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Mental health disorders and their treatments produce significant costs and benefits in both healthcare and non-healthcare sectors. The latter are often referred to as intersectoral costs and benefits (ICBs). Little is known about healthcare-related ICBs in the criminal justice sector and how to include these in health economics research.
The triple aim of this study is (i) to identify healthcare-related ICBs in the criminal justice sector, (ii) to validate the list of healthcare-related ICBs in the criminal justice sector on a European level by sector-specific experts, and (iii) to classify the identified ICBs.
A scientific literature search in PubMed and an additional grey literature search, carried out in six European countries, were used to retrieve ICBs. In order to validate the international applicability of the ICBs, a survey was conducted with an international group of experts from the criminal justice sector. The list of criminal justice ICBs was categorized according to the PECUNIA conceptual framework.
The full-text analysis of forty-five peer-reviewed journal articles and eleven grey literature sources resulted in a draft list of items. Input from the expert survey resulted in a final list of fourteen unique criminal justice ICBs, categorized according to the care atom.
This study laid further foundations for the inclusion of important societal costs of mental health-related interventions within the criminal justice sector. More research is needed to facilitate the further and increased inclusion of ICBs in health economics research.
Although it is commonly accepted that Darwinian evolution could select for true common-sense beliefs, it is altogether less certain that the same can be said for other classes of beliefs, such as moral or religious beliefs. This issue takes centre stage in debates concerning evolutionary debunking arguments against religious beliefs, where the rationality of beliefs is often dependent upon their production by an evolved faculty that is sensitive to truth. In this article, we consider whether evolution selected for true religious beliefs. We begin by highlighting the relevance of this question for broader philosophy of religion, then present a dialogue of arguments and counter-arguments for and against the proposition that true religious beliefs generate pragmatic success and hence can be selected for by evolution.
To investigate the difference of visual pattern memory among first-episode treatment-naive patients with deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia.
199 first-episode treatment-naive patients with schizophrenia, and 148 controls were recruited. Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS) was used to categorize the patients into deficit or nondeficit subtype. Pattern Recognition Memory (PRM) was used to test the immediate and delayed mode of visual pattern memory. Positive and Negative Symptom Scale PANSS was used to assess the degree of patients symptoms.
The PRM immediate mode and delayed mode percent correct was significant lower and time latency was significant longer in two subtypes of patients. There were no significant difference in the performance of immediate mode of PRM between deficit and nondeficit patients[(86.49 ± 15.34) vs. (87.28 ± 16.00), P=0.960]. But the impairment was more severe in patients with deficit schizophrenia [percent correct (63.10 ± 19.17) vs. (70.69 ± 15.34), P< 0.001 time latency 5086.80 ± 7528.54 vs. 3527.40 ± 3649.08 P=0.024] in the delayed mode. and PRM has no significant correlation with the negative symptoms of deficit schizophrenia.
There were significant difference in the performance of immediate and delayed mode of PRM between patients and controls. The difference between first-episode treatment-naïve deficit schizophrenia and nondeficit schizophrenia was only in delayed mode of PRM, and has no correlation with the primary negative symptoms. The deficit schizophrenia is a subtype of schizophrenia with unique impairment of cognitive functions.
Recently, we found that in ovo feeding of l-leucine (l-Leu) afforded thermotolerance, stimulated lipid metabolism and modified amino acid metabolism in male broiler chicks. However, the effects of in ovo feeding of l-Leu on thermoregulation and growth performance until marketing age of broilers are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of in ovo feeding of l-Leu on body weight (BW) gain under control thermoneutral temperature or chronic heat stress. We measured changes of body temperature and food intake, organ weight, as well as amino acid metabolism and plasma metabolites under acute and chronic heat stress in broilers. A total of 168 fertilized Chunky broiler eggs were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups in experiments. The eggs were in ovo fed with l-Leu (34.5 µmol/500 µl per egg) or sterile water (500 µl/egg) during incubation. After hatching, male broilers were selected and assigned seven to nine replicates (one bird/replicate) in each group for heat challenge experiments. Broilers (29- or 30-day-old) were exposed to acute heat stress (30 ± 1°C) for 120 min or a chronic heat cyclic and continued heat stress (over 30 ± 1°C; ages, 15 to 44 days). In ovo feeding of l-Leu caused a significant suppression of enhanced body temperature without affecting food intake, plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids, ketone bodies, glucose, lactic acid or thyroid hormones under acute heat stress. Daily body temperature was significantly increased by l-Leu in ovo feeding under chronic heat stress. Interestingly, in ovo feeding of l-Leu caused a significantly higher daily BW gain compared with that of the control group under chronic heat stress. Moreover, some essential amino acids, including Leu and isoleucine, were significantly increased in the liver and decreased in the plasma by l-Leu in ovo feeding under acute heat stress. These results suggested that l-Leu in ovo feeding afforded thermotolerance to broilers under acute heat stress mainly through changing amino acid metabolism until marketing age.
