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The authors summarize the results of selective-area growth of vertical MnAs/InAs heterojunction nanowire (NW) arrays and present a preliminary characterization of the transport properties of a single MnAs/InAs heterojunction NW and a single InAs host NW for MnAs inclusions. During the endotaxy of MnAs after the selective-area growth of host InAs nanowires (NWs) on partially SiO2-masked GaAs(111)B substrates, hexagonal NiAs-type MnAs nanoclusters (NCs), which exhibit spontaneous magnetization at room temperature, are formed with the 〈0001〉 direction oriented parallel to the 〈111〉B direction of the zinc-blende-type InAs host NWs. For InAs host NWs, a large positive ordinary magnetoresistance (MR) effect up to 165% is observed at temperatures between 7 and 280 K. In addition, magnetotransport measurements reveal universal conductance fluctuations and a weak Anderson localization at temperatures up to 20 K due to a charge-accumulation layer formed at the surface. Single MnAs/InAs heterojunction NWs, however, exhibit only a negative MR effect, which is independent of temperature T < 10 K and linearly decreases up to −10% at 10 T with increasing magnetic field. These results reveal the tremendous influence of ferromagnetic NCs on the transport behavior inside the InAs host NWs.
A new target design is presented to model high-energy radiative accretion shocks in polars. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained on the GEKKO XII laser facility for the POLAR project. The experimental results are compared with 2D FCI2 simulations to characterize the dynamics and the structure of plasma flow before and after the collision. The good agreement between simulations and experimental data confirms the formation of a reverse shock where cooling losses start modifying the post-shock region. With the multi-material structure of the target, a hydrodynamic collimation is exhibited and a radiative structure coupled with the reverse shock is highlighted in both experimental data and simulations. The flexibility of the laser energy produced on GEKKO XII allowed us to produce high-velocity flows and study new and interesting radiation hydrodynamic regimes between those obtained on the LULI2000 and Orion laser facilities.
Underwater endoscopic ear surgery does not require suction and so protects the inner ear from unexpected aeration that may damage its function in the treatment of labyrinthine fistula. A method of underwater endoscopic ear surgery is proposed for the treatment of superior canal dehiscence.
Underwater endoscopic ear surgery was performed for plugging of the superior semicircular canal through the transmastoid approach. Saline solution was infused into the mastoid cavity through an Endo-Scrub Lens Cleaning Sheath. The tip of the inserted endoscope was filled completely with saline water.
Using this underwater endoscopic view, the canal was clearly dissected to expose the semicircular canal membranous labyrinth and dehiscence area. No particular complication occurred during the surgical procedure.
The underwater endoscopic ear surgery technique for plugging in superior canal dehiscence secures an excellent visual field and protects the inner ear from unexpected aeration.
Much can be learned from terrestrial planets that appear to have had the potential to be habitable, but failed to realize that potential. Mars shows evidence of a once hospitable surface environment. The reasons for its current state, and in particular its thin atmosphere and dry surface, are of great interest for what they can tell us about habitable zone planet outcomes. A main goal of the MAVEN mission is to observe Mars’ atmosphere responses to solar and space weather influences, and in particular atmosphere escape related to space weather ‘storms’ caused by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Numerical experiments with a data-validated MHD model suggest how the effects of an observed moderately strong ICME compare to what happens during a more extreme event. The results suggest the kinds of solar and space weather conditions that can have evolutionary importance at a planet like Mars.
The CANGAROO project incorporates two Čerenkov imaging telescopes at Woomera to obtain stereo images of very high-energy gamma-ray (and cosmic-ray) showers. The first stereo observations, with one imaging system, were made in March 1992, and preliminary stereo imaging observations began in July 1992. This paper describes the stereo imaging technique, the sources under investigation, and the indications from the first data sets.
In this paper the Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy program at the University of Adelaide is described. VHE gamma rays with energies above ~5 × 1011eV are observed using the atmospheric Cerenkov technique. Results from the first three years observations at Woomera and the current upgrading of the telecope are described. The CANGAROO project, a collaboration between the University of Adelaide and a number of Japanese institutions, is also introduced.
