Book chapters will be unavailable on Saturday 24th August between 8am-12pm BST. This is for essential maintenance which will provide improved performance going forwards. Please accept our apologies for any inconvenience caused.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Many women experience both vasomotor menopausal symptoms (VMS) and depressed mood at midlife, but little is known regarding the prospective bi-directional relationships between VMS and depressed mood and the role of sleep difficulties in both directions.
A pooled analysis was conducted using data from 21 312 women (median: 50 years, interquartile range 49−51) in eight studies from the InterLACE consortium. The degree of VMS, sleep difficulties, and depressed mood was self-reported and categorised as never, rarely, sometimes, and often (if reporting frequency) or never, mild, moderate, and severe (if reporting severity). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the bi-directional associations adjusted for within-study correlation.
At baseline, the prevalence of VMS (40%, range 13–62%) and depressed mood (26%, 8–41%) varied substantially across studies, and a strong dose-dependent association between VMS and likelihood of depressed mood was found. Over 3 years of follow-up, women with often/severe VMS at baseline were more likely to have subsequent depressed mood compared with those without VMS (odds ratios (OR) 1.56, 1.27–1.92). Women with often/severe depressed mood at baseline were also more likely to have subsequent VMS than those without depressed mood (OR 1.89, 1.47–2.44). With further adjustment for the degree of sleep difficulties at baseline, the OR of having a subsequent depressed mood associated with often/severe VMS was attenuated and no longer significant (OR 1.13, 0.90–1.40). Conversely, often/severe depressed mood remained significantly associated with subsequent VMS (OR 1.80, 1.38–2.34).
Difficulty in sleeping largely explained the relationship between VMS and subsequent depressed mood, but it had little impact on the relationship between depressed mood and subsequent VMS.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Pauline theology is a well-established undertaking in modern New Testament studies, and yet it is almost entirely without precedent prior to the nineteenth century. This article explores the enterprise of Pauline theology by considering an important and overlooked exception to its otherwise exclusively modern provenance: Priscillian of Avila's fourth-century Canons on the Letters of the Apostle Paul. The key to Priscillian's dogmatic synthesis of Paul's thought was his innovative ‘versification’ of Paul's letters, which facilitated efficient citation and cross-referencing of epistolary data. This article uses Priscillian's literary creation to examine the intriguing correlation of technologies for ordering textual knowledge with the systematic abstraction of Pauline theology.
I report here centimeter–wavelength observations carried out at the Very Large Array (VLA) to help resolve two questions. First, what is the source of the far infrared (FIR) emission in infrared-luminous IRAS galaxies, active nuclei or more widely distributed star formation? And what physics underlies the tight correlation (Helou et al., 1985) between FIR and radio flux? To test potential answers to these questions, we believe it is important to study the most luminous IRAS galaxies. We selected 39 for study from the ultraluminous catalog of Strauss et al.(1990 and 1992). All sources had FIR luminosity ≥ 1011.4 L⊙. Radio wavelength observations of these systems provide several advantages. First, in the radio there is no obscuration, so we can “see” the active galactic nuclei, if present. Radio spectral indices can distinguish between synchrotron and thermal emission. And finally, observations at the VLA provide sub–kpc resolution. We observed these sources with the VLA in its C configuration. At 1460 MHz, the effective resolution was ≃ 15″; and ≃ 4″ at 4860 MHz. We made follow-up observations on 24 sources in the A configuration with resolution at 4860 MHz of ≃ 0″.5 (or 300–800 h–1 pc for these sources).
The chief activities of the Commission for this period were the organizing of two important meetings. The first was held as Joint Discussion 5 at the Kyoto General Assembly in August 1997. The proceedings have now appeared as “Preserving the Astronomical Windows”, edited by S. Isobe (1997).
There has been major concern about the ‘over-representation’ of Black and ethnic minority groups amongst people detained under the Mental Health Act (MHA). We explored the effect of patient ethnicity on detention following an MHA assessment, once confounding variables were controlled for.
Prospective data were collected for all MHA assessments over 4-month periods in the years 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 each in three regions in England: Birmingham, West London and Oxfordshire. Logistic regression modelling was conducted to predict the outcome of MHA assessments – either resulting in ‘detention’ or ‘no detention’.
Of the 4423 MHA assessments, 2841 (66%) resulted in a detention. A diagnosis of psychosis, the presence of risk, female gender, level of social support and London as the site of assessment predicted detention under the MHA. Ethnicity was not an independent predictor of detention.
There is no evidence for that amongst those assessed under the MHA, ethnicity has an independent effect on the odds of being detained.
The behavior of H in p-GaN(Mg) at temperatures >400°C is modeled by using energies and vibration frequencies from density-functional theory to parameterize transport and reaction equations. Predictions agree semiquantitatively with experiment for the solubility, uptake, and release of the H when account is taken of a surface barrier.
Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was carried out on a series of Si-doped bulk InGaN films in the low indium (In) composition regime. Room temperature PL showed a factor of 25 increase in integrated intensity as the In composition was increased from 0 to 0.07. Temperature dependent PL data was fit to an Arrhenius equation to reveal an increasing activation energy for thermal quenching of the PL intensity as the In composition is increased. Time resolved PL measurements revealed that only the sample with highest In ( x=0.07) showed a strong spectral variation in decay time across the T=4K PL resonance, indicative of recombination from localized states at low temperatures. The decay times at room temperature were non-radiatively dominated for all films, and the room temperature (non-radiative) decay times increased with increasing In, from 50-230 psec for x=0-0.07. Our data demonstrate that non-radiative recombination is less effective with increasing In composition.
