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Flight-deck Interval Management (FIM) is a modern airborne self-spacing technology that improves arrival route throughput and runway utilisation and increases hourly arrival capacity by up to four aircraft per hour and per runway, compared to conventional air traffic controller guided arrivals. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been the leader in FIM research and formulated a logic that was put to an actual flight test in 2017. Despite the overall success of the project, operational deficiencies concerning the number of speed commands, which led to several recommendations for future research before operational implementation, were discovered. In this study, a new logic that implements a two-stage rule-based selection algorithm was developed to overcome those deficiencies. The proposed logic was compared to NASA’s logic on an arrival in Tokyo International Airport with multiple induced error patterns. The results indicate that the new logic significantly decreases the number of speed commands with only minor aggravations in spacing performance. The results that highlight the strengths and weaknesses of both concepts are discussed, and an outlook on and ideas for future research on FIM and the proposed logic are presented.
We studied a suitable procedure for preparing of water samples used in radiocarbon intercomparisons involving dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The water samples must have inter-batch consistency and stable 14C concentrations and no sterilizing agent (e.g., HgCl2) should be added, in order to avoid the production of hazardous material. Six water samples, containing widely different amounts and types of salts, DIC, and 14C concentrations (1–100 pMC), were prepared in order to assess the procedure. Sample consistency was investigated through δ13C and chemical compositions; their low variabilities indicate that our procedure can be applied to radiocarbon intercomparison. A specific sample preparation protocol was developed for this kind of applications.
The aim of this study was to estimate the associations of the first occurrence of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis (CM) with milk yield and milk composition (somatic cell count (SCC), lactose, fat, protein content in milk and milk urea nitrogen (MUN)). We studied 3149 dairy cows in 31 Hokkaido dairy farms in Japan. Five pathogen groups were studied: Streptococcus spp.; Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus); coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS); coliforms; and fungi. Test-day milk data and clinical records were collected from June 2011 until February 2014. Mixed models with an autoregressive correlation structure were fitted to quantify the effects of CM and several other control variables (herd, calving season, parity, week of lactation, and other diseases). Primipara (first lactation) and multipara (second and later lactations) were analysed separately. All pathogens, particularly S. aureus and fungi, were associated with significant milk losses in multipara. In this study, S. aureus and CNS infections were not associated with significant milk loss in primipara. All pathogens, in particular S. aureus and fungi, significantly increased SCC in both parity groups. All pathogens, especially CNS (in primipara) and S. aureus (in multipara), decreased lactose content. All pathogen groups except for fungi were associated with significant changes in fat, protein and MUN. Some pathogens such as Streptococcus spp. and coliforms seemed to be associated with long-term fat, protein and MUN changes. These findings provide estimates that could be used to calculate precise costs of CM, and also provide better indicators of pathogen-specific mastitis.
We have carried out wide field imaging observations in the near-infrared (J, H and K′ band) with a large format array camera attached to the prime focus of the 105 cm Schmidt telescope at Kiso Observatory. The image resolution, limiting magnitudes and the effect of thermal radiation are discussed.
We present the results of wide-field imaging of nearby galaxies observed in the near-infrared using a large format array. The total magnitudes and mass-to-luminosity ratios of NGC 253, M 82, NGC 891, and some cluster members are discussed.
We are currently conducting three kinds of IR surveys of star forming regions (SFRs) in order to seek for very low-mass young stellar populations. First is a deep JHKs-bands (simultaneous) survey with the SIRIUS camera on the IRSF 1.4m or the UH 2.2m telescopes. Second is a very deep JHKs survey with the CISCO IR camera on the Subaru 8.2m telescope. Third is a high resolution companion search around nearby YSOs with the CIAO adaptive optics coronagraph IR camera on the Subaru. In this contribution, we describe our SIRIUS camera and present preliminary results of the ongoing surveys with this new instrument.
Near-infrared (NIR) emission in galaxies is mainly radiated by old population low temperature stars, which construct the basic stellar structure and keep the trails of past galaxy evolution. On the other hand, optical observations show recent star formation activity, especially in spiral galaxies. Therefore multi-color observations from optical to near-infrared wavelengths are very important to understand the past and recent star-formation history. Nearby large galaxies are well studied not only in optical but also in mid- and far-infrared by IRAS, CO and HI radio observations. However, the study in the near-infrared is still limited because large format arrays are not common. Here we show a wide-field, near-infrared imaging of nearby elliptical and spiral galaxies and discuss their star-formation history.
