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Parotid gland carcinoma is a rare and complicated histopathological classification. Therefore, assembling a sufficient number of cases with long-term outcomes in a single institute can present a challenge.
The medical records of 108 parotid gland carcinoma patients who were treated at Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan, between 1983 and 2014 were reviewed. The survival outcomes were analysed according to clinicopathological findings.
Forty-six patients had low clinical stage tumours (I–II), and 62 patients had high clinical stage tumours (III–IV). Fifty-two, 10 and 46 patients had low-, intermediate- and high-grade tumours, respectively. Twenty-seven of 65 cases had positive surgical margins. In high clinical stage and intermediate- to high-grade tumours, adjuvant radiation therapy was correlated with local recurrence-free survival (p = 0.0244). Intermediate- to high-grade tumours and positive surgical margins were significantly associated with disease-specific survival in multivariate analysis (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.0058).
The results of this study show that adjuvant radiation therapy is useful for improved local control in patients with high clinical stage and intermediate- to high-grade tumours.
SiO maser emission from the Bulge IRAS sources has been searched by the v=1, J=1−0 and v=2, J=1—0 transitions to investigate the kinematics of the Galactic Bulge, resulting in a sample of 124 line-of-sight velocities. The rotation velocity, velocity dispersion, and velocity offset at l = 0° for the sample are found to be , and —18.2±9.7 km s−1, respectively (80% confidence interval). Furthermore we find trends for the rotation velocity and velocity dispersion to decrease with distance from the galactic plane. These trends are supported by a larger sample constructed by incorporating other available velocity data on the Bulge IRAS sources. The rotation velocity and velocity dispersion are expressed as 15.6—1.23x|b(deg)| km s−1 deg−1 and 101−3.6x |b(deg)| km s−1, respectively. The implications of the observed quantities are discussed.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
Daily snowmelt rates at a leafless deciduous forest site were 40–85% of those at an open site. Reduced snowmelt rates were caused by a difference in meteorological conditions at the forested site. Solar radiation, net radiation and wind speed were especially reduced in the forest, and relationships between them at the two sites were represented by linear functions. Snowmelt rates at the two sites could be predicted by an energy budget method, and net radiation was the major component in the snowmelt energy at both sites. Differences between snowmelt rates at the two sites were due to net radiation differences over many days, but dependency on net radiation at both sites was reduced under particular meteorological conditions. Parameteric analysis under fixed meteorological conditions indicates that this dependency is changed by wind speed, temperature and humidity, because wind speed is reduced in the forest and decrease of turbulent heat exchange in the forest will be notable under strong wind conditions.
Supernovae are classified as type I and type II and further subdivided into Ia, Ib, Ic, II-P, II-L, and IIb. The origin of this observational diversity has not been well understood. The recent nearby supernovae SN 1993J and SN 1994I have provided particularly useful material to clarify the supernova — progenitor connection. For a progenitor of type IIb supernova 1993J, we propose that merging of two stars in a close binary is responsible for the formation of a thin H-rich envelope. As a progenitor of type Ic supernova 1994I, we propose a bare C+O star that has lost both its H and He envelope after a common-envelope phase. By generalizing these scenarios, we show that common-envelope evolution in massive close binary stars leads to various degrees of stripping off of the envelope of a massive star. This naturally leads to an explanation of the origin of type II-L, IIn, IIb, Ib, and Ic in a unified manner. The binary hypothesis to explain the diversity of supernovae can be substantiated with new information on SN IIb 1993J and SN Ic 1994I. Model light curves are compared with observations. Since extensive mass loss is essential for the binary scenario, circumstellar interactions are examined for comparison with X-ray observations.
Evidence for the bar structure in our Galaxy has been shown by Blitz and Spergel (1991b) based on the near-infrared maps of the bulge, by Nakada et al. (1991) based on IRAS point source catalogue, and more clearly by recent COBE maps. However, no clear “dynamical” signature of the bulge bar has been found yet. At optical wavelengths, stellar radial velocities of the bulge stars were observed only at the optical windows and were not observed for the entire region of the bulge because of the dust extinction in this direction.
We investigate the structure of extended dust shells around optical carbon stars in the far-infrared and in optical light. In the optical we have discovered that R Scl and U Ant are associated with circularly extended emission, the radii of which are about 20″ and 58″, respectively. The emission is probably scattered light of the central star by dust grains in their circumstellar shells. In the far-infrared we have discovered a double shell structure surrounding U Ant in high resolution IRAS images, which is direct evidence of a periodic change of mass-loss on a time-scale of the order of 104 years in the AGB evolution. Relating the two shells to two consecutive thermal pulses allows for a self-consistent determination of the interpulse period, core-mass, luminosity, and distance. Direct mapping of Y CVn at 90 and 160 μm with ISOPHOT on board ISO has revealed a very extended detached dust shell around this star. The mass-loss rate is found to have decreased drastically by two orders of magnitude 1.4×104 years ago, which should be an important clue to the understanding of J-type stars.
