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Recruitment of the limpet Patella ulyssiponensis was investigated in relation to the presence of living crustose coralline algae (CCA) in rocky-shore habitats. Juvenile limpets (≤10 mm maximum shell length) were counted in CCA-present and CCA-absent habitats, on three shores in SW Portugal during summer 2007 and winter 2009. Furthermore, the settling response of laboratory-reared larvae of P. ulyssiponensis to CCA-covered substratum, and bare-rock, was examined. Across the intertidal zone, we found a clear association between the distribution and abundance of juveniles and the presence of CCA. Although the presence of CCA was not an absolute requisite for juvenile occurrence, null juvenile densities were mostly recorded in CCA-absent areas. The highest juvenile densities (maximum of 64 individuals in 15 × 15 cm) were consistently found in CCA-dominated habitats, namely steep wave-exposed areas at low-shore and rock-pools. The hypothesis of CCA-enhanced settlement was not supported, as settlement intensities of laboratory-reared larvae were similar between chips of rock encrusted by CCA and chips of bare-rock. From the overall number of settlers onto CCA-encrusted rock chips, 51% were found in tiny pits lacking CCA. This was the first study of the settlement patterns of larvae of the genus Patella using naturally occurring rocky substrata. These results are preliminary and should be confirmed with choice-experiments and improved monitoring of the position of settlers. We suggest that CCA plays a role in the recruitment of P. ulyssiponensis, potentially promoting survivorship of early benthic stages, but possibly not enhancing settlement.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Introduction: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), including preeclampsia, can develop or worsen in the early postpartum period, often following discharge from hospital, resulting in severe preventable maternal morbidity and mortality. Due to a lack of routine early out-patient follow-up, many women with postpartum HDP present to the emergency department (ED) with severe hypertension or symptoms of preeclampsia (e.g., headache). In the ED, postpartum HDP can be difficult for clinicians to recognize (due to vague presenting symptom) and manage (due to lower blood pressure targets and concern of medication safety). ED clinicians recognized a need for timely recognition and effective treatments for postpartum HDP in the ED to improve maternal outcomes. As such, as part of a multi-step quality improvement initiative, an interdisciplinary team developed and implemented a postpartum HDP management protocol (consisting of nursing and physician protocols and an electronic order set embedded in the electronic medical record). The aims of this specific project were to assess: 1) the use of this clinical management protocol in the ED; and 2) its impacts on clinical care. Methods: This quality improvement project used electronic medical records to identify: 1) ED visits for postpartum HDP for postpartum women ages 20-50; 2) utilization of the postpartum HDP order set; and 3) clinical care outcomes (consultation and admission). Patient population characteristics and clinical care measures were summarized with descriptive statistics and compared using a before and after design. Changes in the utilization of the protocol were assessed using run charts. Results: 540 women with postpartum HDP were seen in the four Calgary EDs in the 16-month period following protocol implementation compared with 335 women in the preceding 12 months. The protocol was used in 46% of these 540 women, and increased over the 16 month follow-up period. We found an increase in the frequency of consultation of specialists (47% to 52%) and admissions (26% to 29%) amongst these women after protocol implementation. Conclusion: This initial assessment demonstrated good uptake of a postpartum HDP management protocol including referral for consultation and admission to hospital for blood pressure management. Future steps include evaluation of the impacts of this management protocol on important patient outcomes.
