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Little information is available on how physical processing of cereals affects crude protein (CP) degradation dynamics in equines. In two experiments the effects of two physical processing methods (micronisation and extrusion) on in situ degradation of CP in barley, maize and peas in the caecum of ponies were investigated.
In experiment 1, three caecally-fistulated mature Welsh-cross pony geldings (approx. LW 270kg) were used whilst two of these ponies were used in experiment 2. In both experiments ponies were offered ad libitum grass hay plus minerals. Incubation bags (monofilament polyester, 6.5 x 20cm, 41μm pores, 16mg/cm2 sample size) contained either unprocessed barley (UB), micronised barley (MB) or extruded barley (EB) (experiment 1) and either unprocessed maize (UM), micronised maize (MM), extruded maize (EM), unprocessed peas (UP), micronised peas (MP) or extruded peas (EP) (experiment 2).
A wide variety of starch based feeds are available for inclusion in equine diets. These feeds may be subjected to physical processing (micronisation or extrusion) prior to inclusion. This experiment evaluates a range of starch based feedstuffs using an in vitro batch culture technique.
A total of 15 feedstuffs were incubated in vitro with an inocula prepared from freshly voided faeces which was collected from six ponies fed grass hay ad libitum. The feeds were five starch based feedstuffs; i.e: maize (M), peas (P), wheat (W), naked oats (NO) or barley (Ba) in one of three physically processed forms i.e: unprocessed (Unp), micronised (Mic) or extruded (Ext). All feeds were ground through a 1.0mm screen prior to incubation. Cumulative gas production (GP) was measured using the pressure transducer technique of Theodorou et al (1994) throughout a 72 h incubation period.
Previous work has shown that the mobile bag technique (MBT) can be used to study the dynamics of digestive processes in the whole tract of ponies (Hyslop et al, 1998). This experiment further develops the MBT as a method to study feed degradation dynamics over time in the pre-caecal segment of the digestive tract of ponies.
Two caecally-fistulated mature Welsh-cross pony geldings (LW 270kg) were offered 4kg of dry matter (DM) per day of a 1:3 rolled barley:hay cube mix plus minerals, in 2 equal meals per day at 09:00 and 17:00h. Grass hay was also offered ad libitum between 17:00 and 09:00h. Two sizes of mobile bag (6 x 1 cm Ø-large and 4 x 1 cm Ø- small) made from monofilament polyester with a 7 μm pore size were used.
Processed cereals are used routinely in diets for equines but little information is available on how physical processing affects the digestibility of cereals in equines. This study examines the effects of three physical processing methods (rolling, micronisation and extrusion) on the in vivo apparent digestibility of barley fed to ponies.
Three mature caecally-fistulated Welsh-cross pony geldings, (LW 284kg ± 3.8kg) were used in a 3 x 4 incomplete latin square changeover design experiment consisting of four 21 day periods. Each period comprised a sixteen day adaptation phase and a five day recording phase when apparent digestibility in vivo was determined. Ponies were offered 4kg dry matter (DM) per day of either 100% hay cubes (HC) or one of three diets consisting of a 50:50 barley:hay cubes mix. The barley in the mixed diets was either rolled barley (RB), micronised barley (MB) or extruded barley (EB). Diets were offered in 2 equal meals per day fed at 09:00 and 17:00 hours respectively.
Maize and peas that have undergone physical processing are used routinely in cereal mixes for equines. However, little information is available on how physical processing of maize and peas affects degradation dynamics in equines. This experiment examines the effect of two physical processing methods (micronisation and extrusion) on in situ degradation of maize and peas in the caecum of ponies
Two caecally-fistulated mature Welsh-cross pony geldings (approx. LW 270kg) were offered ad libitum grass hay plus minerals. Incubation bags (monofilament polyester 6.5 x 20cm, 41? m pores, 16mg/cm2 sample size) containing either unprocessed maize (UM), micronised maize (MM), extruded maize (EM), unprocessed peas (UP), micronised peas (MP) or extruded peas (EP) were incubated in the caecum for fixed times according to both a forward (0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 8, 24, 48h) and reverse (48, 24, 8, 4, 12, 6, 2, 0h) incubation sequence. For each feedstuff residues from each time were bulked within pony and across incubation sequence for subsequent analysis of dry matter (DM) and starch (STC).
Estimates of digesta passage through specific segments of the alimentary tract are a vital component of modelling approaches which attempt to quantitatively partition digestive processes in equines. This study reports results from three studies where digesta passage of Chromium (Cr) mordanted feeds was determined in the caecum of ponies.
