To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In this study, we evaluated brain perfusion in patients with first-episode medicated schizophrenia using the new analytical method, statistical parametric mapping (SPM) applied to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).
We performed SPECT with 99-Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) of the brain and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with schizophrenia (n = 30) and control subjects matched for age and gender (n = 37). A voxel-by-voxel group analysis was performed using SPM2 (Z > 3.0, P < 0.001, uncorrected for multiple comparisons).
In comparison with control subjects, the volumes of the bilateral frontal areas were found to be decreased on MRI. Blood flow was found to be reduced in the bilateral temporal areas in the patients with schizophrenia on SPECT.
In this study, patients with first-episode schizophrenia appeared to have significant bilateral temporal hypoperfusion, although temporal volumes were not significantly decreased in comparison with control subjects. Abnormality of temporal lobe blood flow in schizophrenia may show that functional changes occur earlier than structural changes, and may assist in the diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Japanese universities are required to improve both international and Japanese students' mental health, because the number of international students increases annually. Moreover, mental health data for graduate school students in Japan are lacking. Therefore, the present study attempted to examine differences in graduate school students' mental health according to major, grade, and nationality.
A total of 587 students from a Japanese university, which only offers graduate school education, completed the Japanese version of Kessler 6 (K6) as part of their regular health assessments; 542 students agreed to the use of their data for research purposes.
The K6 scores were analyzed using a 3-way (major × grade × nationality) between-subjects ANOVA, and a significant second-order interaction (F(6, 518) = 2.68, p < .05) was observed. As a subsequent 2-way (major × nationality) ANOVA, performed according to grade, only showed an interaction for first-grade master's degree students (M1; F(2, 167) = 7.88, p < .01), comparisons between Japanese and international students were made according to major. For one major, Japanese students' K6 scores tended to be higher relative to those observed in international students (t(36) = 1.98, p < .10). In contrast, international students' K6 scores for another major were significantly higher than were those of Japanese students (t(86) = 3.31, p < .01).
Japanese and international M1 students' K6 scores differed significantly. University staff should take these differences into account and examine ways to support students.
Enhancement of the quality of laser wake-field accelerated (LWFA) electron beams implies the improvement and controllability of the properties of the wake waves generated by ultra-short pulse lasers in underdense plasmas. In this work we present a compendium of useful formulas giving relations between the laser and plasma target parameters allowing one to obtain basic dependences, e.g. the energy scaling of the electrons accelerated by the wake field excited in inhomogeneous media including multi-stage LWFA accelerators. Consideration of the effects of using the chirped laser pulse driver allows us to find the regimes where the chirp enhances the wake field amplitude. We present an analysis of the three-dimensional effects on the electron beam loading and on the unlimited LWFA acceleration in inhomogeneous plasmas. Using the conditions of electron trapping to the wake-field acceleration phase we analyse the multi-equal stage and multiuneven stage LWFA configurations. In the first configuration the energy of fast electrons is a linear function of the number of stages, and in the second case, the accelerated electron energy grows exponentially with the number of stages. The results of the two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations presented here show the high quality electron acceleration in the triple stage injection–acceleration configuration.
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
Butoxybutyl alcohol (BBA) is a possible growth promoter contained in the fermentation and distillation by-products of a traditional Japanese spirit, shochu. In the present study, BBA was synthesized and its chemical structure was confirmed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Then, two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of feeding the synthesized BBA on the growth and skeletal muscle proteolysis of broiler chickens. Ross male broiler chickens were divided into two groups, control (basal diet: 219 g crude protein/kg and 12·66 MJ metabolizable energy/kg) and BBA diet (30 mg BBA/kg basal diet), with the experimental diets being provided from 15 to 27 days and 0 to 27 days of age, for Studies 1 and 2, respectively. Butoxybutyl alcohol supplementation increased final body weight in both studies, whereas feed intake was unchanged, thereby indicating significantly increased feed efficiency. Furthermore, the synthesized BBA increased the weights of the pectoralis superficialis and profundus muscles, and the leg. The BBA decreased the Nτ-methylhistidine concentration in the excrement and plasma, which are indices of the rate of skeletal muscle protein degradation. It also decreased the mRNA levels of μ-calpain large subunit, atrogin-1/muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx), ubiquitin and 20S proteasome C2 subunit. These suggest that growth promotion due to the feeding of synthesized BBA is caused by the suppression of skeletal muscle protein degradation, which is related to a decrease in gene expression in the calpain and ubiquitin–proteasome systems.
