sites; 667 species-site pairs) to develop a new, easily measured scaling relationship between petiole width and leaf mass, normalized for leaf area; this enables MA estimation for fossil leaves from petiole width and leaf area, two variables that are commonly measurable in leaf compression floras. The calibration data are restricted to woody angiosperms exclusive of monocots, but a preliminary data set (25 species) suggests that broad-leaved gymnosperms exhibit a similar scaling. Application to two well-studied, classic Eocene floras demonstrates that MA can be quantified in fossil assemblages. First, our results are consistent with predictions from paleobotanical and paleoclimatic studies of these floras. We found exclusively low-MA species from Republic (Washington, U.S.A., 49 Ma), a humid, warm-temperate flora with a strong deciduous component among the angiosperms, and a wide MA range in a seasonally dry, warm-temperate flora from the Green River Formation at Bonanza (Utah, U.S.A., 47 Ma), presumed to comprise a mix of short and long leaf life spans. Second, reconstructed MA in the fossil species is negatively correlated with levels of insect herbivory, whether measured as the proportion of leaves with insect damage, the proportion of leaf area removed by herbivores, or the diversity of insect-damage morphotypes. These correlations are consistent with herbivory observations in extant floras and they reflect fundamental trade-offs in plant-herbivore associations. Our results indicate that several key aspects of plant and plant-animal ecology can now be quantified in the fossil record and demonstrate that herbivory has helped shape the evolution of leaf structure for millions of years.
We describe the current, 9-spacecraft Interplanetary Network (IPN). The IPN detects about
325 gamma-ray bursts per year, of which about 100 are not localized by any other missions.
We give some examples of how the data, which are public, can be utilized.
Human campylobacteriosis exhibits a distinctive seasonality in temperate regions. This paper aims to identify the origins of this seasonality. Clinical isolates [typed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)] and epidemiological data were collected from Scotland. Young rural children were found to have an increased burden of disease in the late spring due to strains of non-chicken origin (e.g. ruminant and wild bird strains from environmental sources). In contrast the adult population had an extended summer peak associated with chicken strains. Travel abroad and UK mainland travel were associated with up to 17% and 18% of cases, respectively. International strains were associated with chicken, had a higher diversity than indigenous strains and a different spectrum of MLST types representative of these countries. Integrating empirical epidemiology and molecular subtyping can successfully elucidate the seasonal components of human campylobacteriosis. The findings will enable public health officials to focus strategies to reduce the disease burden.
National Security Technologies (NSTec) has developed calibration procedures for X-ray imaging systems. The X-ray sources that are used for calibration are both diode type and diode/fluorescer combinations. Calibrating the X-ray detectors is a key to accurate calibration of the X-ray sources. Both energy dispersive detectors and photodiodes measuring total flux were used. We have developed calibration techniques for the detectors using radioactive sources that are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The German synchrotron at Physikalische Technische Bundestalt (PTB) was used to calibrate the silicon photodiodes over the energy range from 50 to 60 keV. The measurements on X-ray cameras made using the NSTec X-ray sources included quantum efficiency averaged over all pixels, camera counts per photon per pixel, and response variation across the sensor. The instrumentation required to accomplish the calibrations is described. The X-ray energies ranged from 720 to 22.7 keV. The X-ray sources produce narrow energy bands, allowing us to determine the properties as a function of X-ray energy. The calibrations were done for several types of imaging devices. There were back and front illuminated CCD (charge-coupled device) sensors, and a CID (charge injection device) type camera. The CCD and CID camera types differ significantly in some of their properties that affect the accuracy of the X-ray intensity measurements. All the cameras discussed here are silicon based. The measurements of the quantum efficiency variation with the X-ray energy are compared to the models for the sensor structure. The cameras that are not back-thinned are compared to those that are.
Introduction of pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPV23) and conjugate vaccine (PCV7) programmes were expected to change the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumonia in the UK. We describe the epidemiology of IPD and hospitalization with pneumonia using high-quality surveillance data over an 8-year period, 2002–2009. Although PPV23 uptake increased from 49% to 70% and PCV7 uptake reached 98% by 2009, the overall incidence of IPD increased from 11·8/100 000 to 16·4/100 000 (P=0·13), and the incidence of hospitalization with pneumonia increased from 143/100 000 to 207/100 000 (P<0·001). Although a reduction in the proportion of IPD caused by PCV7 serotypes was observed, concurrent increases in PPV23 and non-vaccine serotype IPD contributed to an increased IPD burden overall. Marked inequalities in the geographical distribution of disease were observed. Existing vaccination programmes have, so far, not been sufficient to address an increasing burden of pneumococcal disease in our locality.
Au and Pd Schottky contacts to n-InP produce extremely high barrier heights and low leakage currents when deposition is on a substrate cooled to 77K. Extensive chemical and structural analyses indicate that this process causes the metal film to be continuous at 50Å, much better than in standard processing. Stoichiometry of InP near the surface is better maintained with this process. A thin P:O compound may exist at the interface which also contributes to a high barrier height.
