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To characterise the dissemination patterns of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in a community, we conducted a study utilising molecular and fundamental descriptive epidemiology. The subjects, consisted of women having community-acquired acute urinary tract infection (UTI), were enrolled in the study from 2011 to 2012. UPEC isolates were subjected to antibacterial-susceptibility testing, O serogrouping, phylotyping, multilocus-sequence typing with phylogenetic-tree analysis and pulsed-field-gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From the 209 unique positive urinary samples 166 UPEC were isolated, of which 129 were fully susceptible to the tested antibiotics. Of the 53 sequence types (STs), the four most prevalent STs (ST95, ST131, ST73 and ST357) accounted for 60% of all UPEC strains. Antimicrobial resistance was less frequently observed for ST95 and ST73 than for the others. A majority of rare STs and a few common STs constituted the diversity pattern within the population structure, which was composed of the two phylogenetically distinct clades. Eleven genetically closely related groups were determined by PFGE, which accounted for 42 of the 166 UPEC isolates, without overt geo-temporal clustering. Our results indicate that a few major lineages of UPEC, selected by unidentified factors, are disseminated in this community and contribute to a large fraction of acute UTIs.
Recently, many superflares on solar-type stars were discovered as white-light flares (WLFs). A correlation between the energies (E) and durations (t) of superflares is derived as t∝E0.39, and this can be theoretically explained by magnetic reconnection (t∝E1/3). In this study, we carried out a statistical research on 50 solar WLFs with SDO/HMI to examine the t-E relation. As a result, the t-E relation on solar WLFs (t∝E0.38) is quite similar stellar superflares, but the durations of stellar superflares are much shorter than those extrapolated from solar WLFs. We present the following two interpretations; (1) in solar flares, the cooling timescale of WL emission may be longer than the reconnection one, and the decay time can be determined by the cooling timescale; (2) the distribution can be understood by applying a scaling law t∝E1/3B−5/3 derived from the magnetic reconnection theory.
We studied the statistical methods for the estimation of the luminosity function (LF) of galaxies by Monte Carlo simulations. After examining the performance of these methods, we analyzed the photometric redshift data of the Hubble Deep Field prepared by Fernández-Soto et al. (1999). We also derived luminosity density ρL at B- and I-band. Our B-band estimation is roughly consistent with that of Sawicki, Lin, & Yee (1997), but a few times lower at 2.0 < z < 3.0. The evolution of ρL(I) is found to be less prominent.
Recently reported infrared galaxy number counts and cosmic infrared background (CIRB) measures all suggest that galaxies have experienced a strong evolutionary phase. We statistically estimated the galaxy evolution history from these data. We treated the evolution of galaxy luminosity as a stepwise nonparametric form, in order to explore the most suitable evolutionary history which satisfies the constraint from the CIRB. We found that an order of magnitude increase of the far infrared luminosity at redshift z = 0.75 - 1.0 was necessary to reproduce the very high CIRB intensity at ~ 150 μm reported by Hauser et al. (1998). We note that too large an evolutionary factor at high z overpredicts the CIRB intensity around 1 mm. The evolutionary history also satisfies the constraints from galaxy number counts obtained by IRAS, ISO and SCUBA. The rapid evolution of the IR luminosity density required from the CIRB well reproduces the very steep slope of galaxy number counts obtained by ISO. Based on this result and the evolution of optical luminosity density, we quantitatively discuss the contribution of starburst galaxies. In addition, we present the performance of the Japanese IRIS galaxy survey.
We studied the evolution of an active region and its relation with flare activities in order to solve the physical mechanism of solar flare occurrence. We investigated the evolutionary characteristics of the active region NOAA 8948 (April 2000) and found that the newly flux emergence caused the flares in this active region.
The Munich Dust Counter (MDC) is a scientific experiment on board the MUSES-A mission of Japan measuring cosmic dust. The satellite HITEN of this mission has been launched on January 24th, 1990 from Kagoshima Space Center. Here the present status of the MDC experiment is summarized. The number of dust particles measured so far is presented together with first and preliminary results of flux calculations and spatial as well as directional distributions of cosmic dust particles measured until July 25, 1990. A clear evidence of particles coming from the inner solar system (beta-meteoroids) already has been found. These are compared to particles coming from the apex direction.