We report the growth and characterization of quaternary AlGaInN. A combination of photoluminescence (PL), high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) characterizations enables us to explore the contours of constant- PL peak energy and lattice parameter as functions of the quaternary compositions. The observation of room temperature PL emission at 351nm (with 20% Al and 5% In) renders initial evidence that the quaternary could be used to provide confinement for GaInN (and possibly GaN). AlGaInN/GaInN MQW heterostructures have been grown; both XRD and PL measurements suggest the possibility of incorporating this quaternary into optoelectronic devices.
The activities of the Commission have continued to focus on controlling unwanted light and radio emissions at observatory sites, monitoring of conditions at observatory sites, and education and outreach. Commission members have been active in securing new legislation in several locations to further the protection of observatory sites as well as in the international regulation of the use of the radio spectrum and the protection of radio astronomical observations.
Inelastic neutron scattering methods were used in conjunction with Raman spectroscopy to probe the vibrational density of states of the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) 134 (HF2C-CF2H) and 134a (F3C-CFH2) adsorbed in the cages of dehydrated Na-X zeolite. A comparison of the vibrational spectra of the encaged HFC species with those of their gas-phase analogs indicates that the HFCs adsorb nondissociatively at room temperature and are most likely associated with Na cations in the supercages at the SIII sites. Guest-host interactions are manifested by adsorption-induced perturbations of the gas-phase torsional and C-H stretching vibrations and the presence of additional features presumably due to low-energy whole-molecule vibrations and adsorbate-coupled zeolite framework vibrations. Moreover, although the 134 trans conformer is favored by 5 kJ/mole in the gas phase at 300 K, the gauche conformer seems to be more prevalent in the zeolite at this temperature and below. This suggests that a sizeable fraction of the Na-X adsorption sites provides a stabilizing configuration for the otherwise higher-energy gauche conformation, perhaps due to hydrogen-bonding interactions with the zeolite framework.
The grown-in tensile strain, due to a lattice mismatch between AlGaN and GaN, is responsible for the observed cracking that seriously limits the feasibility of nitride-based ultraviolet (UV) emitters. We report in-situ monitoring of strain/stress during MOCVD of AIGaN based on a wafer-curvature measurement technique. The strain/stress measurement confirms the presence of tensile strain during growth of AlGaN pseudomorphically on a thick GaN layer. Further growth leads to the onset of stress relief through crack generation. We find that the growth of AlGaN directly on low-temperature (LT) GaN or AIN buffer layers results in a reduced and possibly controllable strain.
Natural organic compounds can play an important role in the transport of radionuclides through the geosphere, but the inclusion of polyelectrolytic fulvic and humic acids into geochemical speciation codes is not straightforward. Schubert ion-exchange experiments have been used to parameterise an equilibrium-based, discrete site-electrostatic model, Model V, which is concerned with predicting trace metal-humic interactions in solution. However, before such a model can be applied to natural groundwaters, its ability to deal with competition between trace cations and anionic ligands has to be tested.
PHREEQEV, which incorporates Model V with the inorganic speciation code PHREEQE, has been used to guide experiments based on a modified Hummel-Dreyer method. To improve speed and precision, these experiments used a HPLC method rather than Sephadex gel, and measured the effect of Ca on Co and Ni binding to fulvic acid. The results were compared with the predictions made by PHREEQEV. Although the system was further complicated by the need to add citric acid to prevent binding of metals to the HPLC column, predictions at pH 5 were good for both metals. At pH 7, the Co binding results were not well predicted and the reasons for this are still unclear. Comparisons between the Schubert and Hummel-Dreyer-type experiments show that the two methods are compatible.
In-situ optical reflectance is used to monitor the morphological evolution of the two-step GaN growth on sapphire. The amount of H2 carrier gas used in the growth is observed to strongly influence the morphological evolution of the low temperature buffer layer and the subsequent high temperature nucleation behavior, which in turn affects the structural and electrical properties of the GaN epitaxial films. The optical reflectance transients correlate with the sizes and distributions of nuclei as observed by AFM.
Heterostructure modulation doped transistors (MODFETs) based on AlGaN/GaN structures have demonstrated impressive DC and microwave performance often despite high transistor access resistance. One approach to reducing the access resistance is to use selective area Si-implantation. While several reports exist on Si-implantation in GaN, little work has been done on implantation in AlGaN. In addition, more information on the annealing of implantation damage in GaN is needed to optimize its use in FETs and thyristors.
We report the electrical and structural properties of Si-implanted Al0.15Ga0.85N based on Hall measurements and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) spectra, respectively. Al0.15Ga0.85N shows less damage accumulation than GaN for a room temperature Si-implant dose of 5×1015 cm-2 based on the minimum channeling yield (26% for AlGaN as compared to 34% for GaN), however, as with GaN, this damage is difficult to remove by thermal annealing at °C.
We discuss recent advances in reflective holographically-formed polymer dispersed liquid crystal materials in the context of their suitability for reflective display applications. A dual-domain phenomenon resulting in a broadened reflection peak is presented. A simple phenomenological model is developed to explain this unusual effect The effect of monomer functionality on the reflectance characteristics of these materials is also discussed. Monomers of effective functionality ∼4.5 yield the brightest holograms, however, the data suggests that these systems are currently far from optimal.
Light emitting electroluminescent devices have been studied in which the conjugated light emitting polymer is separated on both sides from the device electrodes by a film of nonconducting polyaniline. The devices operate under an AC applied potential.Aluminum, copper or gold serve as the metal electrodes. Flexible, completely organic polymer dispersed liquid crystal light valves have been fabricated from transparent plastic substrates on which a conducting film of polypyrrole has been deposited. A new concept, “microcontact printing”, is being investigated for patterning the polypyrrole.