Caecal outflow rates were determined during three in vivo apparent digestibility studies conducted using three caecally-fistulated ponies as described by Moore-Colyer et al, (1999) for studies 1 and 2; and McLean et al, (1999) for study 3. Pony basal diets consisted of unmolassed sugar beet pulp (USBP), hay cubes (HC) or a 2:1 mix of oat hulls:naked oats (OHNO) in study 1; a 1:1 mix of USBP:HC (USHC) in study 2 and either 100% HC or one of 3 diets consisting of a 1:1 HC:barley mix where the barley was either rolled (RBHC), micronised (MBHC) or extruded (EBHC) in study 3.
Particle size (PS) may be reduced when feeds are ground through small screen sizes leading to increased losses from artificial fibre bags during in situ or mobile bag experiments in equines. Smaller PS may also alter the water holding capacity (WHC) of feeds which in turn may alter bag transit times during mobile bag experiments. This study examines PS and WHC in a range of starch based equine feedstuffs ground through two screen sizes.
Five feedstuffs (F) were used ie: barley (B), maize (M), peas (P), wheat (W) and naked oats (NO). Feedstuffs were subjected to three types of physical pre-processing (Pr) ie: unprocessed (Un), micronised (Mi) or extruded (Ex) and then ground through either a 1.0 or 0.5 mm screen size (SS). For PS analysis a 25g sample of each feedstuff was sieved through a stack of 11 sieves ranging in pore diameter between 45 μm and 2 mm using a mechanical shaker for 20 min.
In vitro techniques have been developed to study the fermentation kinetics of a wide range of animal feedstuffs but relatively few studies have been conducted specifically with purified feed constituents. This study uses the pressure transducer technique of Theodorou et al (1994) to record cumulative gas production (GP) when six purified starch sources were incubated in vitro.
Three replicates of six commercially available purified (98%) starch sources were incubated in vitro with an inoculum prepared from freshly voided faeces collected from six ponies fed hay ad libitum. The starches were a purified wheat starch (ABRA), four purified wheat starches that had been chemically modified with sodium tri-metaphosphate (V1, V21, V33 & V65) and a purified pea starch (PEA). GP was measured using the pressure transducer technique throughout a 72 h incubation period. At the end of the incubation period DM loss (DML) in vitro was determined by filtration.
We used a terrestrial radar interferometer (TRI) at Helheim Glacier, Greenland, in August 2013, to study the effects of tidal forcing on the terminal zone of this tidewater glacier. During our study period, the glacier velocity was up to 25 m d–1. Our measurements show that the glacier moves out of phase with the semi-diurnal tides and the densely packed melange in the fjord. Here detrended glacier displacement lags behind the forecasted tidal height by ∼8 hours. The transition in phase lag between the glacier and the melange happens within a narrow (∼500 m) zone in the fjord in front of the ice cliff. The TRI data also suggest that the impact of tidal forcing decreases rapidly up-glacier of the terminus. A flowline model suggests this pattern of velocity perturbation is consistent with weak ice flowing over a weakly nonlinear bed.
Almost all stars in the Milky Way, including the Sun, will end their lives as white dwarfs. Their relatively peaceful transition off of the main sequence implies that most of their planetary systems will survive engulfment during the deaths of their host stars. These remnant planetary systems remain detectable for many Gyr through the occasional metal-contamination of the white dwarf photospheres by tidally disrupted planetesimals. Spectral analysis of these “metal-polluted” white dwarfs therefore provides a direct method for measuring the chemical compositions of extrasolar material. Here we present our sample of 230 cool white dwarfs with metal-rich photospheres, explore the diverse range of compositions of the accreted matter, and discuss two extreme systems which have respectively accreted planetesimals consistent with crust-like and core-like planetary material.
There are currently a variety of one- and two-dimensional sea-ice models
being used for climate simulations and sensitivity studies. Though all the
models can be timed to simulate current-day conditions to some degree of
accuracy, the responses of each model to perturbations in forcing from the
atmosphere or ocean are different. Thus, climate-change prediction depends
on the choice of sea-ice model. In this study, the sensitivities of various
sea-ice models to external heat-flux perturbations are examined in a
systematic manner. Starting from similar baseline annual thicknesses, each
model is subjected to an applied heat-flux perturbation to assess icemelt.
Separate experiments are conducted to compare the response of each model to
heat fluxes applied at the atmospheric and the oceanic interfaces. It is
found that the magnitude of the heat-flux perturbation required to melt ice
varies greatly among different models, with the largest difference arising
between models that include ice dynamics vs those that do not. Most models
show an asymmetry in the response to heat-flux perturbations applied at the
top and bottom surfaces of the ice. This study has implications for the
choice of sea-ice models used for climate-change simulations. It also gives
insight to the accuracy required for observations and model simulations of
the surface heat fluxes.
Identifying youth who may engage in future substance use could facilitate early identification of substance use disorder vulnerability. We aimed to identify biomarkers that predicted future substance use in psychiatrically un-well youth.
