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Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is a neuropathological finding known to manifest motor disturbance, cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms. Pathophysiology of psychiatric symptoms, however, remains controversial. Previous biochemical study suggests that dopaminergic impairment is involved in IBGC. We therefore performed positron emission tomography (PET) to elucidate the pre- and postsynaptic dopaminergic function and glucose metabolism in two IBGC patients.
Case 1 is a 44 years old woman presented with disorganized thought, echolalia, verbigeration and parkinsonism. She was administered bitemporal electro-convulsive therapy (ECT). Case 2 is a 35 years old woman with persecutory delusion. Computed tomography showed bilateral symmetric calcification of striatum, globus pallidus and dentate nucei. Other causes of intracranial calcification were excluded. PET scans were obtained using [11C]-labeled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-flurophenyl)-tropane, [11C]-labeled raclopride and [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose.
The decreased binding potential was severe in bilateral head of caudate nuclei and anterior putamen. In case 1, the decline was also found in posterior putamen. There were widespread decreases of glucose uptake in frontal, temporal and parietal cortices bilaterally in case 1. Significant hypometabolism was observed in the right frontal, temporal and parietal cortices. After the ECT session, the previous areas of significant hypometabolism in the right hemisphere had improved. In case 2, there was no significant change of glucose metabolism in cerebral cortex.
The difference in affected region within basal ganglia might be associated with the diverse clinical pictures in IBGC. Particularly, in the psychiatric manifestation, dopaminergic dysfunction in caudate nucleus and anterior putamen could be participated.
To characterise the dissemination patterns of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in a community, we conducted a study utilising molecular and fundamental descriptive epidemiology. The subjects, consisted of women having community-acquired acute urinary tract infection (UTI), were enrolled in the study from 2011 to 2012. UPEC isolates were subjected to antibacterial-susceptibility testing, O serogrouping, phylotyping, multilocus-sequence typing with phylogenetic-tree analysis and pulsed-field-gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From the 209 unique positive urinary samples 166 UPEC were isolated, of which 129 were fully susceptible to the tested antibiotics. Of the 53 sequence types (STs), the four most prevalent STs (ST95, ST131, ST73 and ST357) accounted for 60% of all UPEC strains. Antimicrobial resistance was less frequently observed for ST95 and ST73 than for the others. A majority of rare STs and a few common STs constituted the diversity pattern within the population structure, which was composed of the two phylogenetically distinct clades. Eleven genetically closely related groups were determined by PFGE, which accounted for 42 of the 166 UPEC isolates, without overt geo-temporal clustering. Our results indicate that a few major lineages of UPEC, selected by unidentified factors, are disseminated in this community and contribute to a large fraction of acute UTIs.
Recently, many superflares on solar-type stars were discovered as white-light flares (WLFs). A correlation between the energies (E) and durations (t) of superflares is derived as t∝E0.39, and this can be theoretically explained by magnetic reconnection (t∝E1/3). In this study, we carried out a statistical research on 50 solar WLFs with SDO/HMI to examine the t-E relation. As a result, the t-E relation on solar WLFs (t∝E0.38) is quite similar stellar superflares, but the durations of stellar superflares are much shorter than those extrapolated from solar WLFs. We present the following two interpretations; (1) in solar flares, the cooling timescale of WL emission may be longer than the reconnection one, and the decay time can be determined by the cooling timescale; (2) the distribution can be understood by applying a scaling law t∝E1/3B−5/3 derived from the magnetic reconnection theory.
We developed a new GaN on SiC growth method by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) using of a single 2-dimension-growth step. Prior to epitaxy, to inhibit pre-reaction of Si-face SiC substrate with TMGa and NH3, TMAl was flowed without NH3. 1.5 μm of undoped crack-free GaN was grown on 6H-SiC (Si-face). Without buffer layer, the vertical resistance of GaN/SiC structure was found to be around 82.1Ω as determined by I-V characteristic. Further reduction in vertical resistance is expected by growth of n-GaN (1.5μm)/SiC structure (300μm). We also expect a SiC-based GaN heterostructure vertical FET will achieve high power and high switching speed performance.
Zizina emelina (de l'Orza) is listed on Japan's Red Data List as an endangered species because of loss of its principal food plant and habitat. We compared parts of the mitochondrial and nuclear genes of this species to investigate the level of genetic differentiation among the 14 extant populations. We also examined infection of the butterfly with the bacterium Wolbachia to clarify the bacterium's effects on the host population's genetic structure. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses revealed that haplotype composition differed significantly among most of the populations, and the fixation index FST was positively correlated with geographic distance. In addition, we found three strains of Wolbachia, one of which was a male killer; these strains were prevalent in several populations. There was linkage between some host mitochondrial haplotypes and the three Wolbachia strains, although no significant differences were found in a comparison of host mitochondrial genetic diversity with nuclear genetic diversity in Wolbachia-infected or -uninfected populations. These genetic analyses and Wolbachia infection findings show that Z. emelina has little migratory activity and that little gene flow occurs among the current populations.