Piglet birth weight and within-litter birth weight variation are important for piglet survival and growth. Pre-mating diets may improve IGF-1 and follicle development during the weaning-to-oestrus interval (WEI) and subsequent piglet birth weight. The objective of this study was to modulate IGF-1 concentration during late lactation and the WEI of young sows by using specific pre-mating diets supplemented with microfibrillated cellulose (MF), l-carnitine (LC) or l-arginine (AR). A further objective was to investigate the relationship between IGF-1 and subsequent follicle development and oestrus and ovulation characteristics. In total, 56 first-parity and 20 second-parity sows in three consecutive batches were used for this experiment. Sows received daily either wheat (CON) or wheat plus MF, LC or AR at one of two supplementation levels (low and high) during last week of lactation and WEI. From weaning onwards, follicle and corpus luteum (CL) diameters were repeatedly measured with ultrasound. Blood samples were collected during the WEI for IGF-1 and on day 21 of pregnancy for progesterone analyses, respectively. Insulin-like growth factor-1 concentration, follicle diameter, oestrus and ovulation characteristics and CL diameter were not affected by pre-mating diets. Low IGF-1 class (≤156 ng/ml, N = 22) sows had smaller follicles at weaning (3.5 v. 3.8 mm, P < 0.05) and a longer weaning-to-ovulation interval (147.2 v. 129.8 h, P < 0.05) than high IGF-1 class sows. In first-parity sows, high loin muscle depth (LM) loss sows (≥8%, N = 28) had lower IGF-1 concentrations at weaning (167 v. 214 ng/ml, P < 0.05) compared to low LM loss sows (<8%, N = 28). However, after weaning, IGF-1 concentrations increased and did not differ between high LM loss and low LM loss sows. In conclusion, the different supplemented compounds in pre-mating diets did not improve IGF-1 concentrations around weaning in young sows. Furthermore, high body condition loss caused lower IGF-1 concentrations at weaning, but these levels rapidly recovered after weaning and were related to follicle development and the interval from weaning to ovulation.
Placental function can be modified by maternal obesity affecting the materno-fetal fatty acid transport process. We analyze for the first time the in vivo materno-fetal kinetic transfer of fatty acids (FA) labeled with stable isotopes in control and obese pregnant women.
Materials and Methods:
Labelled FA with similar metabolism (stearic acid: 13C-SA, palmitic acid: 13C-PA and oleic acid: 13C-OA) were orally administered at -4 h, -8 h, and -12 h, respectively prior to elective caesarean section to 10 pregnant women with a body mass index (BMI) > 30 and 10 with BMI 25–30 (control). Placenta, venous and arterial cord blood were collected obtaining a wide range of FA enrichments. A combined experimental and computational modeling analysis was applied.
FA Fractional synthesis rate (FSR) in placenta was 11–12% per hour. No differences were observed between control and normo-lipidemic obese pregnant women. It was not possible to estimate FA FSR in cord blood with this oral bolus dose approach. Computational modelling demonstrated a good fit to the data when all maternal plasma lipid classes were included but not with modelling based only on the non-esterified FA fraction (NEFA). The estimated materno-fetal 13C-FA transfer was around 1%.
Our approach using multiple 13C-FA tracers allowed us to estimated FSR in placental/maternal plasma but not in fetal/maternal compartments. Computational modelling showed a consistent time course of placental 13C-FA transfer and predicted total fetal FA accumulation during the experiment. We conclude that in addition to NEFA in the maternal circulation, maternal plasma VLDL and other lipoproteins are important contributors to placental FA transfer to the fetus.