Presupernova evolution and explosive nucleosynthesis in massive stars for main-sequence masses from 13 Mʘ to 70 Mʘ are calculated. We examine the dependence of the supernova yields on the stellar mass, 12C(α, γ)16O rate, and explosion energy. The supernova yields integrated over the initial mass function are compared with the solar abundances.
The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAO), has an Optical Linked VLBI Experiment Project named OLIVE that directly connects a correlation site wit h some other VLBI observation stations in network by optical fiber, and correlates in real time. 2 Gbps (1 Gsps 2-bit or 2 Gsps 1-bit) or 8 Gbps (4 Gsps 2-bit) VLBI correlator is necessary in OLIVE. We are developing Gigabits correlators (XF type) using special-purpose correlation chips developed by NAO. We have already completed the Ultra Wideband Correlator named UWBC (2 Gsps 2-bit 256 lags) of 15 baselines for the Nobeyama Millimater Array (NMA). The Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) offered the common use of a new wide-band observation system to astronomers since March 1997. We consider that the 2-Gbps VLBI correlator, which is needed in the OLIVE project, is possible to manufacture. It is also possible to manufacture a 8 Gbps-VLBI correlator using the UWBC chip.
Infrared spectra of evolved stars are generally dominated by the radiation from their circumstellar shells. M stars are characterized by the 10 μm emission feature from silicate dust grains, while C stars by the 11 μm SiC band. However, some C stars have been found to show the 10 μm feature indicating the oxygen-rich property of their circumstellar dust (Willems and de Jong 1986, Little-Marenin 1986).
In order to investigate the gas phase chemistry of the circumstellar envelopes around these peculiar objects, we have observed radio molecular lines of H2O, SiO, HCN, and CO towards three of them BM Gem (C5, 4J), V778 Cyg (C4, 5J), and EU And (C4, 4).
There are three wide-field telescopes at the Bisei Spaceguard Center operated by the Japan Spaceguard Association. These telescopes are dedicated to detect near-earth asteroids and produce several tera-byte data per month. Since these data contain many main-belt asteroids, we will use them for an education program that will allow school pupils and the general public to find new main-belt asteroids. We are now developing a new software for its purpose.
Meiotic maturation of oocytes requires a variety of ATP-dependent reactions, such as germinal vesicle breakdown, spindle formation, and rearrangement of plasma membrane structure, which is required for fertilization. Mitochondria are accordingly expected be localized to subcellular sites of energy utilization. Although microtubule-dependent cellular traffic for mitochondria has been studied extensively in cultured neuronal (and some other somatic) cells, the molecular mechanism of their dynamics in mammalian oocytes at different stages of maturation remains obscure. The present work describes dynamic aspects of mitochondria in porcine oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage. After incubation of oocytes with MitoTracker Orange followed by centrifugation, mitochondria-enriched ooplasm was obtained using a glass needle and transferred into a recipient oocyte. The intracellular distribution of the fluorescent mitochondria was then observed over time using a laser scanning confocal microscopy equipped with an incubator. Kinetic analysis revealed that fluorescent mitochondria moved from central to subcortical areas of oocytes and were dispersed along plasma membranes. Such movement of mitochondria was inhibited by either cytochalasin B or cytochalasin D but not by colcemid, suggesting the involvement of microfilaments. This method of visualizing mitochondrial dynamics in live cells permits study of the pathophysiology of cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular traffic of mitochondria and associated energy metabolism during meiotic maturation of oocytes.
To determine the clinical effect of post-operative radiotheraphy and systemic chemotherapy for the treatment of salivary duct carcinoma.
The medical records of 26 patients treated by surgery with or without radiotheraphy and/or systemic chemotherapy for salivary duct carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed to investigate the role of post-operative adjuvant treatment for the patients' prognosis.
The overall three-year and five-year survival rates were 54 and 48.1 per cent, respectively. There was no correlation with the clinical stage and the patients' prognosis. The overall three-year survival of the patients with or without post-operative radiotheraphy was 64 and 33 per cent, respectively (p = 0.29). The overall three-year survival of the patients with or without post-operative chemotherapy was 53 and 56 per cent, respectively (p = 0.78).
Post-operative adjuvant therapy did not improve the patients' overall prognosis with salivary duct carcinoma. Developing novel treatment modalities may be necessary to improve the prognosis of this aggressive disease.