The Munich Dust Counter (MDC) is a scientific experiment on board of the MUSES-A mission of Japan. It is the result of a cooperation between the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) of Japan and the Chair of Astronautics of the Technische Universität München (TUM) of Germany. The MDC is an impact ionization detector designed to determine mass and velocity of cosmic dust. Here a short overview over the MUSES-A mission is given to show the measurement situation of the MDC experiment. The measurement principle of the instrument together with a discussion of the scientific objectives and the design of the experiment is summarized.
The mechanism of flare energy build-up is one of the most fundamental questions in the solar flare study, but is still to be solved. From the review of the previous studies, we notice that the formation process of the magnetic shear in an active region should be essential for the flare energy build-up mechanism. Based on this idea, we make detailed studies of the active region evolutions using high resolution Hα images obtained with the 60 cm Domeless Solar Telescope at Hida Observatory, Kyoto University.
We study sunspot proper motions and evolutionary changes of Hα fine structures and magnetic fields in active regions NOAA 5395 (Ishii et al. 1998) and NOAA 4201 (Ishii et al. 2000). To explain the evolutionary characteristics found from the analysis of these two active regions, we propose schematic models of twisted flux bundles emerging from the convection zone. We also found that the occurrence of high flare activity in each active region was restricted to the rapidly emerging region of the twisted flux bundle. In conclusion, we suggest that the emergence of the twisted flux bundle should be the key to high flare-productivity of the sunspot group, or the flare energy build-up mechanism.
We developed a new GaN on SiC growth method by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) using of a single 2-dimension-growth step. Prior to epitaxy, to inhibit pre-reaction of Si-face SiC substrate with TMGa and NH3, TMAl was flowed without NH3. 1.5 μm of undoped crack-free GaN was grown on 6H-SiC (Si-face). Without buffer layer, the vertical resistance of GaN/SiC structure was found to be around 82.1Ω as determined by I-V characteristic. Further reduction in vertical resistance is expected by growth of n-GaN (1.5μm)/SiC structure (300μm). We also expect a SiC-based GaN heterostructure vertical FET will achieve high power and high switching speed performance.
Zizina emelina (de l'Orza) is listed on Japan's Red Data List as an endangered species because of loss of its principal food plant and habitat. We compared parts of the mitochondrial and nuclear genes of this species to investigate the level of genetic differentiation among the 14 extant populations. We also examined infection of the butterfly with the bacterium Wolbachia to clarify the bacterium's effects on the host population's genetic structure. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses revealed that haplotype composition differed significantly among most of the populations, and the fixation index FST was positively correlated with geographic distance. In addition, we found three strains of Wolbachia, one of which was a male killer; these strains were prevalent in several populations. There was linkage between some host mitochondrial haplotypes and the three Wolbachia strains, although no significant differences were found in a comparison of host mitochondrial genetic diversity with nuclear genetic diversity in Wolbachia-infected or -uninfected populations. These genetic analyses and Wolbachia infection findings show that Z. emelina has little migratory activity and that little gene flow occurs among the current populations.
In order to evaluate the long-term behaviour of the engineered barriers in geological disposal sites for transuranic element-bearing (TRU) waste, an evaluation by numerical analysis is required. Although chemical and hydraulic/mechanical analyses have been conducted independently until now, essentially both type of phenomena occur simultaneously and produce synergistic effects. Therefore, we focused attention on the buffer (bentonite) engineered barrier and conducted a study of which involved incorporating hydraulic/mechanical phenomena into the chemical analysis of bentonite alteration. The simulations employed weakly-coupled chemical and hydraulic/mechanical effects to study the behaviour in one dimension.
The results showed that the dissolution of the montmorillonite is suppressed in the buffer section nearest the cement material. Moreover, in order to achieve a fully coupled analysis in future, the present study also identifies issues that need to be resolved.
In situ measurements were carried out to quantify montmorillonite dissolution rates at a compaction pressure ranging from 0.04 to 10.00 MPa and temperature of 70°C in 0.3 M NaOH solution (pH 12.1 at 70°C) using vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) and an auto-compaction cell. Ex situ measurements of the reacted samples using atomic force microscopy (AFM) were performed to quantify the ratio of edge surface area (ESA) to total surface area (TSA) (XESA = ESA/TSA). Accordingly, the actual ESA for the montmorillonite examined by in situ VSI could be estimated. The XESA value increases as a function of run duration or compaction pressure. At atmospheric pressure, XESA is approximately 0.0054 and converges to ∼0.0107 at 10 MPa, An expression that relates reactive surface area and montmorillonite compaction (XESA/XESA initial = kXESA, k: variable factor) is kXESA = 1.0 + 0.64628 P0.1527 where P is in MPa. Using the calculated XESA, dissolution rates from the in situ VSI measurements are obtained. The early dissolution (<1500 min) at less compaction pressure tends to show faster rates (>1.0 × 10-11 mol/m2/s) than that at higher compaction pressure. The rates after >1500 min are slower, with values of less than 3×6 10-12 mol/m2/s, but there is no significant dependency on the density in the range from 1.0 to 1.7 Mg/m3. These observed rates for compacted montmorillonite are two-orders of magnitude slower (2.63×10-13 mol/m2/s) than dissolution rates in the suspended state.