A fully coherent free electron laser (FEL) seeded with a higher-order harmonic (HH) pulse from high-order harmonic generation (HHG) is successfully operated for a sufficiently prolonged time in pilot user experiments by using a timing drift feedback. For HHG-seeded FELs, the seeding laser pulses have to be synchronized with electron bunches. Despite seeded FELs being non-chaotic light sources in principle, external laser-seeded FELs are often unstable in practice because of a timing jitter and a drift between the seeding laser pulses and the accelerated electron bunches. Accordingly, we constructed a relative arrival-timing monitor based on non-invasive electro-optic sampling (EOS). The EOS monitor made uninterrupted shot-to-shot monitoring possible even during the seeded FEL operation. The EOS system was then used for arrival-timing feedback with an adjustability of 100 fs for continual operation of the HHG-seeded FEL. Using the EOS-based beam drift controlling system, the HHG-seeded FEL was operated over half a day with an effective hit rate of 20%–30%. The output pulse energy was
at the 61.2 nm wavelength. Towards seeded FELs in the water window region, we investigated our upgrade plan to seed high-power FELs with HH photon energy of 30–100 eV and lase at shorter wavelengths of up to 2 nm through high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) at the energy-upgraded SPring-8 Compact SASE Source (SCSS) accelerator. We studied a benefit as well as the feasibility of the next HHG-seeded FEL machine with single-stage HGHG with tunability of a lasing wavelength.
Blue and Green long-persistent luminescence materials have been fully developed, and are well featured in production and application. However, long-wavelength emitting materials are very rare relatively. This paper presents some work from our laboratory on the recent progress in long-wavelength emitting long-persistent luminescence materials: Sr3Al2O5Cl2: Eu2+, Tm3+, Sr2SnO4: Sm3+ and Ca2BO3Cl: Eu2+, Dy3+. The initial intensity of Sr3Al2O5Cl2: Eu2+, Tm3+ can reach nearly 5000 mcd/m2 and its afterglow can last about 220 min at recognizable intensity level. Sr2SnO4: Sm3+ has a red emission and its afterglow time of which sintered in vacuum atmosphere increased substantially. With optimum doping concentration and sufficient excitation with UV light, the yellow afterglow of Ca2BO3Cl: Eu2+, Dy3+ can persist over 48 h.
Excitation of multiple Er3+ ions upon absorption of a single high-energy photon increases Er-related emission at 1.5 μm, and therefore enhances UV/visible-to-IR photon conversion efficiency. Here we investigate this effect for layers of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with silicon nanocrystals by measuring the quantum yield of 1.5 µm Er-related emission. We demonstrate dramatic increase of the emission commencing for excitation energies above a certain threshold value, as the number of Er3+ ions excited upon absorption of a single incoming photon increases. By comparing differently prepared materials, we show that the actual value of this threshold energy and the rate of the observed increase of the quantum yield depend on sample characteristics – the size of Si nanocrystals and the ratio of Er3+ ions and nanocrystals concentrations.
A series of Ce3+ doped Ca8La2(PO4)6O2 phosphors with tunable emission were successfully synthesized by traditional solid state reaction. The crystal structure and photoluminescence properties were studied through X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra. The results indicated that Ca8La2(PO4)6O2:Ce3+ exhibited color-tunable emission due to the 5d-4f transitions of Ce3+ ions under different wavelength excitation. The optimal doping content of Ce3+ ions in Ca8La2(PO4)6O2 was found to be 5 mol%. The site-selective photoluminescence property and the reason for red-shift of the emission band along with Ce3+ content and the excitation wavelength were also studied in detail.
Using a newly developed rapid test, an outbreak of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infection in a long-term care facility was detected within only 2 days after the onset of symptoms in a putative index case. The outbreak was almost under control within 8 days mainly by zoning patients, with the exception of two cases of HMPV that were diagnosed 16 and 17 days after the onset of the outbreak. According to an immunological diagnosis as well as the rapid test, it was eventually proven that 18 patients had HMPV infections. We suspected that even asymptomatic residents, who had not been completely separated from the facility population, were a source of infection. That suggested that all asymptomatic residents should be tested and that the separation of the infected patients should be absolute, if an outbreak of HMPV infection is suspected in such a facility.
Spectral shifts of the emission lines of Erbium ions in Lithium Niobate are used to determine the build-up of intrinsic electric fields under intense light irradiation. The observed spectral shifts can be translated into internal electric fields through a calibration using applied external fields. The studies show that a substantial field can be created locally (up to 150kV/mm) with observed occasional electric breakthroughs that have a corresponding field strength of up to 35kV/mm. In addition, a modification of some Erbium incorporation sites is observed suggesting its relationship with a defect that can by photo-ionized, such as Fe2+/Fe3+.