Sofue (1996, 1997) presented accurate rotation curves of nearby galaxies, which are almost completely sampled from the inner to outer regions. The conspicuous common feature of the rotation curves is a steep rise at the inner bulge. The rise suggests a compact massive concentration near the nucleus (Sofue 1996). The study of the light distribution at the inner bulge demands accurate surface photometry at near-infrared wavelengths, where dust extinction is much less effective than in the optical. Most of Sofue's samples are nearby large galaxies, so that observations with a wide field view is clue to constructing reliable light distribution models.
We report on the spectral and temporal properties of the 50 ms pulsar PSR B0540–69 using ASCA archival data obtained during 1993 to 1995. From the spectral analysis it was found that the spectra of the whole (nebular and pulsed) emission and pulsed emission in the range 1-10 keV can be represented by a single power law of photon index, Γ = 2.00 ± 0.02 and Γpulsed = 1.7 ± 0.3 respectively. The parameters for pulse frequency change during 1993-1995 were obtained using the 9 pulse frequency measurements with ASCA. The parameters derived from the ASCA observations are consistent with the previous measurements, suggesting high stability of this pulsar, ΔΩ/Ω ≲ 0.5 × 10−7 over the past 10 years. These results confirm similarity of this pulsar with the Crab pulsar.
The X-ray spectrum observed by Ginga is characterized by a component below 10keV which decreases with increasing photon energy, and a component above 10keV which is nearly flat. This unusual X-ray spectrum may be understood as follows; X-rays below 10keV is likely to be due to thermal emission coming from the shock-heated ejecta, and X-rays above 10keV to be due to γ-ray degradation inside the ejecta. If thermal emission due to the collision of the ejecta with circumstellar matter (CSM) is responsible for X-rays below 10keV, the epoch of the collision can be estimated to be ∼ 0.2yr after the explosion if ∼ 0.5yr is the time when the X-ray flux at ∼ 10keV reaches its maximum. The X-ray light curve then requires the inner radius of CSM to be ∼ 1×1016cm for an expansion velocity, Vex ≃2×109cm s−1.
Gamma-rays originating from radioactive decays of 56Ni and 56Co and hard X-rays due to Compton degradation of γ-rays have been predicted to emerge when the supernova becomes sufficiently thin. The X-ray detections by Ginga (Dotani et al. 1988) and Kvant (Sunyaev et al. 1988) and more recent report of γ-ray detections by SMM (Matz et al. 1988) were much earlier than the theoretical predictions. (See Itoh et al. 1987 and references therein.)
These observations would give important constraints on the distribution of the heavy elements and 56Co in the ejecta. We adopted the hydrodynamical model 11E1Y6 (Nomoto et al. 1988) and carried out Monte Carlo simulation for photon transfer. A step-like distribution of 56Co was assumed where the mass fraction of 56Co in the layers at Mr ≤ 4.6 M⊙, 4.6 − 6 M⊙, 6 − 8 M⊙, and 8 − 10 M⊙ are XCo = 0.0128, 0.0035, 0.0021, and 0.0011, respectively. Other heavy elements were distributed with mass fractions in proportion to 56Co.
We have carried out imaging observations in the near-infrared (J, H and K’ band) with a large format array camera attached to the prime focus of the 105 cm Schmidt telescope at Kiso Observatory. The image resolution, limiting magnitudes and effect of thermal radiation are presented, based on observations of nearby galaxies. Considering the results, we are constructing a new larger near-infrared camera optimized for use with the Kiso Schmidt.
There are serious discrepancies among some of the recent neutron star cooling calculations by various groups. We have been investigating the possible source of these discrepancies. In this paper, we report our findings. We also report the preliminary result of our most recent cooling calculations without assuming an isothermal stellar evolution code. In this work, we used the currently existing best energy transport theories, as well as general relativity, both in thermodynamics and hydrodynamics.
Most of the neutron star cooling calculations with the only exception of Malone's (1974) have assumed an isothermal stellar core. Here we report on a neutron star cooling calculation which makes full use of the stellar evolution code and the recent thermal conductivity calculations by Flowers and Itoh (1976, 1979).