The effect of Re addition on microstructure and hardness of the Ni3Al (L12) and Ni3V (D022) dual two-phase intermetallic alloys was investigated as functions of alloying (substituting) method of Re and aging condition (temperature and time). Re was added to the base alloy composition by three methods: Re was substituted for Ni, Al and V, respectively. The Re-added alloys were solution-treated at 1553 K and then aged at lower temperatures of 1123 K-1248 K. Apparent age hardening occurred in the alloy where Re was substituted for Ni while no age hardening was observed in the alloys where Re was substituted for Al or V. In the case of the latter two alloys, the hardness was unchanged or reduced with a progression of aging time. These results were discussed in terms of phase separation and ordering in the channel region, and hardening due to Re-rich phase precipitation.
It is difficult to get a real scale image of the solar system through lecture. A scale model is a classical and one of good solutions (e.g. Handa et al.2003, Handa et al.2008). Through this model, people living in or visiting to the city can physically understand the scale of the solar system. This scale gives 1 cm for Earth's diameter and 115 m for 1 AU. However, some gadget is required to make it attractive for public citizens.
For appropriate safety assessment of TRU waste disposal, the dominant chemical species of 14C-gas was studied. [1,2-14C] sodium acetate was added to flooded paddy soil samples, and the content of 14C in the soil, solution, and the emitted CO2 gas during incubation period was determined. Recovery ratios of the total 14C activity to the initial 14C activity were 97.9% at day 1, 86.4% at day 3, and 83.5% at day 7 of incubation. The result of the day 1 means that the emitted 14C-gas was almost 14CO2. At day 7 of incubation, about 16.5% of 14C was failed to recover. Even if the unknown 14C was gases other than 14CO2, the dominant chemical species of the emitted 14C-gas will be 14CO2, because the recovery ratio of the 14CO2 was 48.9% (¿16.5%). Sodium 2-bromoethane-sulfonate was used to ensure the emission of CH4, but there was no effect of the regent to the recovery ratio of 14CO2. Methane emission may be little under our experimental conditions. These results suggest that the dominant chemical species of the emitted 14C-gas from the flooded paddy soil samples was 14CO2.
The durability of the tris(8-quinolinolato) aluminum based light-emitting diode (LED) is related to the thermal stability of the hole transport layer. Several linear linkage triphenylamine oligomers were used for the hole transport layer. The thermal stability was clearly seen to depend on a glass transition temperature (Tg) of the hole transporting material, and a linear relationship between the Tg and the thermal stability was found. A lowering of “turn-on voltage” for light emission and an increase of luminous efficiency with increasing temperature was also observed. Excellent durability of the organic LED with a tetramer of triphenylamine was achieved at a high temperature of 120°C. Our results indicate that the linear linkage of triphenylamine leads to a high Tg and high device performance at high temperatures.
Mechanical properties and thermal stability of bulk glassy alloys depend on their chemical composition ratios, although their detailed local structures especially around free volume have not been clarified yet. In order to know the origin of property dependence on alloy composition in Zr-Cu-Al ternary bulk glassy alloys in a view point of atomic scale, positron annihilation lifetime, coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) measurements have been employed for eutectic Zr50Cu40Al10 and hypoeutectic Zr60Cu30Al10 bulk glassy alloys before and after structural relaxation by annealing below glass transition temperature Tg.
The result of CDB experiment, which represents the electron momentum distribution around free volume, shows that significant atomic reordering around free volume does not take place by the annealing in each alloy. Besides, CDB ratio profiles for each alloy suggest that the fraction of Zr atom around free volume does not match the chemical composition of each alloy system. Change in positron lifetime, which is proportional to the size of free volume, during annealing for hypoeutectic alloy almost remains unchanged.