To investigate the association between parity and the risk of incident dementia in women.
We pooled baseline and follow-up data for community-dwelling women aged 60 or older from six population-based, prospective cohort studies from four European and two Asian countries. We investigated the association between parity and incident dementia using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age, educational level, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cohort, with additional analysis by dementia subtype (Alzheimer dementia (AD) and non-Alzheimer dementia (NAD)).
Of 9756 women dementia-free at baseline, 7010 completed one or more follow-up assessments. The mean follow-up duration was 5.4 ± 3.1 years and dementia developed in 550 participants. The number of parities was associated with the risk of incident dementia (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02–1.13). Grand multiparity (five or more parities) increased the risk of dementia by 30% compared to 1–4 parities (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.02–1.67). The risk of NAD increased by 12% for every parity (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.02–1.23) and by 60% for grand multiparity (HR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.00–2.55), but the risk of AD was not significantly associated with parity.
Grand multiparity is a significant risk factor for dementia in women. This may have particularly important implications for women in low and middle-income countries where the fertility rate and prevalence of grand multiparity are high.
Despite their claimed advantages, toehold strategies have rarely been adopted in recent corporate takeovers and do not seem to increase acquirer returns. Are toeholds ineffective and becoming obsolete? We show that this is not the case. We find that toeholds are preferred for executing difficult takeovers. After controlling for such endogeneity in toehold-based acquisitions, toeholds do increase returns to acquirers. Moreover, the performance of toehold strategies improves over time due to more selective and more effective acquisition of toeholds. We find that this time trend is in part explained by learning from past toehold acquisitions.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age.
Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer.
CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions.
Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.
Antenna-pattern measurements obtained from a double-metal supra-terahertz-frequency (supra-THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) are presented. The QCL is mounted within a mechanically micro-machined waveguide cavity containing dual diagonal feedhorns. Operating in continuous-wave mode at 3.5 THz, and at an ambient temperature of ~60 K, QCL emission has been directed via the feedhorns to a supra-THz detector mounted on a multi-axis linear scanner. Comparison of simulated and measured far-field antenna patterns shows an excellent degree of correlation between beamwidth (full-width-half-maximum) and sidelobe content and a very substantial improvement when compared with unmounted devices. Additionally, a single output has been used to successfully illuminate and demonstrate an optical breadboard arrangement associated with a future supra-THz Earth observation space-borne payload. Our novel device has therefore provided a valuable demonstration of the effectiveness of supra-THz diagonal feedhorns and QCL devices for future space-borne ultra-high-frequency Earth-observing heterodyne radiometers.
To assess the prevalence of prediabetes and metabolic abnormalities among overweight or obese clozapine- or olanzapine-treated schizophrenia patients, and to identify characteristics of the schizophrenia group with prediabetes.
A cross-sectional study assessing the presence of prediabetes and metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenia clozapine- or olanzapine-treated patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m2. Procedures were part of the screening process for a randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating liraglutide vs placebo for improving glucose tolerance. For comparison, an age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy control group without psychiatric illness and prediabetes was included. Prediabetes was defined as elevated fasting plasma glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance and/or elevated glycated hemoglobin A1c.
Among 145 schizophrenia patients (age = 42.1 years; males = 59.3%) on clozapine or olanzapine (clozapine/olanzapine/both: 73.8%/24.1%/2.1%), prediabetes was present in 69.7% (101 out of 145). While schizophrenia patients with and without prediabetes did not differ regarding demographic, illness, or antipsychotic treatment variables, metabolic abnormalities (waist circumference: 116.7±13.7 vs 110.1±13.6 cm, P = 0.007; triglycerides: 2.3±1.4 vs 1.6±0.9 mmol/L, P = 0.0004) and metabolic syndrome (76.2% vs 40.9%, P<0.0001) were significantly more pronounced in schizophrenia patients with vs without prediabetes. The age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy controls had significantly better glucose tolerance compared to both groups of patients with schizophrenia. The healthy controls also had higher levels of high-density lipoprotein compared to patients with schizophrenia and prediabetes.