LASSO regression for variable selection was used to predict substance use 24.3 months after neuroimaging assessment in 73 behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth aged 13.9 (s.d. = 2.0) years, 30 female, from three clinical sites in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) study. Predictor variables included neural activity during a reward task, cortical thickness, and clinical and demographic variables.
Future substance use was associated with higher left middle prefrontal cortex activity, lower left ventral anterior insula activity, thicker caudal anterior cingulate cortex, higher depression and lower mania scores, not using antipsychotic medication, more parental stress, older age. This combination of variables explained 60.4% of the variance in future substance use, and accurately classified 83.6%.
These variables explained a large proportion of the variance, were useful classifiers of future substance use, and showed the value of combining multiple domains to provide a comprehensive understanding of substance use development. This may be a step toward identifying neural measures that can identify future substance use disorder risk, and act as targets for therapeutic interventions.
At the MRS Fall 2014 Meeting, Symposium E, we reported on morphologies, fragmentation, and hardness in synthetic hydrogen urate monohydrate (monosodium urate monohydrate, MSUM, or MSU) crystals. We are now presenting further characterization results, including some from the biomaterial that forms in humans with gout disease: The fanning of radiating blades (needles) in spherulitic grains of synthetic MSUM was examined by microscopy techniques. These and previous data are consistent with an interpretation in terms of the crystallographic parameters in the unit cell, and the presence of dislocation arrays at low angle boundaries. The kinetics of such branched growth is here related to thermodynamic properties and super-saturation levels. Secondary nucleation is an additional mechanism leading to more complex morphologies. Differences in overall growth rates, under conditions of either branched or single needle growth, are considered in relation to gout. Novel powder XRD and solid state NMR data show, respectively, preferred orientation in the biomaterial, and the potential of NMR for identifying and characterizing MSUM in specific environments, helping to resolve pending questions in gout. Present results are anticipated to be useful for designing bio-inspired and bio-mimetic materials, regarding morphologies, overall growth rates, and mechanical properties.
A stone weight with a cuneiform inscription was discovered during the 1974 season of excavations at Tell Sweyhat in Syria. Tell Sweyhat is located on the left bank of the Euphrates River approximately 64 km. south of Carchemish. The British excavations at Sweyhat are sponsored by the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, as part of the international campaign launched by the Syrian Directorate General of Antiquities and Museums to rescue those sites threatened by the completion of the Tabqa Dam and the formation of Lake Al-Assad.
The object under discussion (Fig. 1), Sweyhat registration number 585, is now on permanent display in the special Euphrates Valley Exhibition which opened on 16th November 1974 at the National Museum, Aleppo. It is a smooth, barrel-shaped weight ground from grey limestone which measures 12.5 cm. in length and 4 · 5 cm. in diameter and weighs 472 · 2 grammes. Its original weight would have been slightly higher, since it is worn and chipped at both ends, perhaps through use as a pounder or grinder. The three cuneiform signs inscribed along the main axis of the weight measure 3 cm. in total length. The first sign, a triangular incision with its apex to the right, clearly represents the numeral I, and the following two signs read MA.NA, i.e. maneh or mina, the well-known Near Eastern unit of weight. I am indebted to Dr. Edmond Sollberger for advice on the inscription, which he dates approximately to the end of the third millennium B.C., and for calling my attention to comparable weights in the British Museum. The date is confirmed by the associated pottery, which has close parallels among Mallowan's “Late Sargonid” material from Brak and in Jidle Level 5.
The past two decades have seen a great improvement in the care of people with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS), particularly with regard to control of diet and behaviour management. Has this affected mortality rates or thrown up new issues regarding premature ageing or dementia? We investigated two aspects of ageing in people with PWS: (1) an estimate of mortality over 9 years in a cohort of people with PWS, originally recruited in 1998–2000; and (2) premature ageing or dementia in people aged ⩾40 years.
(1) A follow-up of the population-based 1998–2000 cohort to investigate the subsequent mortality rate; and (2) the recruitment and structured assessment of all members of the Prader–Willi Syndrome Association UK (PWSA-UK) aged ⩾40 years who agreed to participate.
Follow-up of the population-based 1998–2000 cohort gave a mortality rate of at least 7/62 over 9 years (1.25% per annum; 20 untraced), age at death was between 13 and 59 years. Twenty-six members of the PWSA-UK aged ⩾40 years were recruited, 18 of whom had a genetic diagnosis (gd) of PWS. Twenty-two (14 gd) showed no evidence of dementia. Four, with possible symptoms, are described in more detail; all are female, of maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD) genetic subtype, or have a disomic region, and all have a long history of psychotic illness.
The mortality rate in people with PWS seems to be declining. The subgroup of people with PWS due to UPD or disomic region with female gender and a history of psychosis may be at risk of early onset dementia.