In order to evaluate the long-term behaviour of the engineered barriers in geological disposal sites for transuranic element-bearing (TRU) waste, an evaluation by numerical analysis is required. Although chemical and hydraulic/mechanical analyses have been conducted independently until now, essentially both type of phenomena occur simultaneously and produce synergistic effects. Therefore, we focused attention on the buffer (bentonite) engineered barrier and conducted a study of which involved incorporating hydraulic/mechanical phenomena into the chemical analysis of bentonite alteration. The simulations employed weakly-coupled chemical and hydraulic/mechanical effects to study the behaviour in one dimension.
The results showed that the dissolution of the montmorillonite is suppressed in the buffer section nearest the cement material. Moreover, in order to achieve a fully coupled analysis in future, the present study also identifies issues that need to be resolved.
In situ measurements were carried out to quantify montmorillonite dissolution rates at a compaction pressure ranging from 0.04 to 10.00 MPa and temperature of 70°C in 0.3 M NaOH solution (pH 12.1 at 70°C) using vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) and an auto-compaction cell. Ex situ measurements of the reacted samples using atomic force microscopy (AFM) were performed to quantify the ratio of edge surface area (ESA) to total surface area (TSA) (XESA = ESA/TSA). Accordingly, the actual ESA for the montmorillonite examined by in situ VSI could be estimated. The XESA value increases as a function of run duration or compaction pressure. At atmospheric pressure, XESA is approximately 0.0054 and converges to ∼0.0107 at 10 MPa, An expression that relates reactive surface area and montmorillonite compaction (XESA/XESA initial = kXESA, k: variable factor) is kXESA = 1.0 + 0.64628 P0.1527 where P is in MPa. Using the calculated XESA, dissolution rates from the in situ VSI measurements are obtained. The early dissolution (<1500 min) at less compaction pressure tends to show faster rates (>1.0 × 10-11 mol/m2/s) than that at higher compaction pressure. The rates after >1500 min are slower, with values of less than 3×6 10-12 mol/m2/s, but there is no significant dependency on the density in the range from 1.0 to 1.7 Mg/m3. These observed rates for compacted montmorillonite are two-orders of magnitude slower (2.63×10-13 mol/m2/s) than dissolution rates in the suspended state.
The effect of Re addition on microstructure and hardness of the Ni3Al (L12) and Ni3V (D022) dual two-phase intermetallic alloys was investigated as functions of alloying (substituting) method of Re and aging condition (temperature and time). Re was added to the base alloy composition by three methods: Re was substituted for Ni, Al and V, respectively. The Re-added alloys were solution-treated at 1553 K and then aged at lower temperatures of 1123 K-1248 K. Apparent age hardening occurred in the alloy where Re was substituted for Ni while no age hardening was observed in the alloys where Re was substituted for Al or V. In the case of the latter two alloys, the hardness was unchanged or reduced with a progression of aging time. These results were discussed in terms of phase separation and ordering in the channel region, and hardening due to Re-rich phase precipitation.
It is difficult to get a real scale image of the solar system through lecture. A scale model is a classical and one of good solutions (e.g. Handa et al.2003, Handa et al.2008). Through this model, people living in or visiting to the city can physically understand the scale of the solar system. This scale gives 1 cm for Earth's diameter and 115 m for 1 AU. However, some gadget is required to make it attractive for public citizens.
Mechanical properties and thermal stability of bulk glassy alloys depend on their chemical composition ratios, although their detailed local structures especially around free volume have not been clarified yet. In order to know the origin of property dependence on alloy composition in Zr-Cu-Al ternary bulk glassy alloys in a view point of atomic scale, positron annihilation lifetime, coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) measurements have been employed for eutectic Zr50Cu40Al10 and hypoeutectic Zr60Cu30Al10 bulk glassy alloys before and after structural relaxation by annealing below glass transition temperature Tg.
The result of CDB experiment, which represents the electron momentum distribution around free volume, shows that significant atomic reordering around free volume does not take place by the annealing in each alloy. Besides, CDB ratio profiles for each alloy suggest that the fraction of Zr atom around free volume does not match the chemical composition of each alloy system. Change in positron lifetime, which is proportional to the size of free volume, during annealing for hypoeutectic alloy almost remains unchanged.