Prediabetes and metabolic abnormalities were highly prevalent among the clozapine- and olanzapine-treated patients with schizophrenia, putting these patients at great risk for later type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These results stress the importance of identifying and adequately treating prediabetes and metabolic abnormalities among clozapine- and olanzapine-treated patients with schizophrenia.
The status of Asian populations of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra is largely unknown. Since its designation as a Natural Monument (in 1983) and as Endangered (in 1997) in South Korea the authorities there have been trying to conserve and recover the species. We conducted a national otter survey by standard methods in 2017 and compared the current otter distribution to those recorded in a previous survey (2010). We found otter signs in 84.5% of 1,105 10 × 10 km grid cells, with the highest sprainting intensity in the south-west in the Yeongsan River Basin and on the south coast, where we recorded 7.05 and 6.26 spraints/site, respectively. Despite relatively low spraint densities, the otter has expanded its range since 2010 by colonizing urban areas. This trend suggests that South Korea could be a source area for the recovery of the Eurasian otter in East Asia.
The present study aimed to identify the factors that affect immediate (within 24 h after farrowing onset) postnatal piglet mortality in litters with hyperprolific sows, and investigate their associations with behaviour of postpartum sows in two different farrowing housing systems. A total of 30 sows were housed in: (1) CRATE (n=15): the farrowing crate closed (0.80×2.20 m) within a pen (2.50×1.70 m), and (2) OPEN (n=15): the farrowing crate open (0.80×2.20×1.80 m) within a pen (2.50×2.40 m) with a provision of 20 ls of hay in a rack. A total of 518 live born piglets, produced from the 30 sows, were used for data analyses during the first 24 h after the onset of parturition (T24). Behavioural observations of the sows were assessed via video analyses during T24. Total and crushed piglet mortality rates were higher in OPEN compared with CRATE (P<0.01, for both). During T24, the OPEN sows tended to show higher frequency of postural changes (P=0.07) and duration of standing (P=0.10), and showed higher frequencies of bar-biting (P<0.05) and piglet trapping (P<0.01), when compared with the CRATE sows. During T24, the mortality rates caused by crushing were correlated with the piglet trapping event (r=0.93, P<0.0001), postural changes (r=0.37, P<0.01), duration of standing (r=0.32, P<0.01) and frequency of bar-biting behaviour (r=0.51, P<0.01) of the sows (n=30). In conclusion, immediate postnatal piglet mortality, mainly due to crushing, may be associated with potential increases in frequency of postural changes, duration of standing and incidence of piglet trapping in postpartum sows in the open crate system with large litters.
A promising candidate to initiate dust formation in oxygen-rich AGB stars is alumina (Al2O3) showing an emission feature around ∼13μm attributed to Al−O stretching and bending modes (Posch+99,Sloan+03). The counterpart to alumina in carbon-rich AGB atmospheres is the highly refractory silicon carbide (SiC) showing a characteristic feature around 11.3μm (Treffers74). Alumina and SiC grains are thought to represent the first condensates to emerge in AGB stellar atmospheres. We follow a bottom-up approach, starting with the smallest stoichiometric clusters (i.e. Al4O6, Si2C2), successively building up larger-sized clusters. We present new results of quantum-mechanical structure calculations of (Al2O3)n, n = 1−10 and (SiC)n clusters with n = 1−16, including potential energies, rotational constants, and structure-specific vibrational spectra. We demonstrate the energetic viability of homogeneous nucleation scenarios where monomers (Al2O3 and SiC) or dimers (Al4O6 and Si2C2) are successively added. We find significant differences between our quantum theory based results and nanoparticle properties derived from (classical) nucleation theory.
A tomographic method, aiming at probing velocity fields at depth in stellar atmospheres, is applied to the red supergiant star μ Cep and to snapshots of 3D radiative-hydrodynamics simulation in order to constrain atmospheric motions and relate them to photometric variability.
We present radiative transfer modelling of the dust around U Ant, a well-studied detached-shell source. U Ant is among the >400 sources targeted by the Nearby Evolved Stars Survey (NESS; PI: P. Scicluna), and the procedure used to model this source will be applied to the rest of the AGB sample in NESS.