We have investigated an influence of positive polarization charges generated at an interface between GaN barrier/p-AlGaN EB (Electron Blocking) layer in a blue-LED. Simulation results suggested that such polarization charges caused an electron overflow from QWs. The simulation results also indicated that sufficient acceptor doping at the interface could neutralize the positive polarization charges and suppress the electron overflow. We then demonstrated the electron overflow caused by the positive polarization charges and its suppression with sufficient Mg doping at the interface by monitoring emissions from an additional second QW inserted between the p-EB layer and the p-GaN layer. Finally we conclude that the contribution of the electron overflow is not significant for the efficiency droop in blue-LEDs.
In the present study, the sub-gap states of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin films treated with various process conditions have been evaluated by means of capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics and isothermal capacitance transient spectroscopy (ICTS). It was found that the space-charge densities of the a-IGZO decreased as the oxygen partial pressure was increased during the sputtering of a-IGZO thin films. The ICTS spectra for the 4, 8, and 12 % samples were similar and the peak positions were found to be around 1 × 10-2 s at 180 K. On the other hand, the peak position for the 20 % sample shifted to a longer time regime and was located at around 2 × 10-1 s at 180 K. The total densities of the traps for the 4, 8, and 12 % samples were calculated to be 5−6 × 1016 cm-3, while that for 20 % was one order of magnitude lower than the others. From Thermal desorption spectrometer, it was found that desorption of Zn atoms started at a temperature higher than 300 °C for the 4 % sample, while desorption of Zn was not observed for the 20 % sample. The introduction of the sub-gap states could be attributed to oxygen-rich and/or Zn-deficient defects in the a-IGZO thin films formed during thermal annealing.
To increase X-ray photon number generated by laser-cluster interaction, it is important to understand the dependence of X-ray generation on cluster size. We carried out Xe K-shell X-ray generation using a conical nozzle with Xe clusters, the radius of which was controllable by adjusting the backing pressure. The experiment clarifies the result that the Xe K-shell X-ray photon number increases with increasing cluster radius from 8 to 12 nm, and saturates at the radius between 12 and 17 nm. We also investigated the Xe K-shell X-ray photon number dependence on laser intensity, and found that the threshold laser intensity of the Xe K-shell X-ray generation exists between 2 × 1017 and 5 × 1018 W/cm2.
Sunspot observations inspired solar dynamo theory and continue to do so. Simply counting them established the sunspot cycle and its period. Latitudinal distributions introduced the tough constraint that the source of sunspots moves equator-ward as the cycle progresses. Observations of Hale's polarity law mandated hemispheric asymmetry. How much more can sunspots tell us about the solar dynamo? We draw attention to a few outstanding questions raised by inherent sunspot properties. Namely, how to explain sunspot rotation rates, the incoherence of follower spots, the longitudinal spacing of sunspot groups, and brightness trends within a given sunspot cycle. After reviewing the first several topics, we then present new results on the brightness of sunspots in Cycle 24 as observed with the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI). We compare these results to the sunspot brightness observed in Cycle 23 with the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI). Next, we compare the minimum intensities of five sunspots simultaneously observed by the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope Spectropolarimeter (SOT-SP) and HMI to verify that the minimum brightness of sunspot umbrae correlates well to the maximum field strength. We then examine 90 and 52 sunspots in the north and south hemisphere, respectively, from 2010 - 2012. Finally, we conclude that the average maximum field strengths of umbra 40 Carrington Rotations into Cycle 24 are 2690 Gauss, virtually indistinguishable from the 2660 Gauss value observed at a similar time in Cycle 23 with MDI.