Depositing Pd on InP at cryogenic substrate temperatures has previously been found to significantly increase the barrier height of the resulting Schottky diode. In this work, bulk samples of Pd/n-InP were fabricated using substrate temperatures of 300K (RT) and 77K (LT). The structural differences between the RT and LT samples were then studied using Cross-Sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy (XTEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS). The XTEM and depth profiling results indicated that the RT samples had an amorphous interaction layer approximately 150Å thick, while the LT samples had an interfacial layer less than 30Å thick. Therefore, depositing Pd at low temperatures greatly reduced the interaction between Pd and InP. XRD lines corresponding to (111) and (200) Pd were obtained as well. The lines in the RT case had a greater integrated intensity than in the LT case, indicating that the RT Pd had a higher degree of crystallinity. AFM was used to compare the morphology of the LT and RT Pd surfaces as a function of metal thickness.
We report the development of a new family of electron beam resists based on liquid crystalline polysubstituted derivatives of triphenylene. These new resists show excellent performance in terms of both high resolution and high durability to plasma etching. Films of the derivatives have been produced in a controlled manner via room temperature spin coating on hydrogen terminated silicon substrates. The dissolution behaviour of the derivatives in various organic solvents was altered by exposure to a 20 keV electron beam. The solubility of the derivative hexapentyloxytriphenylene, in polar solvents, was substantially increased by electron doses greater than ∼ 3 × 10-4 C/cm2 (positive tone behaviour). Doses greater than ∼ 2.5 × 10-3 C/cm2 led to negative tone behaviour in both polar and non-polar solvents. Other derivatives also demonstrated a reduction in their dissolution rate for doses between ∼ 1 × 10-3 and ∼ 7 × 10-3 C/cm2. The derivative sensitivity was found to be roughly proportional to the molecular mass. Negative tone patterns were found to have an etch durability ∼ 70 % greater than that of a conventional novolac based negative tone resist (SAL601). The performance of these new resists has been demonstrated by the definition of line and space patterns with a resolution of ∼ 14 nm, whilst structures with an aspect ratio of.∼ 50 to 1 were etched into the silicon substrate.
We report systematic studies of the response of C60 derivatives to electron beam irradiation. Films of fourteen different mono, tris and tetra adduct methanofullerene C60 derivatives were produced by spin coating on hydrogen terminated silicon substrates. Exposure of the films to a 20 keV electron beam substantially altered the dissolution rate of the derivative films in organic solvents such as monochlorobenzene. All of the derivatives exhibited negative tone resist behaviour with sensitivities between ∼ 8.5 × 10-4 and ∼ 4 × 10-3 C/cm2 107, much higher than that of C60. Features with widths of ∼ 20 nm were produced using these compounds, and the etch ratios of the compounds were found to be more than twice those of a standard novolac based resist (SAL601).
The fabrication of MEMS and electronic devices relies heavily on lithography. We have explored the application of derivatives of C60, as high resolution, high etch durability resists. Spin coating was used to produce films of various methanofullerenes on silicon substrates, with thickness ranging from 20 to 200 nm. These films behave as effective high resolution negative tone electron beam resists allowing sub 20 nm patterning of silicon which compares favorably with other negative tone resists. Organic solvents such as monochlorobenzene and chloroform can be used to develop the exposed films. The films have sensitivities of 4 × 10−3 to 8 × 10−4 C/cm2 for 20 keV electrons, more than an order of magnitude higher than the sensitivity of C60,. The dry etch durabilities of these compounds are considerably higher than those of conventional resists. A silicon grid with hole depth 160 nm and wall thickness 20 nm has been fabricated to demonstrate the high resolution and high etch durability of these resists.
During a 15-month period in Scotland a small but important number of human Campylobacter cases (3·2%) arose from 91 putative household outbreaks. Of the 26 outbreaks with known strain composition, 89% were composed of the same MLST which supports the potential use of MLST in public health epidemiology. The number of cases associated with household outbreaks is much larger than general outbreaks and there is some evidence to indicate that there may be secondary transmission, although this is relatively rare.
Male-sterile, female-fertile plants were used to produce hybrid soybean seed. Manual cross-pollination using male-sterile plants to produce large quantities of hybrid seed is difficult and time-consuming because of the low success rate in cross-pollination. Insect pollinators may be suitable vectors to transfer pollen, but the most suitable vector for pollen transfer from the male parent to the female parent has not been identified for soybean. The objective of the present study was to evaluate seed-set on four male-sterile, female-fertile soybean lines by using alfalfa leafcutting bees (Megachile rotundata (F.)) and honey bees (Apis mellifera (L.)) as pollinators. Seed-set was evaluated in summers 2003 and 2005 near Ames, Iowa, USA and in summers 2003, 2004, and 2005 near Wooster, Ohio, USA. Neither the effect of pollinator species nor the interaction effect of pollinator species×location was significant for any year. Honey bees performed similarly to alfalfa leafcutting bees at both locations. The results indicated significant differences for seed-set among male-sterile lines, suggesting preferential pollination. Male-sterile lines, ms1 (Urbana) and ms2 (Ames 2), had higher cross-pollinated seed-set compared to ms6 (Ames 1), and ms6 (Corsoy 79). At the Ames location, ms1ms1 (Urbana) plants had the highest seed-set (50·16 seeds per male-sterile plant in 2005). At the Wooster location, ms1ms1 (Urbana) plants also had the highest seed-set (92·04 seeds per male-sterile plant) in 2005. Costs and local conditions need to be addressed to support the choice of either pollinator species as a pollination vector to produce hybrid soybean seed.