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A total of 77 pottery shards originating from the Middle Jomon period (2500–1500 BC) were excavated from the Hinoki site in Tochigi, Japan. Fifty-five of those were Atamadai type pottery, which might contain some temper fragments from the manufacturing process. The pottery shards were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The mineral analyses were compared with the river sands around Mt. Tsukuba to demonstrate the temper's origin of the Atamadai type pottery. Their XRD profiles revealed the following solid solutions which could be fingerprint minerals: biotite for the temper and plagioclase, and hornblende for the clay and temper. These minerals might indicate the origin of each sample because their d-spacings depended on the solid solution composition reflecting their geological characteristics.
An outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 occurred in multiple prefectures of Japan in November 2009. We conducted two case–control studies with trace-back and trace-forward investigations to determine the source. The case definition was met by 21 individuals; 14 (66.7%) were hospitalised, but no haemolytic uraemic syndrome, acute encephalopathy or deaths occurred. Median age was 23 (range 12–48) years and 14 cases were male (66.7%). No significant associations with food were found in a case–control study by local public health centres, but our matched case–control study using Internet surveys found that beef hanging tender (or hanger steak), derived from the diaphragm of the cattle, was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio = 15.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.00–124.11). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates from patients and the suspected food showed five different patterns: two in faecal and food samples, and another three in patient faecal samples only, although there were epidemiological links to the meat consumed at the restaurants. Trace-back investigation implicated a common food processing company from outside Japan. Examination of the logistics of the meat processing company suggested that contamination did not occur in Japan. We concluded that the source of the outbreak was imported hanging tender. This investigation revealed that Internet surveys could be useful for outbreak investigations.
Conspicuous dust lanes define the spiral arm in the south of M31. The integrated HI line emission map shows several large cloudlike structures with sizes ranging from hundreds to thousands of parsecs, forming a spiral arm along the dust lanes (Figure 1). To investigate how such super clouds correlate with star formation phenomena, we present in Figure 2 a compilation of published data on: CO emission, dark clouds, HII regions, OB associations, and thermal infrared radiation from IRAS. The CO emission distribution is similar to that of HI and also forms large cloudlike structures. The large CO clouds P, Q, and R, which are located in the high density HI areas, have bright HII region complexes of several hundred parsecs at their outer edges. Further out large OB associations are found. In contrast, cloud B, which shows weaker CO emission, has a large and diffuse HII region which may be relatively old. This giant HII region is located in a large hole of HI and dark clouds (Brinks 1981). The IRAS maps show strong correlated thermal emission from the dust lanes. The luminosity from the star formation activity heats the dust in the molecular clouds. The local peaks at A, P, and Q in the 25 μm band, extending 200-300 pc, have revealed the existence of massive young stars embedded in the clouds.
We have carried out wide field imaging observations in the near-infrared (J, H and K′ band) with a large format array camera attached to the prime focus of the 105 cm Schmidt telescope at Kiso Observatory. The image resolution, limiting magnitudes and the effect of thermal radiation are discussed.
We present the results of wide-field imaging of nearby galaxies observed in the near-infrared using a large format array. The total magnitudes and mass-to-luminosity ratios of NGC 253, M 82, NGC 891, and some cluster members are discussed.
We have obtained B-band photographic surface photometry of ∼ 2000 galaxies in the Pisces-Perseus region. Combining these photometry data with redshift and HI 21 cm line-width data for spiral galaxies in the region, we have studied the Hubble constant and large-scale peculiar motions. Taking biases into account quantitatively we obtain H0 = 80 ±9+17−22 km/s−1Mpc−1. The prevalent infalling motion in the region is found to be still controversial if the biases are carefully considered.
The accuracy of measurement of the Hubble constant depends not only on the accuracy of distance measurement but also on how small is the effect of local flows: The larger are redshifts of used galaxies, the higher is the accuracy of H0, if the error in distance measurement is comparable. The HI Tully-Fisher relation has been the standard tool for distance measurement up to cz ∼ 10,000 km s–1 (Tully and Fisher 1977), where, however, the local flow is not negligible.
Near-infrared (NIR) emission in galaxies is mainly radiated by old population low temperature stars, which construct the basic stellar structure and keep the trails of past galaxy evolution. On the other hand, optical observations show recent star formation activity, especially in spiral galaxies. Therefore multi-color observations from optical to near-infrared wavelengths are very important to understand the past and recent star-formation history. Nearby large galaxies are well studied not only in optical but also in mid- and far-infrared by IRAS, CO and HI radio observations. However, the study in the near-infrared is still limited because large format arrays are not common. Here we show a wide-field, near-infrared imaging of nearby elliptical and spiral galaxies and discuss their star-formation history.
