To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age.
Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer.
CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions.
Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.
Measles is a notifiable disease, but not everyone infected seeks care, nor is every consultation reported. We estimated the completeness of reporting during a measles outbreak in The Netherlands in 2013–2014. Children below 15 years of age in a low vaccination coverage community (n = 3422) received a questionnaire to identify measles cases. Cases found in the survey were matched with the register of notifiable diseases to estimate the completeness of reporting. Second, completeness of reporting was assessed by comparing the number of susceptible individuals prior to the outbreak with the number of reported cases in the surveyed community and on a national level.
We found 307 (15%) self-identified measles cases among 2077 returned questionnaires (61%), of which 27 could be matched to a case reported to the national register; completeness of reporting was 8.8%. Based on the number of susceptible individuals and number of reported cases in the surveyed community and on national level, the completeness of reporting was estimated to be 9.1% and 8.6%, respectively. Estimating the completeness of reporting gave almost identical estimates, which lends support to the credibility and validity of both approaches. The size of the 2013–2014 outbreak approximated 31 400 measles infections.
The objective of this study was to examine temporal trends in mental health visits to the emergency department (ED) and to determine differences in length of stay (LOS) between mental health visits and visits for non-mental health conditions.
A population-based retrospective study was conducted for patients who visited the ED of an academic hospital located in Toronto, ON, between fiscal years 2012 and 2016. Trends in the number of visits and descriptive statistics were calculated for both mental health and non-mental health groups. Quantile regression was used to compare the median and 90th percentile LOS.
In five years, the absolute increase in the number of mental health visits to the ED was 55.7%. The 90th percentile LOS was similar for mental and non-mental health visits that were internally transferred (10.7 hours v. 8.3 hours) but significantly higher for those who were discharged (11.4 hours v. 7.3 hours), admitted (52.6 hours v. 29.3 hours), and externally transferred (21.9 hours v. 10.0 hours). After adjusting for other variables, the 90th percentile LOS was 3.3 hours longer for mental health visits resulting in discharge (p<0.001), 24.5 hours longer for those admitted (p<0.001), and 12.7 hours longer for those externally transferred (p<0.001).
The number of mental health visits to the ED is linearly increasing over time, and the LOS in the ED is significantly longer for mental health visits for almost all discharge dispositions. Thus, systematic changes are needed to address the ED capacity to provide care for the growing mental health population.
Risk populations for HIV infections tend to neglect condom use, making alternative preventive approaches necessary. Accordingly, we modelled the risk of sexual HIV transmission for condom use vs. use of rapid diagnostic test (RDT) systems with subsequent exclusion of potential sexual partners with a correctly or falsely positive test from unprotected sex with and without the use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in a bio-statistical approach. We combined a previously described model of transmission risk for HIV-exposed individuals with a newly suggested model of risk of HIV exposure for sexually active HIV-negative individuals. The model was adapted for several stages of infection and different strategies of HIV infection prevention.
HIV prevention with RDTs can reduce the transmission risk by up to 97% compared with having sex without any prevention and up to 80% compared with condom use. Nevertheless, RDT-based prevention strategies demonstrate a lack of protection in several stages of infection; in particular, RNA-based RDT systems may fail under treatment. RDT-based pre-screening of potential sex partners prior to unprotected sexual contacts substantially reduces HIV transmission risk. Combination of different prevention strategies is advisable for high-risk groups.
Interdisciplinary collaboration is a critical component of translation, dissemination, implementation, and improvement (TDII) science. Yet, little is known about effective frameworks and practices regarding interdisciplinary research in TDII.
This study drew on data collected from an expert panel during a regional symposium.
Findings highlight facilitators and barriers to stimulating interdisciplinary TDII research in different domains: intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, power and hierarchy, physical environment, and communication and language.
Findings have significant implications for TDII of clinical practices.
Introduction: Non-trauma centers (NTC) and community hospitals commonly deliver medical care during the “golden hour” of trauma, which has significant implications on the health outcomes of patients. The Niagara Health System (NHS) and its 3 community NTC hospitals provide trauma care to over 100 patients annually during this critical period. NTCs lack standardized resources commonly found in trauma centers. Checklists and bundles have been effective in streamlining process to ensure health care providers provide the right care, at the right time and address critical points during patient care. A trauma care bundle was designed and implemented in the NHS as a means to improve trauma care and patient outcomes. Methods: A quality improvement (QI) approach was used to design, implement and evaluate a trauma care bundle at one of the NHS’s community hospitals. These interventions were adapted and modified for community trauma care purposes. We piloted the trauma care bundle using rapid cycle improvements, known as Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles. We assessed outcome and process measures through a chart audit of all trauma care patients in the NHS from July 2015-December 2015. A safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ) was administered to health system staff who were involved in the pilot to assess balancing measures. Results: Improvements to the bundle and its implementation from 4 PDSA cycles resulted in increased utilization. This continuous monitoring of the bundle and ongoing, conscious efforts to improve the intervention were used to spread and scale across all 3 sites of the NHS. 30% of patients received the trauma care bundle during phase 1 of the pilot from July 1- October 31, 2015. We are presently analyzing preliminary data to understand how the trauma care bundle impacts health outcomes and process and will present a comparative analysis between patient groups. Conclusion: Trauma care bundles may foster safer and more efficient patient care in community hospitals where the golden hour of trauma often occurs. This community trauma care bundle shows promising results for streamlining the care process to ensure patients receive appropriate care during the golden hour. Spread and scale of this bundle across other community hospitals will likely yield similar improvements in patient care.