Introduction: Patients with Heart failure (HF) experience frequent decompensation necessitating multiple emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. If patients are able to receive timely interventions and optimize self-management, recurrent ED visits may be reduced. In this feasibility study, we piloted the application of home telemonitoring to support the discharge of HF patients from hospital to home. We hypothesized that TEC4Home would decrease ED revisits and hospital admissions and improve patient health outcomes. Methods: Upon discharge from the ED or hospital, patients with HF received a blood pressure cuff, weight scale, pulse oximeter, and a touchscreen tablet. Participants submitted measurements and answered questions on the tablet about their HF symptoms daily for 60 days. Data were reviewed by a monitoring nurse. From November 2016 to July 2017, 69 participants were recruited from Vancouver General Hospital (VGH), St. Pauls Hospital (SPH) and Kelowna General Hospital (KGH). Participants completed pre-surveys at enrollement and post-surveys 30 days after monitoring finished. Administrative data related to ED visits and hospital admissions were reviewed. Interviews were conducted with the monitoring nurses to assess the impact of monitoring on patient health outcomes. Results: A preliminary analysis was conducted on a subsample of participants (n=22) enrolled across all 3 sites by March 31, 2017. At VGH and SPH (n=14), 25% fewer patients required an ED visit in the post-survey reporting compared to pre-survey. During the monitoring period, the monitoring nurse observed seven likely avoided ED admissions due to early intervention. In total, admissions were reduced by 20% and total hospital length of stay reduced by 69%. At KGH (n=8), 43% fewer patients required an ED visit in the post-survey reporting compared to the pre-survey. Hospital admissions were reduced by 20% and total hospital length of stay reduced by 50%. Overall, TEC4Home participants from all sites showed a significant improvement in health-related quality of life and in self-care behaviour pre- to 90 days post-monitoring. A full analysis of the 69 patients will be complete in February 2018. Conclusion: Preliminary findings indicate that home telemonitoring for HF patients can decrease ED revisits and improve patient experience. The length of stay data may also suggest the potential for early discharge of ED patients with home telemonitoring to avoid or reduce hospitalization. A stepped-wedge randomized controlled trial of TEC4Home in 22 BC communities will be conducted in 2018 to generate evidence and scale up the service in urban, regional and rural communities. This work is submitted on behalf of the TEC4Home Healthcare Innovation Community.
For livestock production systems to play a positive role in global food security, the balance between their benefits and disbenefits to society must be appropriately managed. Based on the evidence provided by field-scale randomised controlled trials around the world, this debate has traditionally centred on the concept of economic-environmental trade-offs, of which existence is theoretically assured when resource allocation is perfect on the farm. Recent research conducted on commercial farms indicates, however, that the economic-environmental nexus is not nearly as straightforward in the real world, with environmental performances of enterprises often positively correlated with their economic profitability. Using high-resolution primary data from the North Wyke Farm Platform, an intensively instrumented farm-scale ruminant research facility located in southwest United Kingdom, this paper proposes a novel, information-driven approach to carry out comprehensive assessments of economic-environmental trade-offs inherent within pasture-based cattle and sheep production systems. The results of a data-mining exercise suggest that a potentially systematic interaction exists between ‘soil health’, ecological surroundings and livestock grazing, whereby a higher level of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock is associated with a better animal performance and less nutrient losses into watercourses, and a higher stocking density with greater botanical diversity and elevated SOC. We contend that a combination of farming system-wide trials and environmental instrumentation provides an ideal setting for enrolling scientifically sound and biologically informative metrics for agricultural sustainability, through which agricultural producers could obtain guidance to manage soils, water, pasture and livestock in an economically and environmentally acceptable manner. Priority areas for future farm-scale research to ensure long-term sustainability are also discussed.
Phased Array Feed (PAF) technology is the next major advancement in radio astronomy in terms of combining high sensitivity and large field of view. The Focal L-band Array for the Green Bank Telescope (FLAG) is one of the most sensitive PAFs developed so far. It consists of 19 dual-polarization elements mounted on a prime focus dewar resulting in seven beams on the sky. Its unprecedented system temperature of ~17 K will lead to a 3 fold increase in pulsar survey speeds as compared to contemporary single pixel feeds. Early science observations were conducted in a recently concluded commissioning phase of the FLAG where we clearly demonstrated its science capabilities. We observed a selection of normal and millisecond pulsars and detected giant pulses from PSR B1937+21.
Carbon films were energetically deposited onto copper foil using the physical vapor deposition technique filtered cathodic vacuum arc. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that high quality graphene films of uniform thickness can be deposited onto copper foil at temperatures of 850 °C. The films can be prepared at high deposition rates (∼1 nm/min) and were comparable to graphene films grown at 1050 °C using chemical vapor deposition. This lower growth temperature was made possible by the energetic carbon flux which assisted the arrangement of carbon atoms into graphene layers on the Cu growth surface. Floating substrate potential was found to produce the highest quality graphene and the addition of hydrogen gas during film growth resulted in more defective films.
Surface distribution contour maps of the HB/clump population and the < 1 Gyr main sequence population for the outer regions of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) are presented. Aspects of the stellar population synthesis, large-scale structure and evolutionary history of the SMC halo are discussed.