We have a plan to a radioastronomy mission at the Moon. This is dedicated to the mapping of the CBR anisotropy in order to study the properties of the early Universe, especially galaxy formation. This is a candidate for the Moon mission of NASDA, launched by an HIIA Rocket. The mission carries an 1.5 m (min.) offset parabola antenna with radiation shield to the north polar region of the Moon. This will observe CBR anisotropy at three (min.) frequencies between 30 to 90 GHz. The angular resolution is 9’ at 90 GHz. The telescope will observe the donut-shaped sky between 5 to 30 degree (not fixed) from the Moon celestial north pole. The resultant sensitivity will reach ΔT/T ⋍ 106K in 30’x30’ pixel and ΔT/T ⋍ 105K in 9’x9’ pixel.
We investigated the relationships between conception rates (CRs) at first service in Japanese Holstein heifers (i.e. animals that had not yet had their first calf) and cows and their test-day (TD) milk yields. Data included records of artificial insemination (AI) for heifers and cows that had calved for the first time between 2000 and 2008 and their TD milk yields at 6 through 305 days in milk (DIM) from first through third lactations. CR was defined as a binary trait for which first AI was a failure or success. A threshold-linear animal model was applied to estimate genetic correlations between CRs of heifers or cows and TD milk yield at various lactation stages. Two-trait genetic analyses were performed for every combination of CR and TD milk yield by using the Bayesian method with Gibbs sampling. The posterior means of the heritabilities of CR were 0.031 for heifers, 0.034 for first-lactation cows and 0.028 for second-lactation cows. Heritabilities for TD milk yield increased from 0.324 to 0.433 with increasing DIM but decreased slightly after 210 DIM during first lactation. These heritabilities from the second and third lactations were higher during late stages of lactation than during early stages. Posterior means of the genetic correlations between heifer CR and all TD yields were positive (range, 0.082 to 0.287), but those between CR of cows and milk yields during first or second lactation were negative (range, −0.121 to −0.250). Therefore, during every stage of lactation, selection in the direction of increasing milk yield may reduce CR in cows. The genetic relationships between CR and lactation curve shape were quite weak, because the genetic correlations between CR and TD milk yield were constant during the lactation period.
Mucosal mast cells (MMC) play a crucial role in the expulsion of Strongyloides ratti adults from the small intestine of mice. We reported the large intestinal parasitism of S. ratti in rats, and there has been no report on MMC in the large intestine of the natural host. We studied kinetics of MMC, together with eosinophils, in the upper and lower small intestines, caecum and colon of infected rats. Two distinct phases of mastocytosis were revealed: one in the upper small intestine triggered by stimulation of ‘ordinary’ adults, and the other in the colon stimulated by ‘immune-resistant’ adults that started parasitizing the colon around 19 days post-infection. In all 4 intestinal sites, the MMC peaks were observed 5–7 days after the number of adult worms became the maximum and the height of MMC peaks appeared to be dependent on the number of parasitic adults, suggesting an important role played by worms themselves in the MMC buildup.
We have fabricated Bi2212 and Bi2223 bulk samples by shock compaction technique. Seed crystals were added to the starting materials in order to promote crystallization. The grain size of the prepared sample was increased by the addition of seed crystals to the starting material.
Besides the importance of the actinide dioxide series as a nuclear fuel, the magnetic properties of these compounds at low temperatures are particularly interesting. Their surprisingly varied physical properties at low temperatures stimulate continuing interest for both theory and experiment. Recently, we have performed 17O-NMR studies for the first time on Pu and Amcontaining dioxide systems, (Pu1-xAmx)O2. For the x=0.09 sample, a temperature-dependent NMR line broadening has been observed at low temperatures. By comparing the experimental data with the results of NMR line simulations, we have estimated the effective moment of Am ions to be Peff=1.38 μB. The value suggests the 5f5 (Am4+) state of the Am ion in PuO2. For the x=1 (=AmO2) sample, on the other hand, our 17O-NMR data provide the first microscopic evidence for a phase transition at 8.5 K as a bulk property in this system. A spectrum with a triangular line shape indicates that the internal field is distributed very nearly randomly in the ordered state.