The control of Johne's disease requires the identification of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-positive herds. Boot swabs and liquid manure samples have been suggested as an easy-to-use alternative to sampling individual animals in order to diagnose subclinical Johne's disease at the herd level, but there is a need to evaluate performance of this approach in the field. Using a logistic regression model, this study aimed to calculate the threshold level of the apparent within-herd prevalence as determined by individual faecal culture, thus allowing the detection of whether a herd is MAP positive. A total of 77 boot swabs and 75 liquid manure samples were taken from 19 certified negative and 58 positive dairy herds. Faecal culture, three different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods and the combination of faecal culture with PCR were applied in order to detect MAP. For 50% probability of detection, a within-herd prevalence threshold of 1·5% was calculated for testing both matrices simultaneously by faecal culture and PCR, with the threshold increased to 4·0% for 90% probability of detection. The results encourage the use of boot swabs or liquid manure samples, or a combination both, for identifying MAP-positive herds and, to a certain extent, for monitoring certified Johne's disease-negative cattle herds.
The impact of haematozoan infection on host fitness has received substantial attention since Hamilton and Zuk posited that parasites are important drivers of sexual selection. However, short-term studies testing the assumption that these parasites consistently reduce host fitness in the wild have produced contradictory results. To address this complex issue, we conducted a long-term study examining the relationship between naturally occurring infection with Haemoproteus and Plasmodium, and lifetime reproductive success and survival of Mountain White-crowned Sparrows. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that birds infected with haematozoan parasites have reduced survival (as determined by overwinter return rates) and reproductive success. Contrary to expectation, there was no relationship between Haemoproteus and Plasmodium infection and reproduction or survival in males, nor was there a relationship between Plasmodium infection and reproduction in females. Interestingly, Haemoproteus-infected females had significantly higher overwinter return rates and these females fledged more than twice as many chicks during their lifetimes as did uninfected females. We discuss the impact of parasitic infections on host fitness in light of these findings and suggest that, in the case of less virulent pathogens, investment in excessive immune defence may decrease lifetime reproduction.
Two independent prospective longitudinal studies that cumulatively spanned the age interval from 4 years to 14 years used multiwave designs to investigate developmental associations between language and behavioral adjustment (internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). Altogether 224 children, their mothers, and teachers provided data. Series of nested path analysis models were used to determine the most parsimonious and plausible paths among the three constructs over and above stability in each across age and their covariation at each age. In both studies, children with poorer language skills in early childhood had more internalizing behavior problems in later childhood and in early adolescence. These developmental paths between language and behavioral adjustment held after taking into consideration children's nonverbal intellectual functioning, maternal verbal intelligence, education, parenting knowledge, and social desirability bias, as well as family socioeconomic status, and they applied equally to girls and boys.
Epistasis is an important feature of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits, but the dynamics of epistatic interactions in natural populations and the relationship between epistasis and pleiotropy remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the effects of epistatic modifiers that segregate in a wild-derived Drosophila melanogaster population on the mutational effects of P-element insertions in Semaphorin-5C (Sema-5c) and Calreticulin (Crc), pleiotropic genes that affect olfactory behaviour and startle behaviour and, in the case of Crc, sleep phenotypes. We introduced Canton-S B (CSB) third chromosomes with or without a P-element insertion at the Crc or Sema-5c locus in multiple wild-derived inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and assessed the effects of epistasis on the olfactory response to benzaldehyde and, for Crc, also on sleep. In each case, we found substantial epistasis and significant variation in the magnitude of epistasis. The predominant direction of epistatic effects was to suppress the mutant phenotype. These observations support a previous study on startle behaviour using the same D. melanogaster chromosome substitution lines, which concluded that suppressing epistasis may buffer the effects of new mutations. However, epistatic effects are not correlated among the different phenotypes. Thus, suppressing epistasis appears to be a pervasive general feature of natural populations to protect against the effects of new mutations, but different epistatic interactions modulate different phenotypes affected by mutations at the same pleiotropic gene.
To study the molecular epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) colonization and to identify modifiable risk factors among patients with hematologic malignancies.
A hematology-oncology unit with high prevalence of VRE colonization.
Patients with hematologic malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients admitted to the hospital.
Patients underwent weekly surveillance by means of perianal swabs for VRE colonization and, if colonized, were placed in contact isolation. We studied the molecular epidemiology in fecal and blood isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis over a 1-year period. We performed a retrospective case-control study over a 3-year period. Cases were defined as patients colonized by VRE, and controls were defined as patients negative for VRE colonization. Case patients and control patients were matched by admitting service and length of observation time.
Molecular genotyping demonstrated the primarily polyclonal nature of VRE isolates. Colonization occurred at a median of 14 days. Colonized patients were characterized by longer hospital admissions. Previous use of ceftazidime was associated with VRE colonization (P < .001), while use of intravenous vancomycin and antibiotics with anaerobic activity did not emerge as a risk factor. There was no association with neutropenia or presence of colonic mucosal disruption, and severity of illness was similar in both groups.
Molecular studies showed that in the majority of VRE-colonized patients the strains were unique, arguing that VRE acquisition was sporadic rather than resulting from a common source of transmission. Patient-specific factors, including prior antibiotic exposure, rather than breaches in infection control likely predict for risk of fecal VRE colonization.