For appropriate safety assessment of TRU waste disposal, the dominant chemical species of 14C-gas was studied. [1,2-14C] sodium acetate was added to flooded paddy soil samples, and the content of 14C in the soil, solution, and the emitted CO2 gas during incubation period was determined. Recovery ratios of the total 14C activity to the initial 14C activity were 97.9% at day 1, 86.4% at day 3, and 83.5% at day 7 of incubation. The result of the day 1 means that the emitted 14C-gas was almost 14CO2. At day 7 of incubation, about 16.5% of 14C was failed to recover. Even if the unknown 14C was gases other than 14CO2, the dominant chemical species of the emitted 14C-gas will be 14CO2, because the recovery ratio of the 14CO2 was 48.9% (¿16.5%). Sodium 2-bromoethane-sulfonate was used to ensure the emission of CH4, but there was no effect of the regent to the recovery ratio of 14CO2. Methane emission may be little under our experimental conditions. These results suggest that the dominant chemical species of the emitted 14C-gas from the flooded paddy soil samples was 14CO2.
Two-phase intermetallic alloys composed of geometrically close packed (GCP) Ni3Al (L12 phase) and Ni3V (D022 phase) have attractive mechanical properties at high temperature, and are therefore considered to be used as high temperature structural materials. In this study, the effect of Ta and Re addition on the microstructure and hardness of two-phase intermetallic alloys was investigated. The addition of Ta remarkably enhanced the hardness due to solid solution hardening of the constituent phases. On the other hand, the addition of Re retarded the formation of the two-phase microstructure, resulting in the lowest hardness in the solution treated condition. By aging at 1223 K, the Ni solid solution in the Re added alloy decomposed to Ni3Al and Ni3V, accompanied by precipitates of a Re-rich phase. Consequently, the hardness rapidly increased with increasing aging time. Simultaneous addition of Ta and Re induced very fine precipitates of a Re-rich phase after aging, and consequently resulted in a higher hardness than by the addition of Ta or Re alone.
High-resolution angle resolved ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were conducted on rubrene single crystals successfully through relief of the sample charging assisted by a laser illumination. Significant dispersion of the valence band was clearly resolved. The band width W and the hole effective mass mh* were estimated to be 0.4 eV and 0.7m0, respectively, along the most conductive direction. The present results strongly suggest that the transport nature in rubrene single crystals should be described in the band transport framework of a delocalized charge carrier.
This paper summarizes research activities in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) for evaluation of the radiation effects on selected terrestrial and aquatic organisms as well as the ecosystems. Seven organisms, conifers, fungi, earthworms, springtails, algae, daphnia and Medaka are presently selected to study. For the estimation of possible radiation dose, transfers of radionuclides and related elements from medium to organisms are evaluated. Dose-effect relationships of acute gamma radiation on the survival, growth, and reproduction of selected organisms have been studied. Studies on the effect of chronic gamma radiation at low dose rate were also started. In order to understand the mechanism of radiation effects and to find possible indicators of the effects, information of genome- and metagenome-wide gene expression has been collected. Evaluation of ecological effects of radiation is more challenging task. Study methods by using three-species microcosm were established, and an index for the holistic evaluation of effects on various ecological parameters was proposed. The microcosm has been simulated as a computer simulation code. Developments of more complicated and practical model ecosystems have been started. The Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) has been applied on soil bacterial community in order to evaluate the radiation effects on soil ecosystems.
The microwave tunable capability and its related material optimization of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin films in the parallel-plate capacitor form is discussed in terms of the dependence of barium concentration, acceptor doping, and in-plane film stress, based on the present broadband microwave characterization technique under various bias fields. The barium-content dependence indicates the tradeoff between tunability and dielectric loss, and the notable field-induced loss in SrTiO3 is confirmed as an intrinsic quasi-Debye contribution. The Mg dopant incorporated into a perovskite lattice shows almost no effectiveness on tunable device performance, except for enhanced insulation as an electron acceptor, while the low bias-field dependence of the dielectric loss suggests the possibility of the partial occupation of the alkaline-earth-ion site by Mg. The reduction of in-plane thermal stress controlled by the pressure during sputtering deposition leads to higher permittivity and tunability while degrading the film crystallinity by ion bombardment. The low-frequency loss tends to increase with crystal damage; however, the microwave loss remains unchanged, revealing the applicability of sputtering stress control to real microwave devices. In addition, we demonstrate the operation of an analog phase shifter using parallel-plate ferroelectric tunable capacitors and its application to a phased array antenna monolithically integrated on a silicon substrate.
In January 2003, two cases of Legionnaires' disease associated with a ship's cruise were registered in the database of National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases. A 70-year-old male heavy smoker with mild emphysema contracted the disease during a cruise. Legionella pneumophila serogroup (sg) 5 was isolated from the patient's sputum and the ship's indoor spa. The isolate from the spa matched the patient's isolate by genotyping performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The second case was in a 73-year-old female. During epidemiological investigation, a third case of Legionnaire's disease in a 71-year-old male was subsequently diagnosed among passengers on the same ship on the following cruise. Environmental investigation revealed that porous natural stones (Maifanshi) in the filters of the spas had harboured L. pneumophila, a phenomenon which has not been reported except in Japan. This is the first documented evidence of L. pneumophila sg 5 infection on a ship and of porous stones as a source of Legionella infection.