Sofue (1996, 1997) presented accurate rotation curves of nearby galaxies, which are almost completely sampled from the inner to outer regions. The conspicuous common feature of the rotation curves is a steep rise at the inner bulge. The rise suggests a compact massive concentration near the nucleus (Sofue 1996). The study of the light distribution at the inner bulge demands accurate surface photometry at near-infrared wavelengths, where dust extinction is much less effective than in the optical. Most of Sofue's samples are nearby large galaxies, so that observations with a wide field view is clue to constructing reliable light distribution models.
This status report presents details on the project to search for serendipitous time-correlated optical photographic observations of γ-ray bursters. The ongoing photographic observations at nine observatories are used to look for plates which have been exposed simultaneously with a γ-ray burst detected by BATSE and contain the burst position. The results for the third year of BATSE operation are presented.
We have carried out imaging observations in the near-infrared (J, H and K’ band) with a large format array camera attached to the prime focus of the 105 cm Schmidt telescope at Kiso Observatory. The image resolution, limiting magnitudes and effect of thermal radiation are presented, based on observations of nearby galaxies. Considering the results, we are constructing a new larger near-infrared camera optimized for use with the Kiso Schmidt.
We fabricated single-crystalline microspheres of wide-gap semiconductors with anisotropic crystal structures, such as ZnO and ZnSe, by laser ablation in superfluid helium and investigated their lasing properties. Whispering gallery mode lasing at their band edges in ultraviolet region was clearly observed under the optical excitation, reflecting their high sphericity and crystal quality.
We explore the relationships between the 3.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature and active galactic nucleus (AGN) properties of a sample of 54 hard X-ray selected bright AGNs, including both Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 type objects, using the InfraRed Camera (IRC) on board the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI. The sample is selected from the 9-month Swift/BAT survey in the 14-195 keV band and all of them have measured X-ray spectra at E ≲ 10 keV. These X-ray spectra provide measurements of the neutral hydrogen column density (NH) towards the AGNs. We use the 3.3 μm PAH luminosity (L3.3μm) as a proxy for star formation activity and hard X-ray luminosity (L14-195keV) as an indicator of the AGN activity. We searched for possible difference of star-formation activity between type 1 (un-absorbed) and type 2 (absorbed) AGNs. Our regression analysis of log L14-195keV versus log L3.3μm shows a positive correlation and the slope seems steeper for type 1/unobscured AGNs than that of type 2/obscured AGNs. The same trend has been found for the log (L14-195keV/MBH) versus log (L3.3μm/MBH) correlation. Our analysis show that the circum-nuclear star-formation is more enhanced in type 2/absorbed AGNs than type 1/un-absorbed AGNs for low X-ray luminosity/low Eddington ratio AGNs.
This study aimed to investigate the function of tissue plasminogen activator in the olfactory epithelium of mice following neural injury.
Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the changes in the morphology of the olfactory epithelium 1–7 days after surgical ablation of the olfactory bulb (bulbectomy).
Prior to bulbectomy, a uniformly fine material was observed within some regions of the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator. At 2–3 days after bulbectomy, there were degenerative changes in the olfactory epithelium. At 5–7 days after bulbectomy, we noted drastic differences in olfactory epithelium morphology between mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator and wild-type mice (comparisons were made using findings from a previous study). The microvilli seemed to be normal and olfactory vesicles and receptor neuron dendrites were largely intact in the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator.
The tissue plasminogen activator plasmin system may inhibit the regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in the early stages following neural injury.
The 22q11.2 deletion is the most prominent known genetic risk factor for
schizophrenia, but its penetrance is at most approximately 50% suggesting
that additional risk factors are required for disease progression. We
examined a woman with schizophrenia with this deletion for such risk
factors. She had high plasma pentosidine levels (‘carbonyl stress’) and a
frameshift mutation in the responsible gene, GLO1. She also
had a constant exotropia, so we examined the PHOX2B gene
associated with both schizophrenia and strabismus, and detected a 5-alanine
deletion. We propose that the combination of these genetic defects may have
exceeded the threshold for the manifestation of schizophrenia.
The Ion and vapour deposition method (IVD method) has been used for the first time to form silicon nitride films. Silicon nitride formation using IVD method, which consists of a nitrogen ion implantation and a simultaneous electron beam evaporation of silicon, has been confirmed.
These silicon nitride films formed by IVD method have been characterized using FTIR, ellipsometry and AES analyses. It has been observed that these IVD silicon nitride films characteristics are sensitive to the nitrogen ion implantation conditions and the silicon evaporation rate.
Applications of these IVD films to selective oxidation have exhibited a good resistance to oxidation. It has also permitted the bird's beak to be reduced.
Lihgt-induced change in photovoltaic performance of p-i-n solar cell was studied. The behavior of degradation of the solar cell strongly depends on the intensity and the spectrum of illumination light. The results of these light soaking tests are presented and discussed. On the basis of these results, the superiority of double-stacked a-Si/a-Si tandem solar cells is discussed.