We present UBVRI photometry of the faint and highly erratic cataclysmic variable discovered by Hawkins (1983) from a sequence of U.K. Schmidt plates. Observations using the ANU 2.3 m telescope over two nights in September 1986 show pronounced and repeatable modulation at a binary period of 108.6 min. Dramatic colour differences are evident in the folded UBVRI light curves: in the U band, a single sinusoidal peak is present, while at longer wavelengths, a second red peak dominates at a phase separation of Δϕ = 0.5. This behaviour is strongly suggestive of cyclotron emission from two magnetic accretion funnels in an AM Herculis binary system. Furthermore, the binary period lies in the narrow range of 100-115 minutes that characterizes most of the AM Herculis variables lying on the short side of the 2-3 hour period gap. We conclude therefore that the object is almost certainly a new AM Herculis system, and develop a model in which the blue and red components originate from two non-diametrically opposed cyclotron regions that are characterized by differing electron temperatures and opacities. Predictions are made regarding the linear and circular polarization properties of this important new magnetic variable.
We have undertaken a study of the 3-D spatial distribution of the older (τ ≥ 1–2 Gyr) stellar population lying beyond ~ 2 kpc in projected radial distance from the centre of the SMC. The study will eventually cover 120 square degrees including six overlapping Schmidt fields. Here we present the results from an area of 80 square degrees including the western, northern and north-eastern outer parts of the SMC.
This study aimed to assess the psychological well-being and quality of life in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and the potential psychosocial impact of screening.
A total of 152 children (aged 3–18 years) attending a specialist paediatric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy clinic, and their parents completed the Generic Core Scales and Cardiac Module of the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) questionnaire as well as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; 21 patients (14%) had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (group A); 23 children (15%) harboured hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-causing sarcomeric mutations with normal echocardiograms (group G); and 108 children (71%) had a family history of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with normal investigations and attended for clinical cardiological screening (group S).
In group A, mean PedsQLTM total scores reported by children and parents were lower than those reported by unaffected children (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between unaffected and gene-positive patients. Mean Cardiac module PedsQLTM total scores by children and parents were lower in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy compared with unaffected patients [mean child-reported total score 86.4 in group S versus 72.3 in group A (p<0.001) and 80.2 in group G (p=0.25); mean parent-reported total score 91.6 in group S versus 71.4 in group A (p<0.001) and 87 in group G (p=0.4)]. There was no significant difference between group S and group G on any of the scales, or between the three groups of patients in the mean Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores.
Children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have a significantly reduced quality of life. Importantly, Quality-of-Life scores among unaffected children attending for screening were not different compared with scores from a normative UK population.
Little is known about cause-specific long-term mortality beyond 30 days in pneumonia. We aimed to compare the mortality of patients with hospitalized pneumonia compared to age- and sex-matched controls beyond 30 days. Participants were drawn from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk prospective population study. Hospitalized pneumonia cases were identified from record linkage (ICD-10: J12-J18). For this study we excluded people with hospitalized pneumonia who died within 30 days. Each case identified was matched to four controls and followed up until the end June 2012 (total 15 074 person-years, mean 6·1 years, range 0·08–15·2 years). Cox regression models were constructed to examine the all-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality using date of pneumonia onset as baseline with binary pneumonia status as exposure. A total of 2465 men and women (503 cases, 1962 controls) [mean age (s.d.) 64·5 (8·3) years] were included in the study. Between a 30-day to 1-year period, hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were 7·3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5·4–9·9] and 5·9 (95% CI 3·5–9·7), respectively (with very few respiratory deaths within the same period) in cases compared to controls after adjusting for age, sex, asthma, smoking status, pack years, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, diabetes, physical activity, waist-to-hip ratio, prevalent cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. All outcomes assessed also showed increased risk of death in cases compared to controls after 1 year; respiratory cause of death being the most significant during that period (HR 16·4, 95% CI 8·9–30·1). Hospitalized pneumonia was associated with increased all-cause and specific-cause mortality beyond 30 days.