It is shown that various spectroscopic methods based on measurements of X-ray spectra radiated from cluster targets can be used for estimation of the destruction degree of clusters by laser prepulses. These methods allow insight to be gained regarding the important issue of preservation of the dense cluster core at the moment of the arrival of the main laser pulse. In addition, they can be used for quantitative estimation of the size of the undestroyed parts of the clusters and also for measuring the temperature and density of the preplasmas produced by the laser prepulses.
The current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation are overviewed. This report is formed by the selected papers presented in the “Fifth International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation 2010” in Japan. The nonlinear properties of phase conjugation based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and photo-refraction can compensate phase distortions in the high power laser systems, and they will also open up potentially novel laser technologies, e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, pulse compression, ultrafast pulse shaping, and arbitrary waveform generation.
We confirmed that GaN photocatalyst with NiO cocatalyst (GaN-NiO) continuously produced hydrogen from water for 500 hours without any extra bias. The GaN-NiO photocatalyst was hardly etched and 184-mL hydrogen gas was produced from the electric charge of 1612 coulombs, the Faradic efficiency of which was 89.2%. The conversion efficiency from incident light energy to hydrogen chemical energy was 0.98% in average for 500 h. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) was 50% at 300 nm and 35% at 350 nm after the experiment, which was much higher than those of other semiconductor-based photocatalysts.
A hospital disaster drill is commonly carried out based on the activities assigned beforehand by the occupational description. However, it is difficult for each staff the role is fixing to understand the global image of a disaster correspondence in a hospital disaster when their role is assigned and fixed. We have developed the understandable drill about the whole practice at each hospital in disaster. We keenly realized the necessity of a standard disaster medicine. Therefore we have developed the disaster drill which can be held per hospital. As a goal of a course, each hospital personnel could understand the global image of the disaster, and aimed at the daily course which can master necessary minimum skill to correspond a disaster in each hospital. From the reasons above, we created the course which consisted of a lecture, individual skill training, and a gross training. As essential skill, it starts with (1) management of disaster countermeasures office (2) management of triage post (3) treatment at room (4) support of conveyance between hospitals (5) information control. In order to employ these individual skill booths efficiently we divided attendances into five groups. Five hospitals started from 2008, were carried out 11 times, and about 500 persons took this disaster drill on a course. We expect that cost to bellower, the course to be simpler, and the quality of training will improve by holding this course repeatedly.
We prepare Nd-Bi codoped zeolites by a method consisting of a simple ion-exchange process and subsequent high-temperature annealing. The emission covers the range of 970∼1450 nm, corresponding to the electronic transitions of Nd3+ ions and Bi-related active centers (BiRAC), respectively. The introduction of Bi distinctly broadens the excitation band of Nd3+ in the visible region, and the lifetime of Nd3+ reaches as long as 354 μs. In the zeolite matrix, Bi ions exist as BiRAC and Bi oxide agglomerates. The former one act as a sensitizer of Nd3+ ions, and the latter one act as a blockage to avoid the quenching effect of coordinated water, which enable Nd3+ ions to show efficient near-infrared (NIR) emission even the zeolites contain large amount of coordinated water. The excellent optical and structural properties make these NIR emitting nanoparticles promising in application as laser materials and biological probes.
The Bi-based oxide superconducting wire is one of the most promising materials for practical uses such as electric power transmission, electromagnets and so on. For the higher performances required in these applications, it is necessary to increase the critical current (Ic). We have carried out synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction analysis to improve our manufacturing processes and thus to achieve higher Ic. We have performed in situ X-ray diffraction measurements during the sintering and cooling processes, and observed the decrease of Bi-2223(=(Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox) phase during the cooling process. We have also evaluated the distribution of the crystal orientation in whole wire thickness, by measuring the rocking curves. We have observed that the distribution of the crystal orientation is improved by a refinement of the process conditions.
This study aimed to analyse vocal performance and to investigate the nature of the neoglottal sound source in patients who had undergone supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy, using a high-speed digital imaging system.
High-speed digital imaging analysis of neoglottal kinetics was performed in two patients who had undergone supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy; laryngotopography, inverse filtering analysis and multiline kymography were also undertaken.