A solar eclipse is one of the most popular events in astronomy. Although it is the single astronomical event, it gives different images from place to place and changes in time. It is the most important message from astronomy to the public that an apparent face depends on the viewpoint and we should get the comprehensive view.
Kyushu University has installed the hard X-ray beamline, BL06, at bending magnet source of SAGA Light Source in Japan. It is designed for X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments. The X-ray energy covered by the beamline ranges from 2.1 to 23 keV using a Si(111) flat double-crystal monochromator. Two bent cylindrical-type focusing mirrors are used, each with a different focal point. They are set in the optics section and can be used independently. One of the mirrors has a focal distance of 6 m, which corresponds to the sample stage for XAFS experiments, while the second mirror focuses at 10 m, corresponding to the detector for the SAXS experiments. The photon flux measured by the ion chamber at mirror focal point is 1010 phs/s. The experimental hutch houses the detection equipment for both XAFS and SAXS. For XAFS studies, a set of ion chambers for transmission mode and a Lytle detector and a Si drift detector for fluorescence yield mode are available. For SAXS studies, the camera pass length can be chosen from 0.5 to 2.5 m with 0.5 m increments in between, and an image plate is operated as signal detector. The beamline will be opened for user operation around summer 2010.
Reaction pathway analysis was carried out for homogeneous dislocation nucleation in perfect crystal Mo. The reaction sampling method employed was based on the Nudged Elastic Band algorithm and other extended schemes. Results obtained were compared with corresponding results for Cu and Si. The stress range for activation energies less than 5 eV is found to be considerably higher for Mo than those for Cu as well as Si. Stresses in excess of 12 GPa make homogeneous dislocation nucleation in Mo an unrealistic transition. The results also show the dislocation cores under this stress range to be diffused, with shear displacement of particles being considerably less than the Burgers vector. Depending on the applied stress, displacement of extra slip-plane atoms can be considerable in Mo. This is in contrast to Cu, in which dislocation nucleation is essentially a two-plane phenomenon.
Propagation of electrostatic electron waves whose frequency is smaller than the electron plasma frequency in a large unmagnetized plasma is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. When a receiver is close to a transmitter, free-streaming electrons are detected owing to their large capacity for excitation. When the distance between the receiver and the transmitter becomes large, the third-order Landau mode is observed due to its smaller damping than that of free-streaming electrons. Finally, a dip in amplitude of the wave, caused by interference by the higher-order Landau modes, is seen. The results are in reasonable agreement with numerical calculation assuming a dipole excitation for the wave.
Recently, it has been observed the extreme metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo, which must be formed just after Pop III objects. On the other hand, the first gas clouds of mass ∼ 106 M⊙ are supposed to be formed at z ∼ 10, 20, and 30 for the 1σ, 2σ and 3σ, where the density perturbations are assumed of the standard ΛCDM cosmology. Usually it is approximated that the distribution of the density perturbation amplitudes is gaussian where σ means the standard deviation. If we could apply this gaussian distribution to the extreme small probability, the gas clouds would be formed at z ∼40, 60, and 80 for the 4σ, 6σ, and 8σ where the probabilities are approximately 3 × 10−5, 10−9, and 10−15. Within our universe, there are almost ∼ 1016 (∼ 1022M⊙/106M⊙) clouds of mass 106M⊙. Then the first gas clouds must be formed around z ∼ 80, where the time is ∼ 20 Myr (∼ 13.7/(1 + z)3/2 Gyr). Even within our galaxy, there are ∼ 105 (∼ 1011M⊙/106M⊙) clouds, then the first gas clouds within our galaxy must be formed around z ∼ 40, where the time is ∼ 54 Myr (∼ 13.7/(1+z)3/2Gyr).
The evolution time for massive star (∼ 102M⊙) is ∼ 3 Myr and the explosion of the massive supernova distributes the metal within a cloud. The damping time of the supernova shock wave in the adiabatic and isothermal era is several Myr and stars of the second generation (Pop II) are formed within a free fall time ∼ 20 Myr. Even if the gas cloud is metal poor, there is a lot of possibility to form the planets around such stars. The first planetary systems could be formed within ∼ 6 × 107 years after the Big Bang in the universe. Even in our galaxies, the first planetary systems could be formed within ∼ 1.7 × 108 years. If the abundance of heavy elements such as Fe is small compared to the elements of C, N, O, the planets must be the one where the rock fraction is small. It is interesting to wait the observations of planets around metal-poor stars. For the panspermia theory, the origin of life could be expected in such systems.