To cope with phosphorus (P) deficiency, plants adapt root morphology to enhance inorganic P (Pi) acquisition from soil by allocating more biomass to roots, but whether the responses can be modified across gradients of P supply is not fully understood. The present study examined changes in root-length density (RLD), root-hair density (RHD) and root-hair length (RHL) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in two contrasting soils, the Rough and Barnfield soils. Wheat plants were grown for 3 weeks in thin-plate rhizotrons in two soils with additions of 0, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg P/kg soil. Contrary to published literature, as P additions increased it was observed that a concomitant increase in RHL (250 to 1054 µm in the Rough soil and 303–1075 µm in the Barnfield soil) and RHD (57 to 122/mm in the Rough soil and 56–120/mm in the Barnfield soil), while RLD generally decreased (2480–1130 cm/cm3 in the Rough soil and 1716–865 cm/cm3 in the Barnfield soil). The levels of added P that resulted in critical P concentrations in the soils enabling maximum shoot biomass production were 50 mg/kg P in the Rough soil and 100 mg/kg P in the Barnfield soil, and these additions influenced root morphological changes. Under severe P deficiency, P supply increased RHL and RHD, but RLD was decreased. Improvement in lateral root and root-hair responses in wheat at extreme P deficiency may be a worthy target for breeding more sustainable genotypes for future agroecosystems.
School bonding has been identified as a protective factor for a broad range of adolescent outcomes, and it is thus important to identify factors that foster positive relationships with school. The ecological perspective suggests the importance of both individual and contextual antecedents across developmental periods, yet previous research has tended to examine only a narrow selection of school bonding correlates. This study sought to identify longitudinal influences on school bonding, examining the role of both individual and contextual factors over childhood and early adolescence. We draw on data from 1,308 participants (51% female) in the Australian Temperament Project, a large representative Australian sample that has followed the psychosocial development of participants from infancy to adulthood, and thus provides a rare opportunity to address this gap in the literature. Path analysis was conducted to examine individual and contextual predictors of school bonding at 15–16 years. The individual characteristics of higher academic achievement and sociability, and lower hyperactivity predicted school bonding. Contextual factors also made a significant contribution, including the parent–child relationships and maternal education. The results indicate that both individual and contextual factors make unique contributions to school bonding in adolescence, suggesting a number of potential targets for intervention.
The compositional flexibility of the sodium zirconium phosphate
(NaZr2(PO4)3) structure has been
exploited in the design of monophasic radiophases capable of immobilizing
the most common cations associated with reprocessed high-level commercial
waste streams. Highly crystalline, monophasic members of the
NaZr2(PO4)3 structural family ([NZP])
have been prepared with conventional processing methods and equipment. These
radiophases were tailored to accommodate 10–20 wt % modified PW-4b simulated
calcine as single phases isostructural with
NaZr2(PO4)3. To meet the challenge of
designing monophasic materials capable of accommodating the chemical
complexity of PW-4b, an ionic substitution scheme based on crystal chemical
principles was developed. The radiophases were prepared with inexpensive,
inorganic precursors and a solution sol-gel method; these materials were
heat treated and/or sintered under a variety of conditions to determine the
optimum conditions for single phase [NZP] formation. X-ray powder
diffraction provided valuable information that was used to assess the
suitability of the ionic substitution model developed in this investigation.
The results of this investigation suggest that monophasic [NZP] radiophases
capable of accommodating 10–20 wt % modified PW-4b simulated calcine may be
continuously processed with conventional ceramic processing methods and
equipment. Moreover, the relatively low temperatures involved and the
reproducibility of the process make [NZP] radiophases economically
attractive hosts for radioactive and heavy metal industrial wastes.
We examined and described colonization of MRSA in the anterior nares and throat from 184 community-recruited injection drug users. Thirty-seven (20%) were positive for MRSA: most (34, 92%) were carriers in the nares; while only three (8%) were carriers detected by throat swabs alone. The majority (29, 78%) of MRSA isolates were PVL positive.
An extremely simple and inexpensive apparatus for preparation of the C60 and C70 fullerenes is described. An efficient separatory technique is described which implements a phenylglycine based HFLC column for preparation of high purity (99.99%) C60 and C70 samples. Treatment of C60 with osmium tetroxide and pyridine gives the osmate ester (2:1 adduct) and establishes that oxygen functionality can be added to C60 without disrupting the carbon framework. Raman spectroscopy of high purity C60 indicates that several lines previously not assigned to C60 (D.S.Bethune, G.Meijer, W.C.Tang, and H.J.Rosen, Chem.Phys.Lett.174, 219(1990)) are attributable to C60.