In case one, laryngotopography demonstrated two vibrating areas: one matched with the primary (i.e. fundamental) frequency (75 Hz) and the other with the secondary frequency (150 Hz) at the neoglottis. In case two, laryngotopography showed two vibrating areas matched with the fundamental frequency (172 Hz) at the neoglottis. The interaction between the two areas was considered to be the sound source in both patients. The waveform of the estimated volume flow at the neoglottis, obtained by inverse filtering analysis, corresponded well to the neoglottal vibration patterns derived by multiline kymography. These findings indicated that the specific sites identified at the neoglottis by the present method were likely to be the sound source in each patient.
High-speed digital imaging analysis is effective in locating the sites responsible for voice production in patients who have undergone supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy. This is the first study to clearly identify the neoglottal sound source in such patients, using a high-speed digital imaging system.
The metal abundances in the hot X-ray emitting interstellar medium (ISM) of early-type galaxies give us important information about the present metal supply into the ISM through supernovae (SNe) Ia and stellar mass loss. In addition, O and Mg abundances should reflect the stellar metallicity and enable us to directly look into the formation history of these galaxies. The XIS instrument onboard the Suzaku satellite has an improved line spread function due to a very small low-pulse-height tail below 1 keV coupled with a very low background.
Previous studies have reported prefrontal cortex (PFC) pathophysiology in bipolar disorder.
We examined the hemodynamics of the PFC during resting and cognitive tasks in 29 patients with bipolar disorder and 27 healthy controls, matched for age, verbal abilities and education. The cognitive test battery consisted of letter and category fluency (LF and CF), Sets A and B of the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM-A and RCPM-B) and the letter cancellation test (LCT). The tissue oxygenation index (TOI), the ratio of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) concentration to total hemoglobin concentration, was measured in the bilateral PFC by spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy. Changes in HbO2 concentration were also measured.
The bipolar group showed slight but significant impairment in performance for the non-verbal tasks (RCPM-A, RCPM-B and LCT), with no significant between-group differences for the two verbal tasks (LF and CF). A group×task×hemisphere analysis of variance (ANOVA) on the TOI revealed an abnormal pattern of prefrontal oxygenation across different types of cognitive processing in the bipolar group. Post hoc analyses following a group×task×hemisphere ANOVA on HbO2 concentration revealed that the bipolar group showed a greater increase in HbO2 concentration in the LCT and in RCPM-B, relative to controls.
Both indices of cortical activation (TOI and HbO2 concentration) indicated a discrepancy in the PFC function between verbal versus non-verbal processing, indicating task-specific abnormalities in the hemodynamic control of the PFC in bipolar disorder.
Attempts to explain the clear seasonality of rotavirus infections have been made by relating disease incidence to climate factors; however, few studies have disentangled the effects of weather from other factors that might cause seasonality. We investigated the relationships between hospital visits for rotavirus diarrhoea and temperature, humidity and river level, in Dhaka, Bangladesh, using time-series analysis adjusting for other confounding seasonal factors. There was strong evidence for an increase in rotavirus diarrhoea at high temperatures, by 40·2% for each 1°C increase above a threshold (29°C). Relative humidity had a linear inverse relationship with the number of cases of rotavirus diarrhoea. River level, above a threshold (4·8 m), was associated with an increase in cases of rotavirus diarrhoea, by 5·5% per 10-cm river-level rise. Our findings provide evidence that factors associated with high temperature, low humidity and high river-level increase the incidence of rotavirus diarrhoea in Dhaka.
To determine if a prediction of epidemic cholera using climate data can be made, we performed autoregression analysis using the data recorded in Dhaka City, Bangladesh over a 20-year period (1983–2002) comparing the number of children aged <10 years who were infected with Vibrio cholerae O1 to the maximum and minimum temperatures and rainfall. We formulated a simple autoregression model that predicts the monthly number of patients using earlier climate variables. The monthly number of patients predicted by this model agreed well with the actual monthly number of patients where the Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0·95. Arbitrarily defined, 39·4% of the predicted numbers during the study period were within 0·8–1·2 times the observed numbers. This prediction model uses the climate data recorded 2–4 months before. Therefore, our approach may be a good basis for establishing a practical early warning system for epidemic cholera.